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THE PAPERS OF 
SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON 



Prepared for publication by 
The Division of Archives and History 

ALEXANDER C. FLICK. Ph.D.. Litt.D. 
Director and Stale Historian 



VOLUME IV 



ALBANY 
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 
1925 



CONTENTS 



Volume IV 

PAGE 

List and description of illustrations v 

List and description of plans and maps vii 

Preface ix 

Guy Johnson xi 

Autographs from volume IV xv 

Post-War Period, 1763-1774 1 

[Hi] 



l^l^^O 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

Approach to Johnson Hall, Johnstown, N. Y 4 

Now the front, but earlier the rear view of the Hall. From a photograph 
taken in 1907. 

Rear view of Johnson Hall in 1907 before recent restorations. ... 110 

Now front of the Hall. Remaining Block House seen to left. From a photo- 
graph in 1907. 

Major General Amherst 1 38 

Reproduced from an old illustration. " Dublin, 1763 " penciled on bottom. 

Jeff ery Lord Amherst 1 92 

Painted in miniature by Humphries. Engraved by John Hall. Published 
June 1, 1792, by Doctor Truster and J. C. Bertsch. 

Sir Jeff ery Amherst 210 

Original painted by Gainsborough in the National Portrait Gallery, London. 

Rt. Hon. Jeffery Lord Amherst 238 

Published November 1, 1781, by J. Walker, Paternoster Row, London. 

George III 274 

Portrait in the , National Portrait Gallery, London. 

*'The Cautious Commander." (JefFery 1st Lord Amherst?) .... 340 

Published 1778 by T. Walker No. 79, Dame street? 

Front view of Johnson Hall before recent restorations 364 

Now rear of building. From a photograph in 1907. 

Rear Admiral Richard Tyrrell of the White Squadron 380 

Painted by Northcote. Engraved by Ridley. 

Lord Amherst 398 

A caricature. " Published 6 April 1782 by C. Bretherton." 

Block House at Johnson Hall in 1907 before recent restorations. . 534 

From a photograph. Upper windows put in by Mr Wells in order to use 
Block House for tenants. 

Block House at Johnson Hall in 1907 before recent restorations. . 622 

From a photograph. Upper windows put in by Mr Wells in order to use 
Block House for tenants. 

A corner of the "Council Chamber" of Johnson Hall in 1907 
before recent restorations 638 

From a photograph. 

[v] 



PAGE 

Staircase in Johnson Hall before recent restorations. 706 

Shows banister hacked by Brant's tomahawk. From a photograph taken in 
1907. 

Mahogany desk owned and used by Sir William Johnson 770 

Now in the lodge room of St Patrick's Lodge F. & A. M. No. 4, Johnstown, 
N. Y. From a photograph taken in 1907. 

Historical tablet on Johnson Hall 812 

Erected in 1902 by the Colonial Dames. From a photograph taken in 1907. 

Rear view of Johnson Hall (1923) after recent restorations. ... 856 

Now front of hall. From a photograph. 



[vi] 



MAPS AND PLANS 



PAGE 

Plan of Montreal and fortifications 222 

From A Set of plans and forts in America, reduced from actual surveys, 1763, 
published in London by Mary Ann Rocque. 

Plan of Fort Niagara with its environs 466 

From A Set of plans etc. See above. 

Representation of Detroit river, July 1 7, 1 764 486 

Photostat reproduction from the Johnson Papers in the New York State 
Library. 

A plan of the new fort at Pittsburgh or Du Quesne, November, 
1 759 606 

From A Set of plans etc. See above under the plan of Montreal and 
fortifications. 

Plan of Quebec 746 

From A Set of plans etc. See above under the plan of Montreal and 
fortifications. 

Map of Lake Champlain and Lake George about 1 755 890 

Indorsed by Johnson: The Indians' draught of the French Encampment. 
From Johnson Manuscripts in the New York State Library. 



[vii] 



PREFACE 

Volume IV of The Papers of Sir William Johnson covers the 
period from January 3, 1 763, to the end of the year 1 765. 

The editing of this volume has followed the method, capitali- 
zation, punctuation, and diacritical marks explained (Johnson 
Papers I:xlv-xlix) by Dr James Sullivan, former State 
Historian, under whose painstaking supervision the first three 
volumes appeared. 

In one respect the material in volume IV differs somewhat 
from that of the three previous volumes. For the three years 
1763, 1764 and 1765 the partial and total loss of the Johnson 
Papers by the fire of 1 9 1 1 was especially severe. Some copies of 
the letters destroyed were obtainable from other sources. The 
Calendar of the Sir William Johnson Manuscripts compiled by 
Dr Richard E. Day in 1909 contained the only surviving sum- 
mary of those not found. Therefore it seemed advisable to 
reprint more extensively those portions of the Calendar covering 
the destroyed materials. This modification will be continued in 
the later volumes of the Johnson Papers. 

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the efficient and scholarly 
assistance rendered by Dr Richard E. Day of the Archives and 
History Division in the preparation of the materials for this, as 
for the previous volumes. Mr Peter Nelson, formerly Head of 
the Manuscripts and History Section of the New York State 
Library and now Assistant in the Archives and History Divi- 
sion, has been indefatigable in giving valuable aid to this work. 

Alexander C. Flick 
Director, Division of Archives 

and History), and State Historian 



[ix] 



GUY JOHNSON 

Guy Johnson, nephew of Sir William Johnson, was born in 
Ireland. In 1 756 he came, a young man, to America. Landing 
in Boston in April of that year without money, he received 
assistance from a stranger, and was enabled to continued his 
journey to New York City from which he made his way to the 
home of Sir William in June. He seems to have been employed 
very soon in various service by his uncle and to have displayed 
rare adaptability for his tasks. On December 2, I 759, a com- 
mission as lieutenant in the New York regiment was given him, 
although for more than two years he had been an officer in 
command of Indians or a captain of rangers. As early as 1 761 
Guy Johnson figured in the correspondence of the Indian super- 
intendent as secretary of Indian affairs, the regular official, 
Witham Marsh, being incapacitated by continued illness from 
performing the duties. In the following year he resigned his 
military rank, giving himself from that time until 1 783 with little 
interruption to the management of the Indians. As deputy 
agent under Sir William, he exercised increasing responsibilities, 
and on the death of the superintendent in 1 774 he was advanced 
to the chief office. His map of the Six Nations country made 
in 1771 is well known. 

In the War of the Revolution Guy Johnson exerted himself 
in cementing the alliance of the Iroquois nations with the British 
crown cuid in directing Indian hostilities. In 1 779 he was 
attainted and the estate inherited from Sir William was con- 
fiscated by the New York government. British commissioners 
later allowed $34,000 for his losses. Guy Park, his stately 
mansion not far from Fort Johnson, is still standing. 

In 1 763 Guy Johnson married Mary, a daughter of Sir 
William, and two children were bom to them. She died at 
Oswego in July 1775, during his flight to Canada. For the 
last few years of his life he lived in London where he died on 
March 5, 1788. 

[xi] 



Chronology 

Bom in County Meath, Ireland (1740?) 

Arrived in Boston about April 1 6, 1 756 

Arrived in New York before May 1 8, 1 756 

Reached Fort Johnson about June 1 0, 1 756 

Appeared in Indian proceedings July 29, 1 756 

Led militia as lieutenant to Stone Arabia April 1 , 1 758 

Commissioned lieutenant in New York regiment December 2, 
1759 

Conmianded rangers under General Amherst in 1 759 

In expedition against Montreal in 1 760 

Accompanied Sir William to Detroit, setting out July 5, 1761 

Became deputy agent of Indian affairs in October 1 762 

Married Mary Johnson about March 1 , 1 763 

Accompanied deputies of Six Nations to Hartford, Conn., in 
May 1 763 

Obtained a grant of 2000 acres on or near Wood creek (adjoin- 
ing Skene tract) February 20, 1 765 

Commissioned colonel of militia February 1 7, 1 768 

In charge of Indian department April to July 1 768 

Attended congress at Fort Stanwix September to November 1 768 

Appointed adjutant general of militia December 1 , 1 768 

Judge of the common pleas May 29, 1 772 

In charge of Indian department July to August 1 773 

Representative in colonial assembly 1 773 

Succeeded to superintendency of northern department July 1 1 , 
1774 

Named by the Iroquois Uraghquadirha, Rays of the Sun 
enlightening the Earth, September 15, 1774 

Met Six Nations at Guy Park December 1 to 8, 1 774 

Met Six Nations January 20 to 28, 1 775 

Met Oneidas February 1 to 16, 1 775 

Met Cayugas and other Indians February 28 to March 6, 1 775 

Complained to magistrates that he was threatened with seizure 
by New Englanders March 20, 1 775 

[xii] 



Departed with Mohawks for Oswego, arriving June I 7, 1 775 

Held meeting with Indian nations July 8, 1 775 

Left Oswego for Montreal July 11, 1 775 

Reached Montreal July 1 7, 1 775 

Met Canadian Indians July 26, 1 775 

Embarked for England November 11, 1775 

Returned from England, landing at Staten Island, July 29, 1 776 

Left New York September 10, 1 778 

Driven by storm into Halifax in October 1 778 

Reached Quebec July 1 7. 1 779 

Reached Montreal August 29, 1 779 

His property confiscated October 22, 1 779 

In command of Indians at Fort Niagara in 1 780 

Went to England in 1784 

Died in London March 5, 1 788 



[xiiil 



AUTOGRAPHS FROM VOLUME IV' 





'i^ma^ (yf^^n^f^uM 






'H — 



^ The autographs of John Stanwix, John Johnson and Dan. Webb were burned in 
the fire of 1911. 



Autographs 








U tcrcc^CLU^ 



/^ 



SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON PAPERS 



FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 
A. L. S. 

January 3<^. 1763 
<Dear Sir William > 

This Post puts me in your Debt <^for two> Letters. As to 
the Mistake in the Comm*. I beg <^they may^ be sent down 
in order to be altered. The Hear<^ing of> the Connajohary 
Affair comes on the 12 Insta<^nt.^ I am at a Loss what 
opinion to give you on <^this^ subject. It appears to me 
that part of the Land <^was> intended to be sold by the 
Indians: Tis absurd <^to^ think they would sell their Castles 
& a conv<^enient^ District about: the Patentees I think 
should re <^ leased the latter without condition of reverting to 
them <[or^ their Heirs in Case the Indians should abandon 
<^it^ or become extinct: and the Patentees should <]keep &^ 
enjoy the former Part: If there is no Differ <^ence> about the 
Quantum, I should imagine <^the> affair would be easily com- 
promised. But I <^take it^ the Part which ought to be re- 
served or relea<^sed to the^ Indians, is not only considerable 
in Quan<^tity, but^ in point of Quality is greatly superior <^to 
the rest:^ Captain Rutherfurd hath either purch<^ased or^ 
agreed for Fonda's part, so he is beco<^me a party ^ I did not 
mean to be understood <^that your^ presence was necessary 
here, but <^that no examina^tion ought to be taken but in your 
<^presence. I^ shall give you a detail of what <[p2isses^. 

Tis probable I <^ shall be a means of sending you some Neigh- 
bours. The Partners in Magins^ have^ offered the People 



^ See Calendar of Land Papers, p. 292, and Calendar of Council 
Minutes, p. 401. 



2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

who advertise <]a Tract^ of 4000 acres (the Q'y. they want) 
in one <^parcel> as nearly square as may be, wherever they 
shall fix on within the Tract. They are to have the allowance 
for Highways, and 1 50 or 200 acres for a Glebe for a Parson 
— to pay for 4000 at 10*. 'W Acre. No Money down, and 
perhaps Interest free if they should insist on it or at five per Cent 
for the first 3 or 4 years. These Terms which the People think 
encouraging, are adopted by us to encourage a Settlement, and 
thus enhance the Price or Value of the Remainder; I should 
have prefer'd your Scheme, but they disrelish'd it, nor would 
they take their Lotts dispers'd, or they might have had them 
something cheaper. I should be obliged to you for any Hints 
you think may be of use on this Subject. 

In a former Letter I mention'd to you a Report which then 
prevail'd that M^ Lawrence Read was appointed of the Council. 
No Mandamus is yet issued, nor will Until M"^. Martin has had 
a <^fu^ 11 year to determine whether he will return <^and> I 
am now told It must be M^ Joseph Read <^the Father^ of 
the Gentleman named above. 

<[We> have no late Advices. The taking the <^Havannah 
& the> recovery of S'. John's may <^suslpend the Peace, but 
as the Duke of Bedford was not> recalled that <^weknowof, it 
may still take> Effect. 

I sincerely wish <Cyou the Comp". of^ this Season, and am 
D^- Sir W-". 

Your affection <] ate &> 
m^ obed'. Ser<[v^^ 

G^ Banyar 

ADDRESSED: To Sir William Johnson Baronet 

at 
Fort Johnson 



Seven Years' War 3 

FROM JOHN TABOR KEMPE 
A. L. S.' 

New York 3^ JanK 1763 
Sir 

I received your two Letters, one about the Indian Traders, 
the other relating to the Conajohary Indians. The first I have 
laid before the Governor, and cannot write fully on that Subject 
til I know whether the Council take any Steps in it — tho I 
think the best method of punishing those that abused the Licence 
of General Gage, will be for him to punish them at Montreal 
by military Law. 

As to the hearing expected in the case of the Connajohary 
Indians, it has been put off of which his Excellency the Governor 
told me he had sent you an account. 

George Klock has not got over the Prosecution ordered against 
him by the Governor and Council. It is now depending and 
will be tryed the first Opportunity, it could not have been tryed 
yet or it should. I would wish to try it next April in New 
York, could I fall on a means of defraying the Expences of a 
Jury from the County of Albany, but as there is no Fund in the 
province for these Contingent Expenses I believe it must be put 
off til the next Circuit at Albany. 

I am very sorry you should conclude that Klock had got over 
this affair. It is not a practice with me to compound offences 
imless the injured party is made Satisfaction, even in Ipetty Tres- 
passes, and never have I compounded one where the publick is 
concerned. I assure you Sir William the supposition hurts me. 

I shall write you on the other subject when I have heard from 
the Gov*". Wishing you may live happy very many years, I 
am Sir 

Your very humble Serv^ 

J. T. Kempe 
To Sir W"^. Johnson. 



^ Original destroyed by fire. 



4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JACOBUS VAN SLYCK 
A. L. 5.1 

Schenectady the 3^ Jan^. 1763. 
Sir 

I have received your Letter by M^ Teller and agreeable to 
your request I have done all in my power to Git proper persons 
to Recommend to you for Officers but it seems the Wages are 
so small that none will Except of that offer. Excepting one 
Robert McKean who is a person unknown to me, but M"^- Daniel 
Campbell tells me he is a very good man and fit for a Capt°. 
and is very willing to git the other officers and is of opinion he 
can in a very short Time raise the Company. 

I am Sir your most Ob*. Humble Servant 

Jacobus Van Slyck 
P. S. 

The Bearer that Carrys the Letter is Robert McKean above 
mentiond. 

To Sir W"^. Johnson. 

TO JOHN BRADSTREET 

<Johnson Hall Jan^. P^ 176[2 ?\ 
SlR> 

I have received your favour Enclos'ing a Copy of <[the Boim- 
daries of]> the Lands claimed by the people of Albany. The 
<[ affair appears^ to me in some measure intricate, and not- 
withstanding I make <^no doubt^ of there having been some 
unfair practises relative thereto, which <^\ sho'^.^ gladly en- 
deavour to procure them justice in. Yet the Words, <Cinclud- 
ing^ said Creek are I presume what they consider as sufficient 



1 Original destroyed by fire. 

^ In Guy Johnson's handwriting. 




'v9F 



O 
H 

X 

< 
o 

< 



Seven Years* War 5 

to <^include the^ Islands and which unless it could appear 
they were artfully <^'inserted^ without being properly Ex- 
plained, will I am of opinion comprehend them <^at Common^ 
Law, altho' allowance ought in strict Equity to be made for the 
ig<^norcince^ of the Indians in matters of that nature, and the 
Lands really <^meant^ to be granted by them, which the 
length of time will render very <^difficult^ and I have now 
before me a dispute relative to Boundaries of much <^the same^ 
nature concerning some Lands not far from thence 

However I shall hear the Sentiments of the Mohocks thereon, 
<^and take> every measure within my power for coming at a 
proper discovery <^of the frauds in order to do the Indians 
that Justice which I am of opinion <^they deserve.^ 

I am much obliged to you for the particulars you have com- 
<^municated^ to me and shall be glad to be favored <^with 
anything^ farther relative thereto with which you may at any 
time be <^ acquainted^ 

As I am 
Sir &c. 
<CoL^. Bradstreet.> 

INDORSED: Johnson Hall Jany 4**^ 1762 
Letter to Col'. Bradstreet 
in ans"". to his with the Boundaries 
of the Scorticoke Lands 



TO HORATIO SHARPE 

<CJohnson Hall Jany. 4^^ 1763 
SlR> 

Your favour of the 25^ of November <^I did not receive 
until about three >> days ago but hope this will proceed with 
greater Expe<;dition.>' 



In Guy Johnson's handwriting. 



6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I am of opinion that the Indians Expectations in requesting 
<^Dan'. Cresap^ were that he should supply them gratis, at 
the Expence of the Province, which they had been too much 
Encouraged to hope for, from the treatment they had been accus- 
tomed to by the F-^rench^ who found their Interest in so 
doing, as it weakened our Interest with <[the^ Six Nations, 
and enabled them to carry on the War with Vigour ag<^ainst^ 
the Cherokees, which at the same time that it gratified their 
Inclina<^tion^ disabled them from affording us assistance. 

The like demand is made in Pensilvania, and I cannot but 
th<^ink that^ some selfish people may have set them upon mak- 
ing such a request, <[to served their private Interest at the 
Expence of the jDublic, as otherwise <^I am of^ opinion they 
would scarcely have made application for that pu<^rpose.^ 

I am very sensible of the opposition which such a proposal 
<]must meet^ with from the House of Assembly, but hope 
they will allow Cres<^ap for> the Expences he may be at in 
Conformity to your directions, <^ after which ]> he can, and I 
suppose will, keep goods for them at his own Ex<^pence in 
case^ he thinks it necessary. 

At the request of Lieut Gov"^- Fauquier^ for that purpose 
<^to me. My Dep^.^ Agent desired at a meeting lately held 
at Onondaga that the <^ Indians would^ take the old Backpath 
in going to War against the <^Southern Indians,^ which they 
promised to take into consideration, <^but their passing by^ 
Fort Cumberland will be of no service to them, as <^Sir Jeffy 
Amherst does^ not chuse to allow the Indians supplys in <^ these 
parts and I presume the^ Officer commanding there is likewise 
<^restricted in the same manner. 

I cannot but observe to you that I am confident the shewing 
the Indians in General some favour & bestowing a few presents 
as yet occasionally on them w^ill greatly contribute to stifle many 
rising Jealousys & suspicions now amongst them concerning us, 
and that our disapproving or discouraging their prosecuting the 



^ Lieutenant Governor Francis Fauquier, of Virginia. 



Seven Years' War 7 

War against the Southerns Inds. however reasonable, would 
greatly inflame^ them at present and give them reason to 
<^think we had formed^ some of those projects which the 
French repeatedly told <^them we shod> not fail to put in 
practice on the reduction of Canada. 

Whatever answer you shall think necessary to return the 
Indians, shall be communicated to them on being transmitted to 
me, and you may at all times command my Sentiments on matters 
relative to the good of your Province, or your own Satisfactions 
As 

I am, 

with much Esteem 
Sir &c. 

The Honb'« HoR° Sharpe, L'. Gov^ of Maryland 

INDORSED: Johnson Hall Janx 4'^^ 1763 
Letter to Hor° Sharpe Esq"" 
U Gov of Maryland 



FROM JACOBUS VANSLYCK 
A. L. 5.1 

Schenectady Jan'^ 5"' 1763 

Sir 

I Heare send Enclosed My Lieu'. Col*. Comession Which I 

hope You'l order to Be Alter 'd 

It is for the Secretary M"^ Banyer I shall see him paid 1 2/ 

I am Sir 

With Great Respect 
Your Obedient Serv* 

Jacobus VanSlyck 

P. S. I Spoke to the Widow V. Eps. and she told me that She 
Rather Chus'd to setle the Ace' : with Your Honour then With 
M"^ Corry But as it's Your Honours Desire that She 



^ In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



8 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 

Shou'd Setle it M*^ Corry She will Endeavour to Setle it As 
Easy as {xjssable 

ADDRESSED: On His Majesty's Service 
To 

The Honourable Sir Will™: Johnson 
Bar*: 
at 

Johnsons Hall 

INDORSED: Schenectady Janry. S^. 1763 
Lieu*. Coll: Vanslykes 
Letter with his Commis'^. 
to have altered 

FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON 
A. L. S. 

Janrv lO^K 1763 

I 1 

answer thereto am to acquaint you [ ] the first per 

the Ship Edward Ca^) W"^. Dam[ ] spoke to M^ 

Lamb about the Sundial & Scale and [ ] You par- 

ticularly about them. To use the Steem [Pot ] put the 

Vinegar in a new Earthen Mug & heat it therein [ ] 

ready to Boiil then Cork up the Pipes of the Steem Pot with 
p[ ] Emty the Vinegar therein and take the Pot between 

two Cloth [s to] avoid burning Your hands & then draw up the 
Steem in Your mouth & breath it thro the Nostrills, as its apt 
to put One in a Sweat its neccessary to be cautious to avoid getting 
Cold — In case your a mind to put any Ingredient therein 
Honey is the best — the above is according to Doctor Magra's 
directions & the method that I usd. M^ Weyman seem's not 
to und[er] stand the directions in regard to the Coat of Arm's 
& directed [me] to One Debrul's Engraver Inclosd is a letter 
from him about [it] 

I Sent Your last Inclosed for Sir W™. Baker Via [ ] 



^ Several lines missing. 



Seven Years* War 9 

Bristol P^ the Snow Garland Cap' Asshfeild whom I [ ] 

a few day's ago I received Some things according to the 
I [nclosed] Letter from Ireland but as the Vessell had Servants 
On [ ] and did not Chuse to Hall to the Wharf. 

detaind Yo [ur ] On board till now. I have a Key that 

was in the lett[er] & Shall Send the things P"^: first Conveyance, 
but the [ ] You Chuse it. I return theuik's for 

Your Hopes [ ] Privateer proving Successfull. and 

also hertily [ ] the Compliments of the Season, 

with my wife's [ ] & am with Continued Offers of 

Service. 

Sir Y^ 0[bedient Servant] 

Willia[m Darlington] 

P. S Van Allen Say's he diliverd the 
things Sent the 7^ : April 1 762 to Doctor 
Stringer & in the Cag with the flowers 
[ ] s I Packt the Cruet Stand. 

ADDRESSED : To 

Sir William Johnson. Bart 

att 

Fort Johnson 

INDORSED: Letter from M^ 
W"". Darlington 
Janry. 10^^ 1763 

FROM RICHARD SHUCKBURGH 
A. L. S. 

<CNew York 10'^ January 1763y 
<Dear Sir> 

I am favoured with yours of <^the 18^ Dec^ last an^d am 
convinced of the reaHty of your kind<[ness to me.> 

Since I wrote to you I have comple<^ated my^ Purchase 
■with the Surgeon of the 1 7^^. Reg', and re<^ceived> my 
Commission f™. the General the 29^. ult°. for which as I paid 
the Money down, has caus'd a great Chasm in my small Capitol 



10 Sir WilUum Johnson Papers 

on which must beg if you sh<^ou'd> hear of Purchaser for my 
Land in the Mohocks I wo<^u'd> be glad to dislpose of it: 
I think it worth at least -^ten^ shillings ^ Acre, as M'. Banyar 
informs me, Lan<[d> thereabouts sells for 20/ that is in Butlers 
Purchas<^e.> I shall now have something to do; having little 
to sa<^y> for sometime past, but " Prandeo, Poto, Cano, Ludo, 
<]Lego,> Cano, Quiesco." My Quarters are setled at 
Bush <^ wick on> Long Island being most central to the dif- 
fere<int Can^tonments of the Reg*. Please to direct to me 
<[as usual^ in the Broad Way tho' my Residence is chief <^ly 
at> Quarters. 

I should be glad to hear soon f™. you <^what you^ think 
the land may sell for: 

I hear by M^ Darlington that Cap*. Clau<[se is w**^. you. 
Be> pleased <Cto^ Offer my Compliments t<^o him and 
Spouse also^ Johnny & L*. Johnson w*. all <^of your hous- 
hold which concludes this hasty Epistle. Wishing you all the 
happiness you can desire & a Continuance of what you have and 
am your ever obliged and very humble Serv*.> 

<Rd Shuckburgh> 

<^P. S. Chief > Justice Pratt^ died a few days ago. <^Mi^ss 
Suky Alexander Married to Col°. Reid. 

ADDRESSED To 

Sir Will™. Johnson Baronet 
att Mount Johnson 

Albany 
INDORSED: [ ] 

[ ] Shuckburgh 



^Benjamin Pratt was born in Cohasset, Mass., March 13, 1710, 
was a graduate of Harvard College, represented Massachusetts in the 
General Court, was chief justice of New York and died January 5, 
1 763. His tenure of the chief justiceship was attended by a conflict 
touching his accountabihty to the people, Pratt and others maintaining 
that he should hold his office and salary from the crown, while a strong 
party contended that his tenure should be dependent on " good behavior " 
and his salary on legislative appropriation. 



Seven Years War 1 1 

FROM HUGH WALLACE 
A. L. S. 

Nerv York 10 Jan^^ 17163] 
Dear Sir 

I received yours by Mr Reily, who is I fear a verry unworthy 
Object of you[r] K'indness, he has behaved in a verry base & 
scandalous Manner, & was obliged to qu[it] the Regiment, & 
was luckey he was not s [ ] worse used. I paid him £20 — 

on yo[ur] acco*. for which with the £5 you pa [id] him. Inclosed 
is his note, he sa[iled] for Ireland yesterday. I hope we w[ill] 
never have any more such sad D [ ] come here from that 

Country, we [have] Scoundrells enough from other P[arts &] 
want none from Ireland. 

The Pott Ash Manafac[ture to] be a Fund of great 

Wealth could [ b]rought to any perfection, tho I think 

[la]bour is too high yet in this Country for [s]uch Undertakins. 
I think the surest & [b]est Way for you to know the Value & 
Quality of those your Tennant makes is to get a Couple of 
Barrells of them, & send [o]ne to London & one to Dublin, 
where they [w]ill be properly analysed & tryed, & you [ca]n 
have a good Acco^ of them & of their [va]lue, & perhaps if any 
Defect in the [m]akeing or other wise, they will be able [to] 
point out a Remedy. 

I heartily wish you many happy [yea]rs & am with much 
sincere regard 

D-^Sir 

Y^ most obed". Humb'. Serv' 

Hugh Wallace 
[Sir WilliaJm Johnston Bar'. 

INDORSED: Letter from M"*. 
Hugh Wallace 
with a Note from M^ 
Ryley for £25 — 



12 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 



FROM MICHAEL DE BRULS 
A. L. S. 

New York J any.- 1 l^K' 1763 
Sir 

M'^ Darlington hath Aquainted me with Your Commands 
Concerning Your Coat of Arms, the Engraving of the Same 
will Cost Four Pounds The Printing and Colouring the Same 
proper will Cost Five Pound ^ Hund*^: or Twenty Pound 
^ Thousend. 

Sir Your Further Encouragement in this as also Encouraging 
the Subscription of the Several Views hc^: of New York as ^ 
Advertisement in [the] news papers will Greatly Oblidge S[ir] 

Your Most Obed': 

Serv«: MiCHAEL D^BfRULs] 
ADDRESSED : To 

Si"^ Will"" : Johnson 
Bar*: 

INDORSED: Letter from M^ 
DeBruhl — 

FROM HENDRICK FREY 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 157, is entered a letter of January 1 1 th 
from Hendrick Prey at Canajoharry, which was badly injured by the 
fire. It conveys an apology for delay in returning a note of hand and 
apprises of a complaint made against the writer by Christian Dillenbagh 
in the affair of an account between Dillenbagh and Johnson. 

FROM JACOB SNELL 

A. L. S. 

[Stone Ambia] [Janp 12^^ 17^3 
Honourable Sir 

I receiv[ed ] 10*^ of this Instant By the Hand of 

[ ] George Snell In Which I understan[d that] 



Seven Years War 13 

You will Give me Five Hundred and [fifjteen pounds New 
Yorks Currency p[ ] Next Septemb^ For y" Lott of 

Land [ ] to You In which Case I have made my 

Consent to Approve of Your Proposal! And May Be a Bargain 
to Le[t] You have y* Lant Accordingly as [your?] Letter 
Mentioned to me Wishing y[ou] Much Joys With it the Deed 
Ca[n be] Drawn any time But I Beg the [ ] and 

Kindness of You S^ if You Wi[ll be] pleased to Come up 
once this Winde[ ] the Deeds and Obligations as my 

[ ] are all oblidged to Sign it off and [ ] 

are far absend From one anoth[er If] You Approve to this 
pray Sir to Lett m[e know] the time so that I may have 
the[m ] Gether the Bounds of it and y«^ [ ] N° 4 

is to begin at y^ north East Corn[er ] Runs from thence 

north 35 Ch: to [ ] is Called by Indian Cajadutta 

[ ] Streem of y^ said Brook with [ ] 46 

Ch*: to another brook Wh[ich ] thence down y*^ Streem 

of [ ] N-:3 thence [ ] [ ] 

ADDRESSED: To The Onourable Sir 

William Johnson 
With Speed I Att 
and Care J Johnson Hall 

INDORSED: [Fro]m Jac'^. Snell 
[Jan]y 12^h 1763 
[Conc]erns. his Farm 



FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL 
A. L. S. 

Schenectady^ the 13'^ January 1763 
Dr Sir 

Cap' Clause was telling me you had a W [arrant] by you 
for £1500 — which no doubt you [would] Rather have the 
money for it here then at y[ork] I have Ocasion for money at 
^orke in Order [to ] purchase Bills of Exchange with — 



14 Sir IVilliaTn Johnson Papers 

If Y[ou think] proper to Send me down the Warrant — I 
W[ill furnjish you with about £800, Immediately — an[d the] 
Remaining £700 — Can Raise in a month [or two] which I 
Sopose will not be any ways Inco[nvenient] for You to wait 
for it — till that time — [ ] prove Agreeable to You, 

I wou'd be glad [ w] arrant in time to Send with the 

next 5)oste [ ] an Order by Some proper person for 

th[e money] which will be Ready on demand. 

I shou'd have d[one myself] the Honour to have waited on 
You [ ] am deprived of that pleasure by [ ] 

head which I have had this Several [ ] and Still 

Inclines to be worse. 

I Shall Conclude with wishing you a great many happy New 
Years to Come — & a lasting State of good health which I 
wish for from my heart. 

Who am D"^ Sir with the Creates [t] Respect and Esteem 

your verry hble Ser' 

Daniel Campbell 
[I will] be Obilgd to you for an 
[answer so] on. I have a large Quantity of Indian 
[goods by] me Shou'd you Want Some in the Spring 
[I will sell] them at the Albany price. 
[Sir William] Johnson 

INDORSED: Cap* D. Campbell's Letter 
Janry. 13'^. 1763 



FROM WITHAM MARSH 

A. L. S. 

[New York] Janry 13^^ /763 

[ '] 

Your kind Favours I ever esteem [ ] my short 

Stay in this mortal Stage. Your last has [ ] Belief, 

which I shall explain more fully afterwards in the [ ] 

* Lines missing. 



Seven Years War 15 

I'm extremely glad to hear (and thank you for the news) that 
[ ] Johnson has been at Onondago. — It was a 

prudent Step, and a[greeable?] to good Sir William's Conduct 
relating to the Indian Affairs. [ ] opinion at the 

first reading of the Account, that it was not fair [ ] 

in regard to the Confederacy, who, I dar'd then to Say, I was 
p[ ] they wo'', not give any Countenance to Murderers 

upon so recen[t an] Act, had they known it then to have been 
perpetrated: but howe[ver] the Onondagoes are determined to 
seek out, and deliver up th vil[lains] think that shou'd exculpate 
them from all Blame, tho matter [s ] justly observe) 

have been exaggerated in the Prints. — I'm [ ] 

pleas'd You've had so fine a Season, and such plenty of 
Pig [eons?] [ ] know you wou'd then use much 

Exercise, w^^. will contribute [ ] towards a con- 

tinuation of your Health, w'^^, I hope God [ ] By 

this Time, I believe, you have had a great deal of Sn[ow ] 

is Snow enough, but with you much more. — You St[ ] 

your former Kindness, by your wishes for my Success [ ] 

I am yet fearful of the event of obtaining a Man[damus ] 

the poor little Chief Justice being dead ; and as my [ ] 

the last motion for one, 'tis possible He may persevere in 
[ ] [ ]ion my Self. — 

Near upon [you wish?] [ ] inst., Livingston, 

Domine DuBois, with M^ Secretary, [ ] go to 

Albany, the first Sledding time. Three nights [ ] , 

I was afflicted with the Gout in my left Hand, very Severely, 
[some] time lost the total Use of it, but it is now a good deal 
[ ] Afterwards the same Disorder visited both my 

Feet, w^^. has [co]nfined me to y^. Room, with more excruci- 
ating Torment than I ever [had] in any three Fits before. 'Till 
this I never had been obliged to [ ] Bed for 4 Days, 

in any other Paroxysm, nor to apply [ ] Doctor 

for Sudorifics, which has so dispirited me, that I [ m]y 

Fretting made the Disorder to increase: yet, Deo Gratias, 
[ gjather Strength, and I hope to crawl out on Sunday, 



16 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[ ] trouble you no more about my Self, only, that 

as Soon as my [disorjder will give me permission, I will come 
and make you my [ ] thanks for your Obligations, 

and Set to Business as long as [ ] I've only to add 

my wishes that you, and your Family, [ ver]y happy 

New Years, and then neither y"*. Self, D*". Sir W""., [ ] 

know Such an one as has been too afflictedly felt, by [ wi] th 
the utmost Truth, and Sincerity, 

Sir, Your most obliged, & ever 
obedient Servant 

WiTHAM Marsh 
[Sir William Johnson] Baronet, &c &c &c 

INDORSED: Janry 13*^^ 1763 

Letter from M^ Marsh 



FROM JOHN OGILVIE 
A. L. 5/ 

Montreal Jan^: 13'^ J 763 
Dear Sir 

I am really unable to express how much I was disappointed 
in not being able to have the Honour & Pleasure of an Interview 
with you last Fall: Cap' Clause, I hope, made my Apology 
as he was sensible of the Extreme Hurry I was in, when at 
Albany, upon my Return to Montreal. 

This waits on you with great Respect, wishing you the Com- 
pliments of this Season of Festivity in the most extensive Sense. 
May your Life be long, crown'd with every thing that can con- 
tribute to your real Happiness! None of your Friends salute 
you v^th greater Cordiality. 

I long to see the Mohawk's Country once more, but when I 
shall be able to accomplish that Wish I am unable to deter- 
mine: As a military Man being under absolute Command.^ I 



* In Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. 
^ As chaplain of the 60th regiment. 



Seven Years War 17 

am extremely anxious to have the Neighbourhood of Fort-Hunter 
form'd into a Mission separate from Albany, so that there might 
be a Clergy-men of Piety & Prudence to reside constantly in 
that District. I look upon this necessary, not only for the 
Indians, but for such Members of the established Church, as may 
from Time to Time settle upon the Mohawk River, and also 
for those, who by the unhappy Divisions which generally sub- 
sist among the Sectaries, may incline to join with the Church. 
Schonectady might be supplied by the joint Labours of y<= 
Missionary at Albany, & the other at the Mohawks. 

I had a Conference with D"" : Barclay upon this Subject, who 
assures me that he is willing upon certain Conditions (which 
he has communicated to you) , to resign all his Right to the Farm 
near Fort Hunter, in Favour of the Society for propagating the 
GospeP this Farm, with a Salary of Forty or fifty Pounds Ster: 
would be a pretty Subsistence in that Country : And I am certain 
upon a proper Representation to the Society, they would readily 
come into it. I have this very much at Heart, and could there 
be any Means thought of to raise the Money to pay M"^ Barclay 
there would be no Difficulty in settling a regular Minister at 
Fort Hunter. TTie Reason of my writing upon this Subject to 
you, is, that I am persuaded it is a thing you will approve of & 
no one else can settle the Matter relative to the Farm but your- 
self: I know your Goodness will excuse this Liberty. 

This Country affords no Matter of Entertainment, by way of 
News. We live in Peace with the Inhabitants, & enjoy great 
Plenty of all the Necessaries of Life, at a very easy rate. 

Cap' Lotteridge goes on in his Department with Prudence 
and gives satisfaction to the Gen', the Kaghnawagaws are very 
orderly at present, no Disputes of any kind, unless it be some 
Jealousy between them & their spiritual Father, who does not 



^ See letter of Henry Barclay to Cadwallader Golden, December 2, 
1761, and Johnson to Golden, January 20, 1 762, Papers of Sir William 
Johnson, 111:589-90 and 610, 



18 Sir Willtam Johnson Papers 

seem to look upon ithem iwith the same paternal Affection he 
formerly did. 

M" Ogilvie joins in our Respects to yourself and Family 
I am D"" Sir with Sentiments of real Respect and Esteem 

Your most obedient 

Humble Serv' 
John Ogilvie 

INDORSED: Montreal Janry, 13*^^. 1763 
Letter from Doctor Ogilvie. 



LORDS OF TRADE TO GEORGE THIRD 
D. S.i 

1763 To the King's most Excell*. Majesty 

January^ 14^. May it please Your Majesty, 
Representation to Sir William Johnson, Your Majesty's 

His Majesty upon Superintendant of the Affairs of the Indian 
a Complaint made Nations in the Northern District of 
by the Delawar In- North America, having in Obedience to 
dians against the His late Majesty's Order in Council 
Proprietaries of dated the 29'^. of August 1 759,^ trans- 

Pennsylvania re- mitted to Us the Minutes of His Pro- 

specting Lands. ceedings at a Meeting held with the 

Delawar Indians, in pursuance of the 
said Order, to examine into their Complaints against the Pro- 
prietaries of Pennsylvania, concerning certain Lands of which 
those Indians deem'd themselves to have been defrauded, 
together with his Report upon the whole of that Transaction ; 
It is Our Duty, in further Obedience to the said Order in Coun- 
cil, humbly to lay before Your Majesty the Annex'd Copies of 
the said Minutes and Report. 



Mn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.1296, p. 1 1 , London, England. 
^ The Order in Council mentioned above is printed in the Docu' 
mentar^ Hhiory of New York, 2:789-90; Q. 2:458. 



Seven Years* War 19 

From these Papers it will appear to Your Majesty, that this 
dispute which has so long subsisted with the Delawar Indians is 
haplpily brought to an amicable Conclusion, they having been 
fully satisfied of the Truth &: Fairness of each of the contested 
Points, except one, and that one, for the sake of Peace and 
Friendship, they willingly gave up. The only thing which S^ 
William Johnson judges necessary m Order to make those 
Indians perfectly easy under this their Concession is, that the 
Proprietaries, in consideration of the easy Terms upon which 
they have Obtain'd these Lands, and for the sake of Strengthning 
the Friendship and Affection of the Delawars, should make them 
an handsome Present. And having call'd the Proprietaries 
before Us, and acquainted them with this Proposal, they have 
assured Us, that they have already done it. That at the Meet- 
ing held at Easton they did give two hundred pounds in Presents 
to the said Indians, & also the further Sum of four Hundred 
Pounds at a subsequent Meeting held at Lancaster. TTie 
Adjustment therefore of this Matter in fully compleated. 

But there is another Point, setting forth in the latter End 
of the said Report, which it is Our Duty to make out and 
Humbly recommend to your Majesty's Attention, namely the 
Complaint thereon mentioned to have been made by the 
Delawars. " That the People of the Colony of Connecticut 
were coming to settle at Wyoming on the River Susquehanna." 

As it appears that this intended Settlement has greatly alarm'd 
the Jealousy of the Indians, and as Wyoming is situated in 
Pennsylvania ; We thought it Our Duty to call before Us the 
Proprietaries of that Province, and to enquire what Measures 
had been taken on their part to {prevent, or put a Stop to the 
Attempt. And they have assured Us that their Deputy Gov- 
ernor has long since sent Orders requiring the People already 
settled there, to remove; That he had also applied to Major 
Gen'. Amherst and had call'd upon the Government of Connec- 
ticut to use their Endeavours to put a Stop to such Settlement, 
in consequence whereof a Proclamation had been issued (as 



20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sr. W™. Johnson Observes) by that Government to discoun- 
tenance the Proceedings of the settlers. 

But as S"^. W"*- Johnson is doubtfull, whether the Means 
which have been employ'd will be sufficient to restrain the People 
of Connecticut, from pursisting in their Design, and as he is 
apprehensive that if they are suffered to proceed in it, the most 
fatal Consequences may be expected, from the Alarm and Dis- 
quiet which this attempt has already given, not only to the 
Delawars but to the Six Nations of Indians, to whom the Lands 
at Wyoming do properly belong; We beg leave humbly to 
submit it to your Majesty, whether it may not be expedient, that 
such Measures be immediately taken, as Your Majesty shall 
judge most proper & effectual, for putting a Stop to the Settle- 
ment, which the Peojjle of Connecticut have thus unwarrantably 
Attempted, without the Authority of Government. 
All Which is most humbly Submitted. 

Sandys 

SOAME JeNYNS 

Ed. Bacon. 

John Yorke. 

Edmond Thomas. 
Exd. 
Whitehall 1 

Janry 14. 1763 ( 



from SAMUEL STRINGER 
A. L. S. 



[January) 14, 1763] 



I 

[ ]an dress that you [ 

or England, occasioned me to open [ 
here since last summer, left eithe[r 
without any directions about it, wheth[er 



Seven Years' War 21 

it was ]VI^ Wades The Bundel is a Bea[ con-] 

taining a large Pipe dress'd with Feathers, and [ J 

a Shot Bag, a scalping Knife & Case & a pair of [ ] 

in one of which were Letters for the following Persons Rev^: 
M^ Wheelock, Cap'. Jocelyn White, the Sachem [ ] 

Stockbridge Ind^:, To Ferrall Wade, Mess". Kened[y] & one 
to myself with direction to forward the [ ] Bundell — 

It surprised me much to find tho[ ] been neglected; 

if I had known any thing [ ] disposal of them I 

should certainly have kno[ ] & follow'd your direc- 

tions — I should be [ ] what you woud have done 

with the Letter [s ] Rec^: the Powder & Ball & 

am to give a R[ ] I have sent 1^ these Sleas the 

Picture [frames ] square Box, & M^ Clawss' Cradle 

[ ] in great haste [ ] ase to excuse 

I am S^ 

[ ] 

The Sleas woud not allow room after the other things were in, 
to take the [Sand?] 

ADDRESSED: [To Th]e Hon'^'^ 

S^ William Johnson Bar', 
at 
Johnson Hall 

INDORSED: [January 14'*^ 17]63 



FROM ANTHONY LAMB 

A. L. S. 

New York ]arf^ ^5"" 1763 

M^ Darlington Showd me your Le[tter] Mentioning the 
Scale with a Silver joynt, and a Dyal, if any Imported would 
have Answard I Would have Sent you one ^ the Gentleman 



22 Sir William Johnson Papers 

you orderd to Call on me Some time ago. the Stiles of Them 
that are Come is near 3 Degrees to Low, and will not give the 
True time of Day where you Live, Neither before nor After 
noon, I Showd the one I have in hand For you to M'. Darling- 
ton, and Shall make what Dispatc[h] I Can in Gitting bouth 
Dyal and Scale Done, and [ ] Recommend them to his 

Care to Send y™., mean While [ ] Remain 

Y^ Most Humble. Serv'- 

Anthony Lamb 

ADDRESSED : To 

Sir William Johnson 

INDORSED: Letter from 
M^ Lamb 
at New York 

(There are some calculations in figures on this sheet which have 
no reference to the contents.) 



FROM ABRAM MORTIER 

A. L. S. 

New York 15 th J anv 1763 
Sir 

Your Favour of 1st Instant [ ] inclos- 

ing Sir Jeffery Amherst's Warrant in Your [ ] 

£829. Stg equal to £ 1 42 1 .2. 1 OK2 New York Currency, [ ] 

with great pleasure have sent You according to your [ ] 

bill on Albany for £500. Curr; but I have not any money 
[ ] Credit there. I sho'd immagine that sum might 

[be] rais'd there for your bill on me. 

I reinclose You the Warrant for y"^ Ind[ian ] & a 

sett of Receipts for Your Signature as Usual, an[d ] be 

ready to discharge the Amo* of the Warrant in any [ ] 



Seven Years' War 23 

that may be most agreable to you, as far as lays [in my] Power 
I am with great Esteem 

Sir 

Your most Ob[edient and] 
most Hu[mble Servant] 

[ 1 

The Hon'''* Sir W"^ Johnson Barr' 

INDORSED: Letter from 

Abr"". Mortier Esq^ 
Dated 15«K Janry. 1763 
handing me a Warrant 
for Endorsement & a Sett of 
Receipts for Signature. 



FROM CHARLES J. SMITH AND ELEAZAR WHEELOCK 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 157, is a letter of January 18th from 
Charles Jeffry Smith, at Lebanon, to Johnson on a desired missionary 
excursion to the Mohawk country, with Joseph Brant as interpreter, and 
the admirable qualities of Joseph (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:325- 
26; Q, 4: 208-9) ; also a letter of the 20th from Eleazar Wheelock, 
at Lebanon, to Johnson, commending Smith's character and proposed 
enterprise, and mentioning sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts 
under advisement for location of the Indian school ; with a postscript of 
April 10 relating to a proposed journey with Joseph to Portsmouth 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:322-24; Q, 4:207-8.) 



TO JOHN TABOR KEMPE 

Dr 

Johnson Hall JanK 20'^ 1763 
Sir 

By your favour of the 3^ Ins*. I perceive you have laid the 
affair of the Ind". Traders before the Governor who, together 
with the Council will I hope take the same into consideration. 



^ Original destroyed by fire. 



24 Sir IVillhm Johnson Papers 

If not, I should be glad to have your Sentiments thereon, as Sir 
Jeffy. Amherst has desired I should do something therein. It 
being always considered that (notwithstands. Gen^ Gage has 
given passes to sev'- persons trading from Montreal) all matters 
of that nature are properly cognizable by me, as the Ind° Trade 
and everything relative thereto comes under the Inspection of my 
Department. I am apprehensive some Letters to me have lately 
miscarried not having heard anything relative to the Cona- 
joharee Indians from his Excelb the Governor, and very lately 
Klock assembled a few Men & Boys of the Indians whom he 
induced to sign a paper signifying that they had heard one half 
of the Disputed Land had been purchased, as also that the Ind*. 
who opposed the same were not real Canajoharees, or interested 
therein. This is a proceeding so false & absurd that it carries 
with it a self conviction of their fraudulent Steps to overreach the 
Ind^ as those persons were not, nor are they of the least con- 
sequence or esteem, & are intirely ignorant of all matters of that 
nature. I have therefore herewith enclosed you a Copy of 
the Deposition of one Forbes^ who was employed as an 
Interpreter on that occeision w^. I think was very wrong & un- 
justifiable together with that of a Letter wrote to me by David 
Schyler a prinl party concerned lately deceased concerns, the 
Lands in Dispute both which you will please to lay before the 
Gov^ or make such use thereof as you shall judge necessary for 
Exposing their unjust proceedings. 

It never was my opinion, neither had I the least suspicion that 
a Gentl". of your Character & Integrity would have omitted any 
Steps whereby an offender might Elude proper punishment. 
The little acquaintance I have with the steps to be taken at law 
in such cases, induced me to write in a manner you must have 
misunderstood as nobody can entertain a more advantagious 
opinion of your abilities and upright disposition than 

Sir &ca. 
To M^. Kempe Atty. General. 



^ Destroyed by fire. 



Seven Years' War 25 

TO ROBERT MONCKTON 
A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall Janr^ 20'K 1763 
Sir 

A few days ago I was Visltted by Some Cheifs of the Stock- 
bridge Indians, who deHvered me Two Memorials, setting forth 
that Severall Years ago Some People of New England had 
purchased of the Stockbridge Indians a Tract of Land, which 
they have erected since into Townships calling the One Canaan 
& the other Spencer Town, Since Which, M^ John Ranslear 
of Albany has laid Claim to the Same, as within the Limits of his 
Mannor, & not only the Persons resideing thereon but Severall 
Family's of Indians are threatened to be turned of the 
Premises, they therefore entreated I would represent the same to 
Your Excellency. 

I told them at the same time, that I apprehended the running 
the Lines of the Sev"^'. Counties in Conformity to Your Excel- 
lency'* Message to the Assembly (w^. they resolved to pass an 
Act for) would determine whose Property it was. 

I am apprehensive some letters to me have lately miscarried, 
as the Attorney General informs me Your Excellency did me 
the honour of acquainting me with the Affair of the Conajoharee 
Indians haveing been put off. I have by this Post wrote to 
him, & enclosed the Deposition of a Person who was lately 
employed as an Interpreter by Klock cind Part]) with a few 
Indians, as also a Copy of a Letter wrote to me last Summer 
by David Schyler lately deceased, who was principally con- 
cerned in the Lands in Dispute, All which may tend to let a 



In the New York Public Library, New York City. 



26 Sir William Johnson Papers 

greater light into y*. Affair, and evince the verry unjust Steps 
which are Still continued to be made use of therein. 

I have the Honour to be with the utmost 
respect Sir 

Your Excellencys 
Most Obedient, and 
Most Humble Servant 

W"^. Johnson 
His Excellency 
GOVERNOUR MONCKTON 



FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL 
A. L. S. 

[Schenectady] 21 January 1763 
Dear Sir 

I wrote you by Cap' Clau[se ] it has Some way 

or other miscarry'd — as I have no[t had] the pleasure of an 
Answer from you. When Cap' [Clause] was down he men- 
tion'd Something to me about your Receiving a Warrant from 
Sir Jeffrey Amhurst, [for] the am', of £1500 Currency — as 
I Immagin it [would] be more Convenient for you to reise your 
mo [ney ] then Sending down to New Yorke — and it 

w[ould] answer better for me to reise money in y[ork ] 

Run the danger of Sending down Cash [ ] therefore 

if you think proper to Send m[e ] I Can now furnish 

you with about £800 — [ ] a month or Two — I 

shall make Y [ ] Remaining £700 — I would have 

done [myself] the honour of waiting on you personally 
[ ] [ ] the 

Bearcir [ ] me a pacquet — and [ ] 

may Send the Warrant — M' [ of]ficer who Com- 

mands here gives him [a ve]ry good name — tho I woud not 



5even Years War 27 

let him [kn]ow any thing of Warrant — for fear of too great a 
temtation. You'll also please to lorlder the money as you 
think proper. 

I am Dear Sir with 
much Esteem and 

Respect 
Yours Verry hble Ser' 

Daniel Campbell 
[Sir Wil]liam Johnson 

INDORSED: Janry. 21»'. 1763 

Letter from Daniel Campbell 
Esq^ 



FROM FRANCIS WADE 
A. L S. 

I<anry. ZU^ 176[3] 

I 

Agreeable [ 
the pleasure of seeing yo [u 
about the dogs & am now to [ 
of a Couple against the spring [ 
them as soon as they Come to han[d 
I wrote to Colnell Armstrong to remind [ 
promise to you & rec'd for Answer he would [ 
or three Couple by the first Oport^. since [ 
seen him in philad^. & he Inform'd me he sen[tl a Cross the 
Country by Colnell Cole which I got safe to hand he at the 
same time Info[rmed me] he had two Couple more for you & 
would [send them] by way of philad*. in the spring you may 
[ ] my Care of them when they Come, being in [ ] 

wanted a brick maker I made some Enquieri[es] & I belive 
Could send you one for a time [ ] Encouragement 

if any Services is in my [ ] be Acceptable to you you 



28 Sir William Johnson Papers 

may freely Com[mand ] always give me pleasure to 

serve you [ ] greatest Esteem 

Sir 
Your welwi[shing] 

H[umble Servant] 

[ ] 

[Sir] Will" Johnson Barn*. 

INDORSED : New York Janr^. 2 1 ^' 1 76 [3 ] 
Letter from M'. Francis 
Wade 



FROM WILLIAM CORRY 
A. L. S. 

[Albany, January 22 y 1763] 

I 

an opertunity of [ 

on the watch, and ha[ 

a Dollar if he can sett him [ 

As to your former acc[ounts 
to, some have promised they will [ 
and others that no thing is due, as [ 
account will shew. The Sheriff could no[t 
the Writs as the hurry of the Court, and the van Valkenburgs 
Effects were of necessity to be done — but shall send him up 
in a few days. 

£ 

M*^ Connel of Cherry Vally has pd me 10 — [ ] 

is ready when you please to order. 

I heartily wish you happiness in your Intended [ ] 

and may you live to see it an old building. I would have much 
pleasure to see you at the [ ] but Since I entered into 

this way of business, I [ ] you, I have not had the 

Jjleasure of spending [ ] at my own Country place 

these Seven years past [ ] way is to ride there once 



Seven Years War 



29 



in 3 or 4 weeks upon [ ] and so return on Monday 

morning — but I hope I shall not be that Slave for Ever — 
[ ] when the Roads are good with a blessing, if 



al[l ] perhaps I may wait upon you. I hav[e 

this fall for a barrel of Ray Grass seed, if it [ 
send you a few Quarts to bring you in [ ] 

Not one word of New[s ] 

I am Dea[r Sir with] 

much esteem your most 
humble I Servant] 

I 

ADDRESSED : To 

Sir William Johnson Bar' 
at Johnson Hall 

INDORSED : [ ] 

[William] Corry 
[and ot]her papers 



] 
] shall 



FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 



A. L. S. 



24^. fmr^. 1763 



I 

Affair. [ ] M[ 

referred to, I sent for [ 

Livingston, as a pap [ 

and therefore is advised by [ 

be sent to you with the two De[eds 

said Klock had it, and he must sen[d 

it again which would take 2 or 3 w[ 

is not inclosed with the rest. It wa[s 

alledged at the Hearing that one of [ 

Sachems who signed or made the Decl[arations 

before you & the three Justices, is [ 

If the Meeting advised by th[ 



30 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 

takes Place, it will be necessa[ry 
you think proper to give of it, sh[ 
in Weymans Gazete, which shou[ld 
Time, place & the Intention of [ 
might be signed by the Secretar[y 
For News I refer you to the [ 
say not one Jot more ab[out 
thought to be true as [ 

Your aff [ectionate ] 

[ ] 

[ ] W-. 

[ ] send you New Comm[ ] 

[ ] hope you returned. I have 

[ t]he Fees. 

INDORSED : New York 24*^. Janr^. 1 763 
Letter from M^ Banyar 



FROM GOLDSBROW BANYAR 
A. L S 

[January 24, 1763] 

I ] 

cy the Govern [or ] 

Minute of Council [ ] 

two Indian Deeds therein 

Sir 

your most obedie[nt &] 
humble Servant 
Gw Banyar 
P. S. The Declaration 
of Dec^ last made by the 
Indians M"^. Livingston 
says M""- Klock took 

away with him, but 
that he will send for it 
& deliver the Governor a Copy of it. 



Seven Years* War 31 



TO WILLIAM DARLINGTON 

A, Df. S. 

[January 29. 1763] 

I 

Mess". La[ 

I find he is busy [ 

when made he is to [ 

me the Expence of haveing [ 

painted & Printed ; — as to the eng [ 

have no Objection to the price, [ 

& painting verry extravigant, wherefor[re 

you tell him so, and that I look upon [ 

^ thousand, besides the expence of the Plate [ 

as I am certain I can have them done in Lon[don 

less, & doubtless better, if he will tak[e 

have him Send me a thousand as So [on 

let him know also that I will Subsc[ribe 

a Dozen Setts of the Water, & Land V[iews 

as advertised by him, and beg y®. [ 

pay him £3 Subscription Money, & [ 

when he delivers them, for w^., and o[ 

Soon want, I shall give you an ord[er 

I am much oblidged [ 
taken in forwarding my letters to [ 
the Vessels may arrive safe 

respects to You [ 
Quinces & Prim for Hedges 

Sir 

[ ] 

M\ W". Darlington 

[ ] 

^£5 ^ M for my Coat of Arms only printed 
& £4 for y®. plate w*^. is to be mine. 



^These words are on the margin of the draft. 



32 Sir IVillfam Johnson Papers 

FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL 
A. L. S. 
[Schenectady] Janr^- 30'K 1763 

[ ] 

I had the pleasure of Receiving your [ ] with a 

letter to M' Mortier which I forw[arded ] a Verry Safe 

hand — on receipt of your [ ] letter — when I 

found you had Sent the Warr[ant] to New York, I Immediately 
bout: Bills [ ] Sterling, which has taken all the Ready 

[money I] had by me — Except about £340 — [ ] 

have when you Jjlease — if yo[u ] Immediate want 

for the £800 — I shall [ ] a Bill for the whole, and the 

remainin[g ] pay you in a Short time — if [ ] 

be Convenient for you, I will only [ ] for the 

money I have by me — that is [ ] 

I shoud have Ano[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] waited [ ] 

[ di]sapointed by a gre[at] 

[ ] on one of my knees — 

M" Campbell Joyns me in [congrat]ulating you on the Birth 
of your [gr] and Daughter — and the happy recovery of M" 
[Clajuse — and am D"^ Sir with [my] best Compliments to 
you and all the [rest of y]our good Family. Your most 

Obed & verry hble 

Ser' 
Daniel Campbell 
[Sir William] Johnson 

[ 

with One [ 

Acted as an [ Farrell 

Wade in [ 

of Three thousand pounds [ 

thousand of which at the Suit of his [ 

& £1000 at his own — for takeing a way [ 



Seven Years' War 33 

Reputation — 

if I Can meet with a Safe ha [ ] 

up the £340 — The Bills youll [ ] 

in time to go with the next post — [ ] 

Bills first and Second — for fear y[ou ] 

INDORSED: Janry. 30'*^. 1 763 

Letter from Daniel Campbell 
Esq^ 



FROM WITHAM MARSH 
A. L. S. 

<^New York 30^1' JanK- 1763.y 
Sir, 

If the Gout had not <^prevented me bringing you the good 
Success^ I obtained last Term, I intended coming to <^ Albany 
with Capt. Phil.^ Schuyler, and then to have acquainted you 
in Person <^with the Determina^tion of Judge Horsmanden/ 
On the 2h*. instant, my <^Councel moved for a^ Mandamus 
to deliver me the Records of Albany County <^&c, &c. 
Young^ Smith^ violently, and, indeed virulently opposed it, as 
'twas for <^his Majesty's^ service. M^ Scott," on this occa- 



^ Daniel Horsmanden was born in Kent, England, about the year 
1 693, and came to New York about the year 1 730. He was a member 
of the provincial council from 1733 to 1747 and from 1755 to 1776, 
and became recorder of New York City and third judge of the supreme 
court. In consequence of opposition to Governor Clinton, he was sus- 
pended from the council and removed from his other offices. Reconciled 
to Clinton, he was reappointed to the bench, and, later, he resumed his 
place in the council. In 1 763 he became chief justice, the last under 
the croMTi in New York. He died in September 1 778. 

'William Smith, lawyer and historian, son of William Smith, who was 
associate justice of New York from 1 763 till his death in 1 769. 

^John Morin Scott, lawyer, a brigadier general in the Revolution and 
the first secretary of state under the constitution of 1 777. 



34 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sion, exerted himself wi<^th great^ oratory, and, as He had 
the best side of the question, the <^ Judge^ allowed his Motion : 
upon which M^ Banyar said to M^ W<^ill: Livingston^ 
NoTV you are gone; meaning Ganse — */ must lose the<^e whole, 
as his^ cause was pre-judg'd by granting the mandamus. 
<^A11 agreeable to Law!^ In open Court, my Countryman 
ask'd me to Dine w<^ith him, and all the^ Lawyers; w'^. 
which, I thought it my Duty to Com<^ply, as it was some> 
Honour confer'd on me, in preference of a numerous 
<^ audience.^ 

Van Scheit has offer'd me Terms of accomm<^odation; but 
they^ are such as I will not accept: Besides, my Councel, <^ telle 
me now, as I^ am sure of having full possession of the office (if 
I <^live) they will not permit m^e to agree with Him, on the 
most advantageous <^ conditions, since he^ opposes, with a 
true Republican Spirit, the <^ Royal Mandate!^ Had I not 
been here, I should have been put <^back Six months lounger. 
A man cannot have his business <^completely done, but by 
Himself.^ 

<^ I now take Leave to Congratulate you on the Peace : and]> 
tho some <^ Grumblers at home dislike it, yet it is ver^y glorious 
for this <^ Continent. The Puppies here^ now say, there will 
be little <^ occasion to intermedle with^ the Indians; but they 
are grossly <^ Mistaken, for, as the Fre^nch have the west Side 
of the Missisippi, <Iand will use their^ usual Perfidy with the 
Outagamis, and <lWellinis, who ar^e not unknown to the Six 
Nations, they can <^plague us^ more than formerly, if they 
demand the Supplies they <^want, and^ we should be foolish 
enough to deny them. — a free <^ Trade wi^ll be carried on 
thr° all the Branches of y^. Missisippi, <^ consequently^ the 
French can Supply all the S°. W". Nations. 

<[Oh Sir! pardon^ me. I've wrote too much. I expect 
before to <^ morrow morning^ to have my right Hand made 



^ Harme Gansevoort, whose term as county clerk began September 25, 
1 750. 



Seven Years War 35 

prisoner with <^the Gout! after^ which, I can only Say, 
propicietur Deus! <^'Tis a hard Fate,^ at my time of Life, 
to be deprived of the <^ Benefits of so go^od a Friend, as you 
have been pleased to <^ Honour me with, and> I cannot enjoy 
'em. I am now in the utmost agony. <^Mr. Flood has been^ 
with me, cursing his Fate, for coming from you. <^I advanced 
him a s^mall Trifle, but he will Starve, if he Stays here; so 
<^I advised him to return.^ I beg leave to make my comple- 
ments to both Families, <^not forgetting Capt. Gy:^ tho' he 
has made me no return, and to assure y<Cou that I will always 
be,^ without exaggeration. Sir, 

y^ Sincerest and ever obliged Serv*. 

WiTHAM Marsh 

<Honble. Sir W'^. Johnson, Bart. &c &c> &c 

INDORSED: New York 30 Janry. 1763 — 
Letter from M^ Marsh 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 158, is an A. L. S., dated January 31, 
of William Darlington, at New York, which was, with the exception 
of a postscript, the address and indorsement, destroyed by fire. It dealt 
with letters forwarded to England by the Duke of Cumberland, Captain 
John Goodridge, news of peace and theft of Albany mail on the way to 
New York. 



FROM JACOB DEYCKMAN, JUN R 
A. L. S. 

[New Bridge] Janr^. 31 1763 
HoNouRD Sir 

[ ] 

Inform'd You that [ ] 

as You Directed, but the Season [ ] 

not to Send them Untill the Ensueing [ ] 



36 Sir Willkim Johnson Papers 

Send them In the Same I Requested [ 

proper Directions how I might Act in the [ 

no Answer from You Imagine You have not R[eceived 

therefore make Bold to Inform Your Honour by this [ 

Imagine I can Supply You with the Chiefest part [ 

if not with all You Directed but as I find it very [ 

and Difficult to Send the Same without it be With [ 

Hand therefore Desire Your proper Directions and [ 

I will Send Such Trees as You shall D [irect 

Had fitt for Your purpose and Rather [ 

Answer Your purpose I will upon You[r 

them and will See that proper Care be ta[ken 

all Times to Serve Your Honour and R[ 

and Conform to such Directions as You [ 

to transmit to 

Honourd Sir 

Your 

Most Obten & Hu[mble Servant] 

Jacob [Deyckman, Jun'r] 
PS Should be Glad if 
You would Answer this and in 
What Manner You Would 
have me Act if You would 
Appoint a person for the Same 
or if I must bring the Trees or 
What your pleasure is therein 

ADDRESSED: To 

The Honour:^ Sir William Johnson 
at his place on 

Mount Johnson 

INDORSED: Janry. 31 1763 

Jacob Deyckman's 
Letter 



Seven Years War 



37 



FROM JOHN MACOMB 
A. L. S. 

[Alban])] JanrK 3 h'. 1763 
Sir 

Your two [ 
Marg'. Brant, & for which [ 
thank you. I hope the things she [ 
please, — 

I coud get only the two Blankets [ 
you over the whole Town, they are a very Scarce Artie [le 

I apprehend there is a mist[ake in the account 
Sent you when you got the Shoes & Stockings [ 
oblig'd to you if you'l please return it me. [ 
Soone or perhaps bring it with me when I intend [ 
pleasure of going to Johnson Hall, pray [ 
acco'. what Master John has had? I [ 
you him for the Contents of a letter I wrote [ 

I am with much respect 



[ 



[ 



] 



INDORSED: Janry. 31". 1763 

Letter from M'. M'Come 



1 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN AND JOHN MACOMB 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 158, are two letters to Johnson, written 
from Albany, which were badly injured by the fire. One was from John 
Duncan, inclosing a letter brought by a soldier and a communication from 
Mr Corry, and asking Johnson's pleasure regarding the second; dated 
February 1 . The other was from John Macomb, craving intercession 
with the Governor in regard to trouble in which the writer is involved 
by resenting warmly Mr Wade's unbecoming words about Sir William; 
dated February 3. 



38 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 



TO GOLDSBROW BANYAR 
A. Df. S. 

<^FebrK 4^^ I763.> 
<Dear Banyar> 

<^Since my last to you, I am favoured wth yours of the 
3^. Ult°. after lying many days by the way, as has been 
the case with many of my letters lately, and^ as I <^believe 
with some design. I have also received yours^ of the 24'^^ 
<^Ulit°. with ye Minutes of Council &ca. wh. accompanied^ 
it, and ag<^reable thereto, I purpose calling a Meeting of all^ 
the Conajohare Sachims <]& Chiefs, as by ye enclosed adver- 
tise^ment will appear, and <\which I would have you deliver^ 
to M^ Marsh (after perusal and corr<^ection if wanted, 
which^ I shall take friendly of you.) that he may <^give it to 
y® Printer > to publish in his Paper, & I hope the M<^ethod 
proposed^ will put an End to this verry troubleso<^me affair. 
But the]> Paper, w^. M'. Livingst<^on told you that^ Klock 
had taken up with him, will <^be indispensably^ necessary to 
have at s^. Meet<^ing, wherefore expect it will^ be sent me 
or a true Coppy thereof <[, as without it I cannot proceed. I 
believe it will turn out to^ be y* greatest imposition of 
<\ye whole. You surprise > me greatly when You say it 
was alleg<^ed at the hearing, that one of]> the Sachims who 
made the Declar<^ation before me & the three^ Justices was a 
woman. I hope the <^GoV. & Council were far^ from 
harbouring an opinion that <^ either myself or y^ Justices, ]> who 
are not only men of y* first Rank but of unblemished <^ Character 
in these parts, > would be guilty of Signing any<[thing false. 
However as^ such low Villainy has been made <[use of, 1 
shall acquaint y«> three Justices thereof, that they m<iay 
remove all doubts concerng. it^ and She<Cw y^ GoV. & Council 
w*. a Villa^inous falsehood it is. and<] from thence they may 
judged of the rest of the conduct <^ of that opposition, who now 
disponding^ & exasperated, <^stick at nothing. Was^ their 



Seven Years War 39 

conduct <^w''^. Inds. fic'^*. in this affair, & the manner in w^. 
they have had the assurance to impose upon the People in power 
there, thoroughly known, I am certain they must not only be 
dispised by them, & everry honest man, but punished severely. 

I shall always be glad to find this part of y^ Country Settle 
fast, particularly so when on y* Lands of my friends, but I must 
say that (if it were notto enhance y^ value of the rem^^ of the 
Pattent as you Imagine) the terms are far from being advan- 
tageous to you, as Lands now sell or lett. However I shall 
submit to better Judgment. As you know my Terms, it would 
be needless to mention them to you, and be assured that I know 
of none more advantageous that would take at present with the 
People. Was^ I capable of <^Serving you therein, or any 
other way, it would^ afford me y* greatest pleasure. <^As 
I am truely^ 



Sir 



W. J. 



<GoLD>s Borough Banyar Esq"". 
INDORSED: Fe^y. 4'^ 17 [63] 

Letter to M^ Banyar 



TO WITHAM MARSH 
A. Df. 

<CFebK 4^h 1763.y 
<D«. Marsh > 

<^Your kind letter of the 18th Ult°. did not reach me till 
last night, with severl others from York of the same date w^. 
makes me suspect some villiany has been made use of, to ans'. 
certain purposes w'^. I leave yu to guess at, and w^, I think you 
may easily do. I do assure you I am greatly concerned at 
hearing of y"^ indisposition, particularly so as it is attended with 
so much torment & ]> racking pains <^as you describe, a speedy 
riddance of w'^. I most sincerely & ^ heartily wish you. I 
have <^vanity enough to think that were yu up here, I could^ 



40 Sir William Johnson Papers 

(notwithstanding y^. obstinacy of y"". <^disorder) be of as much 
service to you as some^ Physicians there, besides I should 
<^fall upon means to divert yu & the Pain.^ 

I fear (by the Stile of y^ letter) that <Cyou take things too 
much to heart, &^ perhaps but few comforters, w^. to one in 
y"^. scitu<^ation are very necessary.^ Cheer up y^. Spirits, dont 
give too much way to reflec<^tion nor to y"" disorder^ & you 
will find a benifit thereby. I am Sorry <^for y^ death of Chiefs 
Justice Pratt on two acc*^., the one as he was y"". friend <^d, and 
might be of^ service to you in y*. present unprecedented 
Struggle <^wth^ ^ of whom I doubt not in y^. least but you 
will get the <^ better, & that with credit ;> the other, as he 
was an Englishman & a good man <^&'^*. I should^ Imagine 
that the Gener'. & Gov^. on a proper re<^presentation of the 
affair would^ use their interposition, as the Kings pre<^rogative 
is opposed & grossly abused.^ however You will be better 
informed there <^of the propriety of such a step.^ All I can 
say in the aff^ is, that I most sincerely <|wish you to triumph 
over your^ Enemies, and have the pleasure of peruseing <^that 
inestimable treasure & stocky of knowledge & Learning w^. 
you are now refused, <^but w*^. I hope a thundering^ 
M — d — m^. will put you in peaceable possession <^of. You 
would be s Surprised to see how I am swallowed up to the 
He<^ad & ears in Mortar Stone and T]>imber w'*. are all 
intended for the House I purpose <^building next summer. I 
have had for^ this Month past thirty & forty sleds a day 
<^brideing y^ same, so that it cannot be said I wa]>s without 
some kind of company. We <^have snow here now ab'. 3 feet 
deep, and mor^e daily falling w^. (altho a gloomy p<^rospect) 
makes y^ Country alive wi^th their flying slideing machines. 
My <^ Family is increased since you left]> us by M". Claus 
bringing forth a fine <^Child of y^ best or Female kind, and 
my^ youngest daughter marrying Lieu'. G<^uy Johnson. I 
shall be glad of a further addition^ thereto by y'. comp^. 
whenever <^y'" health will admit of it, w^. I heartily wish may^ 



^Omitted in copy. Gansevoort probably. 



Seven Years' War 41 

be soon. We have great <^News by the last Papers, if any- 
thing more there, shall be o^bliged to you for it. <^We are 
all peaceable here except a few boxing Bouts^ now & then 
be<^tween Brothers & Sisters, Men & their Wives ^"^ together 
with Shivering each other with broad & Narrow Axes, all w''. 
contributes to make them a bolder People, and render them 
better soldiers whenever we may have another war. I would 
not put you to the trouble of reading so long a letter, but y'. I 
am in hopes it will find you recovered, than w"^. nothing would 
give me more pleasure as I am &*=*.^ 

<^P. S. My Compt*. to y^ Atty. Gener'. whom I suppose you 
often see.^ 

INDORSED: Feb''y. 4^*^. 1762' 

Letter to Witham Marsh Esq^ 

FROM JOHN TABOR KEMPE 
A. L. Sr 

New York Feb^. 7^K 1763 
Sir 

As soon as I received your Favour of the 20*^ Jan^. last I 
waited on his Excellency and laid it before him together with 
the Deposition of Forbes and the Copy of the Letter from David 
Schuyler to you which came enclosed — The mail having been 
robbed and thrown into the Fields was not found 'til Monday 
Evening, so that I could not write by the last post, not seeing 
the Governor til Tuesday. 

The Affair of the Indian Traders I mentioned to his Excel- 
lency. His answer was, I don't know well what we shall do 
with it — but it seemed to me as if his Excellency had had it 
under Consideration, and I believe it is before the Council. 

If I recollect right the Irregularities committed by the Indian 
Traders was somewhere about Detroit. If it was I conceive 
it to be out of this province, and consequently out of the power 



^An error in the indorsement. 
^Original destroyed by fire. 



42 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of the Governor and Council, and not punishable by any Juris- 
diction of the province. As I had the honour to write you 
before, so I think now the most proper method of bringing them 
to Justice would be by General Gages punishing them in his 
Government, where military Law is exercised, and in whose 
government I presume they committed their offence. 

I am not sujfficiently acquainted with the Nature of your office 
as Agent for Indian Affairs, or of the powers granted you by 
that Commission to write with Propriety on the Subject you ask 
my Sentiments — Is the power of punishing offences committed 
against the Indians expressly granted? If it should be I am 
inclined to think it must give place to the Jurisdiction of the 
Provinces where they can punish and that it can extend only 
to offences committed under such Circumstances as would be 
otherwise unpunishable. M"". Banyar I presume by order of 
the Governor acquainted you with the result of the hearing in 
Council respecting the Canajohary Indians & Klock &c. and 
transmitted you the order of Council made that day, with the 
Copies of some Papers. I thought I could perceive his Excel- 
lency and the Council strongly suspected the unfairness of the 
obtainment of the Indian Declaration offered by them. The 
Affid^ of Forbes sets it in the very light I imagined it to be. 

On Saturday last I saw M"^. William Livingston who informed 

me that Captain Rutherford had been up with the Indians, and 

that every Thing was amicably settled to the Contentment of 

the Indians and you, a Release of so much of the Lands as 

satisfied the Indians being made or to be made by the patentees. 

I presume if the Release is made that all the Persons having a 

Right under the Patent have executed it, either by themselves, 

or their Attorney duly authorized so to do, otherwise I conceive 

the Indians will not be secure and hereafter there may be as 

much Trouble with those who have not released, as there has 

been already. I should be glad to know how this Affair at 

present stands. I am S"" 

Your most obedient humble Serv'. 

^ o ,^r T »^ J- T. Kempe. 

To S«. W«. Johnson, Bar». -^ 



>even 



Years War 43 



FROM DAVID VAN DER HEYDEN 
A. L. 5.' 

[Februar]) 8, 1763] 
Sir 

I have reced yours of 2""^ ins', inclosing my Commission as 
Lieut. CoII°. of your Regiment, for which return my sincere 
thanks. Will study to merit the honour conferr'd on me. 

The Indian you speak of, who was most cruelly beaten by 
some of our People, waited upon me the next morning after it 
happened with his grievances in consequence of which I endeav- 
oured immediately to find out the perpetrators, in order that they 
might meet that punishment w*^'' they justly deserved; as well as 
to make some satisfaction to the much injured party — for which 
reason I waited on M^ Down" our Mayor, who sent for Richard 
Allen & one McKnight a Blacksmith who we learnt were the 
hero's of this Trajedy, & demanded to know the reason for their 
conduct to the Indian — w*=^ was that meeting him in the road 
between this place & Kinderhook he had as they passed him 
levelled his Gun at them with an intention as they supposed to 
fire — this the Indian positively denied & said that he gave them 
no offence in the least, but paid them the compliaments of the 
day, as is usual when people meet. Upon the whole, having 
no evidence at that time to convict them, & Circumstances being 
rather against the Ind: as he had most certainly a Gun with him 
& might possibly be disguised in Liquor, of course not sensible 
what he was about. We judg'd it best to compromise matters 
in the best manner we could by obliging the aggressors to give 
the Ind: a consideration w^^ was done to the Value of two 
Dollars & a Bottle of Rum, with w'^^ he seemed well satisfyed. 
But I have since learnt from M^ Grardus DePeyster a Gentle- 
man of undoubted veracity who happened to be on the Road 
at this time & the very next Sleigh to that of Allen's &c*: that 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

^Volkert Peter Douw, mayor of Albany from 1 761 to 1 770. 



44 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to the best of his knowledge, as they passed the Ind: who had 
given them the Road, they struck at him with a whip as he 
supposes out mere wantonness, in consequence of w*^ he had 
taken his Gun from his shoulder; but does not remember that 
he pointed at the aggressors — that Richard Allen (in par- 
ticular) immediately pulled off his Coat & with the Butt end 
of his whip beat the poor Indian in a most unmerciful manner 
being assisted by McKnight who had provided himself a stick; 
& that he really believes that if he had not interposed (w*^^ he 
did as soon as possible) they would have beat the Ind: to 
Death — as the treatment he had already rec'^. was such, that 
he was left senseless lying in the snow. Upon the whole I do 
sincerely wish that you would prosecute these people with the 
utmost Rigour, in order that they might meet that punishment 
w*=^ they deserve, as well as for an example to others. I am Sir 
Your most ob'. & h Servant 

David Van Der Heyden 

Sir William Johnson Baronet. 



FROM WILLIAM CORRY ETC. 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 159, by 
a letter of February 9th from William Gorry, at Albany, relating his 
efforts to collect debts and the movements of the sheriff; by a record, 
bearing the same date, of a notice, brought by three Onondagas, of a 
visit by sachems of their nation on account of a message received at 
Onondaga from Sir WilHam ; by the advertisement, dated the 1 0th, of 
John Duncan, J. P., John Glen Jun'r, J. P., Daniel Gampbell, Justice, 
and Isaac Vroman, Justice, that carriages on the highway between Albany 
and Schenectady must be 4 feet 10 inches wide from outside to outside 
of wheel; by H, Van Schaack's account, dated Albany, the 12th, for 
£280, 16s, advanced to De Gouagne, interpreter; by a letter of the 13th 
from Van Schaack, at Albany, conveying a current report that a number of 
bateaux are to be built at Pittsburgh and several regiments sent to the 
Mississippi to build a fort, headquarters to be at Williamsburgh, and 
mention of the arrival of Brigadier General Burton and other officers on 
their way to Canada; and a letter of the 14th from John Duncan, at 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 45 

Schenectady, inclosing the notice regarding width of carriages, together 
with the draft of a memorial for the estabhshment of a post office. P. 16>0 
by a letter from Thomas Burgie, New York, of the 1 4th. informing 
that laurels, hollies, myrtles and other plants have perished on the way 
and declaring a desire to obtain something "curious" for Johnson; by a 
letter of the 14th from Gw. Banyar, notifying that the notice of an Indian 
meeting has gone to the printer and justices present at the declaration of 
Indians concerning the Livingston patent should have opportunity to attend, 
and describing the boundary between the French and the English at the 
mouth of the Mississippi, as shown by the preliminaries of peace ; by a 
letter of the 1 6th from Daniel Claus, asking advice as to sale of his 
commission in view of Lieutenant Carr's readiness to pay a high price 
for it; by a letter of the 16th from John B. Van Eps, at Schenectady, 
about arrangements for forwarding letters ; and by a letter of the 1 7th 
from John Macomb, at Albany, on an intended journey to Montreal and 
his recent alarm over a complaint made by Mr Wade. All of these 
were destroyed by fire. 



TO JOHN TABOR KEMPE 

Johnson Hall FehK 18^^ 1763. 
Sir 

I am glad to find you are of opinion that the affair of the 
Ind". Traders is now before the Council who I hope will do 
something therein. The Delinquents are not at present within 
General Gages Government but at Albany where they may 
possibly remain for sometime, & therefore it will be highly neces- 
sary that they should be brought to some punishment as an 
Example to others. 

The nature of my office is Expressed in General terms in his 
Majestys Commission to me, but the intent and meaning of the 
Government relative thereto is more particularly signified in the 
several Letters I have received from the Lords of Trade who 
consider it as the sole & only Channel through which Ind". 
aff". of w*. nature soever are to be transacted, and for that 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



46 Sir WilUam Johnson Papers 

purpose that I am to be supported by Authority in all matters 
relative thereto in which the good of his Majestys Service is 
any wise concerned & therefore I apprehend the Gov', is to take 
such matters into Consideration as I shall be under the necessity 
of lays, before them. M"". Banyar has acquainted me with the 
result of the hearing in Council and I flatter myself the Governor 
& Council will be more & more convinced of the unfair dealings 
used towards the Indians. 

M"". Livingston must have been intirely misinformed, as the 
Indians so far from being settled with were in the highest dis- 
content and might have gone great lengths had not the order 
of Council arrived concerng my holding a Genl Meeting with 
them thereon, which in some measure pacified them, as they 
flatter themselves that the Gov. & Council will afterwards be 
induced to put an End to the affair in their favour. 

Neither the Indians nor myself know of any release. M*^. 
Rutherford did make some proposals to me, which I have since 
mentioned to the Ind^ who will by no means agree thereto not 
only as they were unsatisfactory but from the hopes they enter- 
tain of having justice done them on their Complaint, and had. 
M"^. Rutherford & the Gentlemen with him gone to their Castle 
as they Expected, instead of Klock's House, I am credibly 
informed the Indians would have Exceeded the Bounds of 
Decency. You will see by the Prints that I have appointed 
the 10*^ of March at Conajoharee to have my Gen'. Meeting 
with the Indians in pursuance of the order of Council, on which 
occasion it will be necessary for me to have the Declaration of 
the 9**^ of Dec*^. referred to in the Minutes of Council as I am 
to lay the same before the Indians, which I hope M^ Banyar 
will send me in time. 

I am Sir &c* 
To: J. T. KempE Esq"". 



Posl-War Period, J763-J774 47 

TO JOHN OGILVIE 

Johnson Hall Fe^ 18^^ 1763— 
Dear Sir 

I am very sorry your affairs would not permit you to stay 
longer in these parts last fall, as it deprived me of the pleasure 
of seeing you and I beg you will accept of my most sincere Com- 
pHments and well wishes to yourself & family in return for those 
kind Sentiments which you were pleased to Express for my 
happiness. 

I could heartily wish your other Occupations would permit 
you to make a Visit to the Mohawks Country as it would afford 
me the Satisfaction of your Company, but I flatter myself that 
the Peace which has probably ere now succeeded to the late 
Negociations will Enable you to gratify your Wishes and those 
of your Friends in these parts — 

The desire which you Express to have the Neighbourhood of 
Fort-Hunter formed into a Mission separate from Albany is m 
my Opinion very laudable, and what I should most sincerely 
wish for, not only from the benefits which the Indians must 
receive thereby but for the Advantage of the Few Members of 
the Established Church who may reside hereabouts who I am 
sorry to say are very inconsiderable at present, and must decrease 
in Number without a Minister of the Church of England to 
instruct them in their duty, the Country at present abounding 
with Dissenters and no Encouragement being given even in Sche- 
nectady to any Clergyman of a Different persuasion — 

The Sallary & Farm you mention will in my opinion be a 
Sufficient Encouragement to some Worthy Man to reside thereon, 
and I have made application to the Legislature of this Province 
to purchase the same on the terms which M^ Barclay offers to 



^In Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. ; in handwriting of Guy 
Johnson. 



48 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 

sell for, but as they will not agree thereto I cannot but think 
that on M^ Barclays, or your Representation the Society for 
propagating the Gospel will be induced to purchase the same, 
in which case I shall with great pleasure settle the whole Affair 
with the Indians and take every effectual measure for rendering 
the Residence of a Minister as agreable as possible amongst the 
Indians or any Persons whom I can influence in his favor — 

I am heartily glad you live in peace and plenty and find every 
thing agreable in Canada as also that the Caghnarvagas behave 
orderly altho' I am not surprized that their Spiritual Father 
slackens in his Zeal, not being at present bound in Interest to 
manifest the same as formerly — 

Please to offer my most Sincere Compliments & those of my 
Family to M"^® Ogilvie and believe me to be with very great 
Esteem 

D' Sir 



&ca 



The Rev°. D^^ Ogilvie 

INDORSED : Johnson Hall Feby 1 8'^ 1 768 
Letter to D'. Ogilvie 
in ans^ to one concern^ a separate 
Mission at the Mohawks — 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH GOLDSBROW BANYAR ETC. 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 60- 
61, by a letter of February 21st from Goldsbrow Banyar at New 
York, inclosing Indian declaration and mentioning rumor that 20 regi- 
ments will be kept in America; by a letter of the 21st from WilHam 
Darlington at New York about land and water views of New York, 
coat of arms, plants and trees, a note from Lord Sterling's gardener and 
land "on Stone Robby," in which he is invited to invest; by a letter of 
the 24th to Hennery Vanschaack, sending draft on Abraham Mortier 
for balance of John B. DeCoaugne's pay, and inquiring about claim of 
his own against estate of late Mr Hitchen Holland; by a letter of the 
25th from WilHam Corry at Albany on collecting debts and transmitting 



Post^War Period, 1763-/774 49 

money to Johnson, informing of report that General Amherst will build 
forts along the Oheeo the following summer; by a letter of the 25th to 
Goldsbrow Banyar, denouncing charge that one of the Indians who made 
a declaration before him on Livingston patent dispute was a woman and 
characterizing Captain Rutherford's profession to have accommodated the 
dispute with the Indians, intimating that the French will not long respect 
terms of peace, asking how to proceed to get his lands into a manor and 
giving an enthusiastic invitation to visit Johnson Hall ; by a letter of the 
27th from Michael Furey at New York (City Hall), relating to mercan- 
tile adventures, which have lodged him in jail, charging unfaithfulness 
on the part of William Kennady, merchant, and mentioning willingness 
of Hugh Wallace to assist, hope of redress for violence exercised by 
creditors and hope of loan from Walter Goodman for firewood ; by a 
letter of the 28th from Witham Marsh at New York on notice inserted 
in Weyman's paper, relief from gout, difficulty in way of coming to 
Johnson Hall, expectation of humbling opponent in lawsuit, Mr. Hutch- 
inson, farmer from near Belfast, who wishes to settle near Johnson, and 
can induce 40 Irish families to follow him, and condition of Judge Chal- 
mers, who is stricken with palsy; by a letter of March 1st from Hendrick 
Frey Jun'r at Canajoharre about notice of meeting at Canajoharre March 
10, and Johnson's note to Jacob Snell for land; by a receipt from Theo- 
philact Bache at New York for £5, 5s, 3d paid by William Darlington 
for conveyance of baskets and trunk, by the Mary, Captain Mears, from 
Dublin; by a letter of the 2d to William Darlington, declining service 
proffered by Lord Sterling's gardener unless rendered with his lordship's 
consent, drawing attention to orders for seeds, plants, trees etc., that he 
may "put out all the country in a garden," asking more definite description 
of lands at Stoneraby, and suggesting necessity of bringing a skipper to 
account for lost articles; by a letter of the 7th from Alexander Colden 
(postmaster), at New York, considering postal service for benefit of 
Schenectady and advising employment of messenger to carry Schenectady 
and Mohawk river mail from and to Albany, also mentioning report 
that Governor Dobbs of North Carolina will give way to Robert Morris; 
by a letter of the 8th from Henry Van Schaack at Albany, about draft 
from Johnson on Mr Mortier and Johnson's account against estate of late 
Hitchen Holland. These papers were destroyed by the fire. 



50 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

A MEETING WITH CANAJOHARIES 

D. S.i 

Canajoharie, March 10^^ 1763 

At a meeting held at Conajoharee Thursday March lO'*^ 
1 763 with the Indians of that Castle in the Presence of Sir 
Will™. Johnson Bart, and several Justices of the Peace for the 
County of Albany pursuant to an Order of his Excellency the 
Governor h Council for the Province of New York bearing 
date the 1 9*^^ day of January 1 763 — 

Present 

Sir William Johnson Bart 

Capt Daniel Claus ) r t v 

T • . /^ T 1 T Depy Agents for Indian affairs 

Lieut Vauy Johnson ^ '^ 



Justices of the 
;^ peace for the 
County of Albany 



Hanjost Herkemer Hend^. Fry Jun*". 

Peter Conin John Butler 

John Wells Conrad Frank 

Isaac Vrooman Jacob Klock Esq'' 

John Duncan Eq'^ on behalf of the Claimants for the Lands 
John Johnson Esq"^ in dispute Mess''®. Funda and Klock 
The Rev"^. M*^ Lappias & sev^. other Gentlemen, Inhabitants 

&c* 



Araghiadecka, Canagaraduncka 

Cayenquiragoa, Serihowane 

Saghsanowano Anahario, Canadiorha 



Chief Sachems 



About 30 Indian Men, together with 

33 of the principal Women of Conajoharee 
The Chief Sachem of Onondaga, with some others of that 
nation, Oneida, & Seneca at the desire of the Conajoharies 

W™. Printup Interpreter 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. A copy entered 
in the Johnson Calendar, p. 161, was destroyed by fire. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 51 

The Order of Council being read Sir William addressed them 
as follows 

" Brethren of Conajoharee 

In Consequence of your complaint formerly laid before his 
Excel^y the Gov'' and Council of this Province concerning your 
Lands at this place; they were pleased among other things to 
direct' that your Examination relative thereto Should be taken 
before me in the presence of Three of his Majestys Justices of 
the Peace for the County of Albany; that the same might be 
transmitted to them, in order that they might be the better 
acquainted therewith for the doing You Justice therein, which 
order v/as Strictlj'^ comply ed with. 

Soon after which a Declaration was sent to the Governor & 
Council signed by some Indians of your Castle, and dated the 
9'^ day of December last, wherein they relinguished their right 
to the Lands in dispute and acknowledged the Legality of the 
purchase thereof. In consequence of which the Governor with 
the advice of his Council the 1 9*^ day of January 1 763 Directed 
that a Copy of said Declaration should be transmitted to me, 
as also Copies of Two Indian Deeds, or Quit Claims to Jelles 
Fanda & George Klock; one Dated the 12^^ December 1761 
and the other dated the 23^^. February 1 762 and that I should 
as soon as conveniently might be. Convene all the Sachems & 
Indians of your Castle at such place as I should think fit, and 
where it was probable the Meeting should be most compleat, 
and that I did at such Meeting in the presence of as many of 
his Majestys Justices of the Peace of this County as could be 
assembled Explain to you so met the purport of said Declaration, 
and require You to Signify your Sentiments on the Whole 
matter of Complaint in the most Explicit manner, that the same 
might be transmitted to his Excellency signed by me and the 
said Justices, and that this proceeding might be transacted in the 
most Solemn, Impartial & authentick manner that might be to 
afford all the Satisfaction the Nature of the Subject required: 



1 On November 3, 1 762. 



52 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to which end I was to give pubHck & timely notice of such 
Meeting that all Parties interested might attend if they saw fit. 

In obedience thereof I gave public notice in the Newspapers 
of this Province, that I would meet you here on this Day for the 
purj)0se aforementioned — I am now therefore to desire you 
will give your most Serious Attention to the Explanation which 
shall be given you of the Declaration aforementioned, and that 
on hearing the same you will Ingenuously declare whether the 
said Declaration Expressed the real Sentiments of Your Castle, 
or not, and also lay before me and his Majestys Justices here 
assembled the whole matter of complaint relative to the Lands 
in dispute, that I may imediately transmit the same to his Excel^y 
the Governor, who (you may rest assured) will on a just repre- 
sentation of the same procure you all the Justice which the Case 
shall appear to deserve " 

Then Interpreted the Declaration of the 9'^^ December 
and also the two Indian Deeds of 1761 and 1762 
Whereupon Cayenquiragoa spoke as follows 

" Brother 

We have attended to everything you have said to us, & our 
Brethren the Onondagas being also present we beg leave to 
retire until we have considered on an Answer " 

M^ Duncan then desired leave to have the Indian Declara- 
tion taken in the presence of Sir William and three Justices 
Explained to the Indians present, which was done accordingly 
and then the Indians withdrew 

In about two Hours they returned, when Cnyenquiragoa 
addressed Sir William in manner following 

** Brother 

We are very thankfull that God has enabled us to meet at 
a time when there were so many difficultys in the way: The 
Creeks being all overflowed so as to render your Journey very 
precarious, and it appears to us that God has particularly inter- 
posed in our favour by appointing our Meeting at a time when 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 53 

our Brethren of Onondaga, Seneca and Oneida are likewise 
here assembled. 

We now therefore beg you will pay serious attention to what 
we have to say And Excuse our not repeating the purport of the 
several proceedings already made in the present affair. 

We have considered every thing You said to us and Enquired 
(as we were Strangers to these Transactions) who were the 
Authors thereof, but cannot find them, as none will confess they 
had anything to do therein As I have already mentioned We 
assure you we cannot find anyone acquainted with these Trans- 
actions unless it be Rahoongo, whose Mother declared that he 
was in want of Land as well as ourselves. But upon the 
Strictest enquiry we find that Liquor must have been the Cause 
of the whole, and we now deliver you a Bottle of Liquor v/ith 
which we were beguiled by George KlocI( 

Gave a Bottle 
Brother, 

Liquor hath been always our Ruin, for whenever any of our 
people go over to the house of Geo. Klock, and we send for 
them from thence, he fills them more, and by that means detains 
them, tho their presence be required on matters of Eversomuch 
importance This Liquor hath as I have said been always our 
Ruin, as none of our People would otherwise have so acted, 
neither is it probable that any of our People would sell their 
Lands twice. For, if the Land in Question had been formerly 
sold we should not ask a second price for it." 

M^ Duncan then asked them whether there was not one 
present who knew of the original purchase (meaning Araghia- 
decka) . The Speaker answered 

" I am very glad you have mentioned this as it affords us an 
opportunity of laying open the affair. This is the Cause which 
produced it." 

Gives another Bottle 

Then Araghiadecka arose and Spoke 



54 Sir William Johnson Papers 

" Brother 

For my part I only know by hearsay that I signed a Deed. I 
know nothing of any purchase as at that time I was Young and 
did not mind such matters, and have only heard that some of our 
People had sold the Land up to the two big Rocks, and only 
along the Ridge of the Hill; the Rocks being esteemed a certain 
boundary — 

It is probable that I might have formerly signed it when in 
Liquor, as 'tis said I have lately done so. I speak only of the 
old affair, as I have not since signed it as 'tis reported. I have 
been often urged to sign it by George Klock and offered 60 
Dolla"^® for that purpose, which I always refused. 
This is all I have to say, or know of the affair " — 

Then Cayenquiragoa proceeded 

" Brother 

It goes very hard with us, and gives us great uneasiness, as 
none of the rest of the Germans have used us as Geo. Klock, 
as You may see by this other Bottle — 

(Gave a Bottle) 
In this manner he has gone on since he was concerned in the 
Land " 

Being asked. When these Bottles were got, he answered 

" For this Year, or Two he has acted in this Manner by con- 
stantly enticing all our People who pass by. Some of these we 
have got within this fortnight, or three Weeks, These Bottles 
were given us to sign the papers 

I have now done with the affair of the Liquor which we have 
had from Geo. Klock, the Governor, who says he is Greater 
than the Governor of New York ". 

Then Anahario arose and said 

" Brother 

The other Day I went to Geo. Klocks Mill to have some 
Corn Ground where I saw Mess". Rutherford, Duncan & Funda, 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 55 

when the latter informed me that they intended to have a Meet- 
ing at the Castle. A few Minutes after I met Klock who asked 
me How I came to be so great an Enemy of his. Like a French- 
man, threatning to kill him, on which he told me he hoped I 
would become his Friend and gave me a Dollar for that purpose 
but did not offer me any paper to sign, which Dollar I now 
return, as I will have nothing to do therewith " 

Threw down a Dollar. 

Being asked a whether he was told by M^ Rutherford that 
he would have a Meeting but would send them word when, he 
answered " Yes, There is the Man who was present (mean^ M' 
Duncan) and We all waited in Council a Whole day m Expec- 
tation thereof, M"" Rutherford also told us there were Writings 
come up from York on that head " 

Then Cayenquiragoa proceeded 

" Brother 

Our Case is very hard, and 'twould be very difficulty to sum 
up all the Endeavours which have been used to seduce us, and 
make us in liquor. 

When one Bottle was emptied, another was always filled, 
and 'twould require a very large Vessell to contain all which 
hath been given us — 

The same Geo. Klock hath (we find) given out that he hath 
given us £565 if so, it must have been seen on us, It is very 
strange what should have become thereof. You may see we are 
all Naked, or must have spent it in the Taverns, which is not the 
case and may be enquired into — 

Here we are all now assembled, and beg you will Enquire 
what may have become of that money " 

Being asked by M^ Duncan whether he knew that they ever 
received that Sum, he answered — 

" It is very hard you will not credit me as I have repeated it 
to you that there was no other consideration given but Rum " 



56 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Being asked whether he spoke in the name of the Whole, he 
answered 

" I speak for the Whole ; All those who are of a different 
way of thinking, don't chuse to make their appearance " 

Being asked, Who were understood to be the principal persons 
of that Castle for publick matters, he answered 

" Those who are here are the Chiefs for all such matters, 
being the Sachems for transacting everything of Consequence, 
and as such are known to the Whole Six Nations, being as Trees 
rising up amongst us " — 

Being asked whether the Women were looked upon, as having 
any right in the Disposal of Lands, he answered — 

" They are the Truest Owners being the persons who labour 
on the Lands, and therefore are esteemed in that light " 

He then addressed Sir W™. Johnson 

" Brother Warragheyagey 

We have now done with this affciir, and I am to observe to 
you that we have frequently requested you would endeavour to 
see us righted, an(d as the Governor is a very good Man we 
must beg he will interpose and put a Stop to such proceedings 
by preventing our being farther seduced by Geo. KlocI^. If not, 
it may prove a means of making us drunk. That is, that we 
may be unfortunately led into a Quarrell, and I am heartily glad 
that so many Justices are now present to hear and bear testimony 
of what we have said. I have mentioned to you that such pro- 
ceedings may prove bad, as you know that we are now all in 
Alliance & Friendship with all Indians, must it not appear very 
bad and cause the other Nations to laugh at us, should you who 
are our next Neighbours, and with whom we have always been 
friends act such a part, and appear to be at Variance with us 
who are the heads of the Six Nations — 

It is particularly hard on us, as we have not that Authority 
for preventing our people from such Actions, as you have, we 



Posi-lVar Period, 1763-1774 57 

therefore beg you will put a Stop to the selling Rum, which is 
alone in your power, for whilst our people can come at Liquor, 
we can have no influence or Authority over them — 

I must own myself much ashamed that we, the Heads of the 
Confederacy who are one Heart together with you should be 
at Variance amongst one another, and as nothing on our parts 
shall be wanting to preserve the Chain of friendship, we beg you 
will omit nothing on yours for its preservation And that as You 
and we are considered as the Heads of all the Nations we beg 
you will attend to these our demands and prevent us from being 
pushed from our fireplace, whereby our Fire must become 
Extinguished — 

For our parts we are not used to Silver, and cannot brighten 
the Chain which we are apprehensive begins to be weak from 
the Rust it has contracted. We must therefore entreat you to 
brighten and preserve the same in order to prevent it from 
breaking — 

I cannot too often repeat our desire that the Chain might be 
preserved on your parts, which may otherwise occasion our Fire 
to go out both here and at Onondaga. 

I have already observed to you that I am determined to hold 
fast by the Covenant Chain, and am also determined to do 
the same by our Land, which we are resolved for ever to hold 
fast by. 

We Love the Covenant Chain as we do our Lives, and we 
do the same by our Lands, which we are determined to dye by, 
rather than give up — 

You must not think I am alone or that I speak for myself, as 
I speak in the name of the whole, not only Men, but Women 
who are here all present — 

It seems as tho' you imagined I only speak for myself, and I 
assure you I speak for the whole and therefore beg you will 
consider the same; and should there be any here present who 
disapprove of what I have said. Let them speak their Senti- 
ments " — 



58 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Women then on being asked unanimously declared the 
same, declaring they would keep their Land, and did not chuse 
to part with the same to be reduced to make Brooms — 

The Speaker then declared. That as 'twould be too tedious 
for them all to Speak, He therefore had delivered the Senti- 
ments of the whole Addling "I have no more to say but to request 
you will be steadfast in observing the Covenant which shall be 
faithfully observed on our parts as we have always done, but 
should Geo. Klock be permitted to turn us off our possessions 
our fire must Inevitably become Extinguished " — 

Then Onoghtorha spoke 

" Brother 

I'll now tell you how I came to sign the Paper which I did 
when I was not drunk, having been repeatedly entreated for 
that purpose by Geo. Klock for above a twelvemonth, on which 
Ca'^enquiragoa advised me to appeal to the Warriors, and on 
finding that several had signed it, I was at length induced to do 
so for Five Dollars which Klock gave me " 

On being asked how many Signed it 

Said he did not know, as he saw none of them sign it but was 
told' that above 30 had done so 

Then Cayenquiragoa said 

" Brother 

You see this Man owns he had been often teized to sign it. 
Is it a proper method to obtain Lands to get Indians one, by 
one — Certainly the only just method is in a public Meeting 
as at present " 

Onoghtorha was then asked by M^ Duncan, how many 
Indians names were affixed to the paper 

He answered. He was told 24, had done so 

Was then asked by M^ Duncan, If he had talked to any of 
them relative thereto 

Answered, He never did — 



Postwar Period, 1 763-1 774 59 

Then Cayenquiragoa said — 

"As for Geo : Klock he is both a Lyar and a Thief. A Thief 
as he entices people privately to sign the paper, and a Lyar as 
he said that my Mother before her death had signed the same, 
and she is still alive. 

Then Ononiughta (a Lad) Said 

'* Brother 

I was a person who signed the paper, but was persuaded to 
do so by M"^ Funda " 

Was asked by M"^ Duncan what was the purport of the paper 
Answered, He did not know, but was told they had all signed it 
Was asked, who told him so — 

Answered, Klock, and Funda, and said that when he found 
that it was false, and that they did not all sign, he repented 

M"^ Duncan told them that it was not thro Geo. Klock, the land 
was claimed, but from the Governor's Patent, and the old 
Deed — signed by their forefathers, and that there was a living 
Witness who saw the Consideration paid — 

Cayenquir^. said, " If so, that Witness should be produced ", 
adding " We should be very glad that those concerned in this 
Land would give up their Claim, as they must know the same 
was stolen, and privately surveyed in the Night.^ I therefore 
must desire there may be no disputes or Arguments till we have 
done speaking — 

I have observed to you already that we should heartily desire 
you would desist from all thoughts concerning the Land, and 
stick to everything for the publick good, and must say 'tis very 
hard that Children and unqualified persons should be introduced 
as persons signing the paper since they could have no right so 
to do — 



^5ee Deposition of David Schuyler, Jan. 23, 1762, III: 613 of this 
series. 



60 Sir William Johnson Papers 

It was reported by Geo. Klock that we were in the French 
Interest, and that we had taken his Brother, and Killed his Son. 
Here is the Man now present who knows whether 'twas so, or not, 
and can prove the falsity thereof — 

By such Evil reports and proceedings, we are rendered very 
uneasy, and we beg that hereafter you will pay no regard to, or 
take notice of any papers said to be signed by us, but that you 
will apply to ourselves and know the particulars thereof, unless 
such as are done in publick Meeting " 

Then Canagaraduncka spoke as follows 

"Brother 

It is very hard we must be thus treated, there would have been 
mischief done long ago, had we not restrained our Warriors — 
We beg you will suppose it your own case, & reflect how you 
would act in case you had been wronged by us, as we have been 
by Klock — 

As there are so many Justices now present, we hope they will 
consider what has passed, and that the whole proceedings may be 
Confirmed by them and faithfully transmitted to the Governor, 
and not as last fall to occas" disputes " 

Then Cayenquiragoa sipoke 

" I can say no more at present but to recommend that you 
will observe your Covenants, & preserve the fire from being 
Extinguished for our mutual hc^ppiness " 

M"" Duncan, then told them he desired that nothing relative 
to Klock might affect the present affair, & assured them that 
nothing was more desired by the Claimants than to make matters 
easy, and that he would now make them some proposals on 
behalf of himself and the rest concerned — 

Cayenquiragoa answered that they would attend to no farther 
proposals or papers, but desired that the whole might be trans- 
mitted to the Governor. 

Whereupon Sir William addressed them 



Post'War Period, 1763-1774 61 

'* Brethren 

I have attended to all you have said as have also the Justices 
here assembled, and after the same is Signed by us it shall be 
faithfully transmitted to his Excellency the Governor agreable 
to the Order of Council for that purpose " 

Then the Meeting was dissolved 

The foregoing is an Exact Copy of the Minutes of the Pro- 
ceedings with the Indians at Conajoharee as the same hath been 
Explained to us by the Interpreter, Several of us also under- 
standing the Indian Language. And we farther declare that 
this Meeting hath been strictly conducted in Conformity to the 
Order of his Excellency the Governor and Council of the 19^. 
of January last. — In Testimony whereof we have subscribed 
our names hereto at Conajoharee March 1 1 •^ 1 763 — 

W**. Johnson 

HaNJOST HeRCHHEIMER Justice 

Piter Conyn Justs. 
John Wells Justice 
Isaac Vrooman Justice 
Hend^ Prey Jn^ Justice 
John Butler Justice 
CoNROD pRANCK Justice 
Jacob klock Justice 

INDORSED : Proceedings 

At a meeting held at 
Conajoharee March 10*. 1763. 
In the presence of Sir W™ Johnson 
and several Justices of the Peace 
Pursuant to an Order of his Excel^y 
the Governor & Council of 19^^ Jan^ 
1763 — 
22< March 1763. Read in Council 



62 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 
A. L. 5/ 

Fort Pitt March 12'^ 1763 
HoN"^. Sir 

Two Days Ago I was Feaver'^. with yours of y^. 30'^ De^^ 
on Recept of y'. former Leter I Wrote M^ M*^ Gee & att the 
Same Time Desierd he wold Write y^ Honour & Lett you 
know what had Come to his knoHdge of the Causes of y®. 
Indians uneseyness on Susquehanna w^. I make No Doubt he 
has Don 

I Wrote y^ Honour by an Express wK Left this the Eight 
of Feby. & Sent you Every thing then werth y^ Notice & In a 
few Days I will Send you M"". Hutchens Draft w^. is finished 
Butt Did Nott think Safe to Send itt by y^. Barer who is Just 
Return^, with one Scalp from y^. Cherrokes I furnish^, him & 
his party as they were going with what Nesareys they then 
Wanted & Likewise Now on there Return 

as y'^. Honour observes, y^. Indians that pass by this post 
to & from Warr are very unesey att our Not Suplying them with 
Amunision & Nesereys Notwithstanding I aShure you itt has 
Cost me above a years Salery within this twelf Months in trifels. 
More then y^. officer Commanding heer wold aLow them In 
order to keep them In Temper (So that I Can Say Now I 
Searve the king for Nothing & find mySelf ) 

Ever Sence y^. Reduction of Cannada the Indians in those 
parts apeard very Jelous of our Growing power Butt Sence I 
aquainted them of y^. paice & Lett them know that all North 
America was Ceaded to Greatt Britian they Seem Much 
More So 

If the Indians whome you Menshon to have Murdred two 
white Men going from Nigra Should Come this Way I will 
Indeaver to have them Secured 



^In the Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 63 

I Expect in About Ten Days all y^, Cheeffs of y* Shawnees 
heer with all y*. prisners they have of ours after which I will 
Write y^ honour & transmitt you a Copey of My Proceedings 
with them 

We have had a flood heer that was two foot Higher in y'. 
fort then that we had Last Spring — Butt we have had No 
Amunision Damedg'^. this time as we have None hear butt 
Several Houses Swept away I am with Greatt Esteem & 
Regard y"". Honours 

Most Humble Servent 

Geo: Croghan 
To the Honourable 

Sir William Johnson Bar'. 
PS: S^ I am Much oblidg*^. to you for the Method you 
Recommend for Cureing My Disorder however I thank God 
I have gott over itt Some Months Ago & Doing My Duty My 
kilt I made a prseent of to a Scotch Leard who has Nott Learn*^. 
yett to Wear Breeks Pray make my Complements to M^ 
Johney Cap*. Johnson & Cap'. Clause who I heer is quit y*. 
army & Liveing with you I hope to have y^. plesher of Seeing 
Johnson Hall this Sumer if y*^. honour Aproves of My Request 
which I made in my Last Leter. 

INDORSED : Fort Pitt March 1 2''^. 1 763 
Letter from M^ Croghan 
by Mohawk Ind*. returning 
from War. 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH JOHN LOTTRIDGE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 62-63, are entered the following papers : 
a letter of March 12th from Captain John Lottridge at Montrial on 
precariousness of his position and his doubt as to wisdom of returning to 
the army, continued ill treatment of Caghnawagneys by the officer at 
Ticonderoga, preparations to punish sutler responsible for clrupl'cn debauch 
of the Indians at Conneshadagey, General Amherst's policy as to supply- 
ing Indians with ammunition. Governor Gage's probable retirement, de- 
jection of leading French families in Montreal over cession of Canada 



64 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and satisfaction of the common people, marriage of Miss Polly to Lieuten- 
ant Johnson, hunting dog sent down by Mr McCoumb, and draft on 
Johnson for £100; a letter of the 15 th to William Darlington, sending 
draft on Mr. Mortier, paymaster, for £120 curency, with directions to 
pay Hugh Wallace £20 and send up beef, rice, bohea tea and Amer- 
ican cheese and learn price of Madeira; a speech of Onondagaes on the 
18th relative to murder of two men [in Seneca coimtry], informing of 
meeting to be held at Chenussio, asking that the General's sentiments may 
be announced there by Mohawk messengers, naming members of several 
tribes authorized to bring Johnson report of Chenussio meeting, and seek- 
ing permission to send two principal warriors to confer with King George; 
a speech of Sir William to Onondagas on the 18th, suggesting that 
Onondaga is a better meeting place than Chenussio, agreeing to send word 
regarding General Amherst's sentiments, approving Indian messengers 
named, and promising to consider proposal to send deputies to King 
George, speech of Ondagoes, on the 19th, announcing resolution of 
Cayugas to refrain from interference in affair of Elder Brothers [Mo- 
hawks, Onondagas and Senecas] and go out against the Cherokees, and 
deprecating this resolve, and reply of Sir William, who delivered belt 
for Cayugas and message requesting their presence at Chenussio to assist 
in terminating trouble over murder; a letter of the 20th from John Glen 
Jun'r at Schenectady about payment of Indians employed by him and by 
Schuyler; an account, dated the 20th, of money paid by same to several 
persons for bateauing under David Schuyler from Schenectady to Little- 
falls; a letter of the 20th from Lieutenant Thomas Cottrell, at Fort 
Schuyler, desiring to buy piece of land in which Lieutenant Smith, de- 
ceased, was interested; a letter of the 21st from James Shuter, at 
Schnectady, asking for £50 due on bill; a letter of the 21st from 
James Rivington, at New York, sending account for pictures, books, etc, 
and promising to send magazines on arrival of packet; William Johnson's 
account of the 22d, against estate of the late Hitchen Holland ; a letter of 
the 22d from John Duncan at Schenectady, agreeing to Postmaster Colden's 
proposition, regarding a Schenectady mail service, for which Duncan 
is soliciting subscriptions, he to act as postmaster; a letter of the 22d from 
Witham Marsh, at New York, to " Good Sir William," explaining de- 
tention by "fresh fit of the gout," discussing bad conduct of Ferrall Wade 
in affair with Mr. Johnson [and John Macomb?], ostracism suffered by 
Wade on account of affair of Miss Corry, and suit for defamation 

threatened by old Mr Smith against Mr W ce; and by a letter of 

the 22d from Peter Silvester (lawyer) at Albany on debt of William 
Printrup, against whom he is proceeding for Colonel Hoffman, offering 
to stay action if Johnson will give his word for the money. These papers 
were destroyed by the fire. 



' Posl-War Period, 1763-/774 65 

MEETINGS RELATING TO INDIAN L.^NDS 

IVednesda}) March 23'^ 1763. 

Had a Meeting with y^ Mohawks & Several gentl". from 
Schenectady at Fort Johnson, when y^ Mohawks made claim 
to y* Lands from y^ Flatts of Schenectady to a place called 
Gagawariuni Alledging it never was sold by their Forefathers, 
but lent by them for a Range for their Cattle. 

On w^. the Deputys from Schenectady produced the Indian 
Deed obtained for said Land from several of their Sachims in 
y^ year 1 679 & the Pattent granted in 1 684 by Gov^ Dongan, 
also severall Receipts for y^ Consideration. 

To w*^. the Mohawks answered that they looked upon y'. 
small Payment only as Rent for s'^. Land & that they expected 
y^ Schenectady People would consider further of it. The 
Schenectady People being impatient to return being near night, 
got up & bid farewel to them & hoped there would be no more 
dispute ab* Said Land, but the Ind^ were much discontented 
at their thinking of going away before they had given them 
further Satisfaction in y^ affair. Saying that y^ Indian Names 
to y® Deed & Receipts were not Mohawk Names. 

At length Lieu^ Col. Vanslyke desired they might return that 
as soon as they had reported w^ passed here to all y^ People 
concerned, they would take y^ same into consideration and send 
them an answer, at w^. they were satisfied & y^ Meeting 
broke up. 

After y^ Schenectady Gentlemen Sett off, the Mohawks asked 
me my opinion of the affair w^. I gave them in favour of y^ 
Schenectady People, being satisfied with w^ writeings they had 
laid before me that y^ Land was purchased & paid for. 

They then all seemed to acquiesce, but said y^ Consideration 
was too trifleing for so large & valuable a Tract of Land, and 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

3 



66 Sir William Johnson Papers 

that if the People of Schenectady would consider the affair in 
y*. Light, there should be nothing more ab*. it. 

While they were in Council, Coll. Eliphalet Dyer & M'. 
Woodbridge of Stockbridge arrived at Fort Johnson, in order 
to know whether the Six Nations were comeing down to a meeting 
proposed to be held at Albany y^ 22^ Ins^ with them the New 
England People who were now come to Albany for y^ purpose 
& had with them between three & four Hundred Pounds as a 
pres^ to give y^ Six Nations in case they would consent to their 
y^ New England Peoples Settling & enjoying the Lands of and 
ab'. Skahandowana on the Susquahana, also 6 Bullocks & three 
Barrels of Pork. This Invitation was sent last autumn in write- 
mg by one John Smith who was with a Number of his Country 
People at Skahandowana^ and delivered to Thomas King of 
Oswego^ who I told them, had not (I thought) delivered it to 
the Six Nations as I heard them say nothing about itt when a 
few days ago assembled at my House. The before mentioned 
Gentlemen then made me an offer to be a Partner in y^ Land 
and to send up the Money to me, also the Bullocks & Pork &*=^. 
that I might call y^ Six Nations & give it to them |Drovided they 
agreed to their proposal, all which I refused with y'. slight it 
deserved, and gave them my opinion on the whole affair, also 
told them the unhappy consequences would in all probability 
follow, should they (as they often hinted) force a Settlement 
in them parts. After many fruitless efforts to prevail on me to 
join & assist them, they returned to Albany. 

The Mohawks who were yet present being desirous to know 
their business were told it in part, and seemed very uneasy about 
it, giveing it as their opinion that if the New Englanders per- 
sisted in their design of Settleing said Lands, it would be of very 
bad consequence. 



^Or Schahentoa, Wyoming Valley, Pa. 

"Owego; sometimes written Oswegy. See Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. 
Y., 8: 120, 121, 122, 123. 125. 136. 



Posl-War Period. 1763-1774 67 



FROM WILLIAM CORRY ETC. 

The preceding account is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 163, by 
a letter of March 24th from William Corry, at Albany, about money 
matters, scarcity of fodder, plentifulness of wheat, sufferings of Chesnut 
and Graham by robbery and incendiarism, arrival of Mrs. Gage with two 
children from Montreal, expectation that Colonel Burton will take com- 
mand at Montreal; and by an account of a meeting, on the 25th at 
Johnson Hall, with Mohawks relative to the conference at Chenussio, at 
which Chief Abraham reveals concern of Six Nations at intended emi- 
gration of Connecticut people to Skahandowana or Wioming, and begs 
that Johnson will ask Governor of Connecticut and intending settlers to 
wait till the movement has been considered at Chenussio, and Johnson 
approves this policy. Destroyed by fire. 



FROM DAVID VAN DER HEYDEN 
A. L. 5.1 

Albany 25^^ March 1763 

Sir 

These Waits on You With my unfeigned Regards and may 
Serve to Acquaint You that We are very Apprehensive of Evil 
Minded persons Harbouring Within this City for on the 1 5'^ 
instant the House of Ulrick van Vranke in the Tenure of M"^: 
Grymes (he being Gone to Schenectady) Was burnt With the 
house adjoyning it before it Could be Extinguished, and it Was 
With Great Difficulty the house of the Patroon Was Kept from 
Sharing the Same fate. As it was thought that Thives had been 
in and taken the Cash and most Valuable Effects, and set fire 
to the Rest to avoid a Discovery, as the Neighbors Who first 
Came to the fire, found the back door open — and this Morning 
a parcel of Shavings Were found fired in a Shed near a pile 
of Dry boards, at the house Where the Sign of Major Rogers 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



68 Sir William Johnson Papers 

has hung for sometime; And this Afternoon fire Was Discov- 
ered under the Stable of Peter Lansingh ; — So that the Mayor 
and Corporation being Met, Desired that I would Order a 
Watch to be Kept, and as I thought it highly Necessary I have 
order'^. the Companys in this City to Keep Watch in their Turns, 
and this Night the Troop is to begin; the Watch is to Consist 
of an offic^"^ and at least Sixteen Men Who are to patrole the 
City and Apprehend all Villains h Strolers, and Deliver them 
to justice and I have Order'^. them to Continue the Watrh until 
they Shall Receive mine or My Superiors orders to the Contrary, 
and therefor Immediately Acquaint You therewith, and Desire 
to Know Wether its Agreable or not, in Expectation of An 
Answer 

I Remain 

Sir Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

David Van Der Heyden 
To Sir 

William Johnson 

INDORSED: Alb^. 25^^. March 1763 
Letter from Liu*. Co''. 
Van Derheyden concern^ 
a guard to be kept In Alb^. — 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN AND JOHN MACOMB 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 163, are entered the following: a letter 
of March 26th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, on new postal arrange- 
ment and movements of General and Mrs. Gage; and a letter of the 26th 
from John Macomb, at Albany, about molasses and salt which he will 
send up, severe thaw, dog brought from Captain Lottridge [in Canada I 
and Captain Lottridge's draft on Johnson in favor of Macomb for £ 1 00. 
These papers were destroyed in the lire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 69 

HORATIO SHARPE TO THE SIX NATIONS' 
ArmapoUs in Mar})land the 28^^ of I\/farch 1763. 
Brethren of the Six Nations 

The Governor of Pensylvania having sent me a Belt which 
you gave him for the Governor of Maryland at the Treaty you 
held with him last Summer at Lancaster & having also signified 
to me that at the time you deliver'd such Belt You told him that 
one Daniel Cresap who lives on Potowmack in this Province 
had sent you Word by some of Your Warriors last Spring that 
if I would order him to keep a Store there he would provide 
everything for the Warriors who should pass and repass that 
Way and that you desired he might be allowed to do so and to 
receive any Messages, and that your Warriors may pass and 
repass thro this Province without Molestation, I have there^ 
upon wrote to M^ Cresap recommending it to him to Supply 
any of your Warriors that may have occasion to pass or repass 
thro this Province and near his House with such Provisions as 
they may want, for which he will I expect be paid by Your 
Brethren the Inhabitants of this Province, and I have also rec- 
ommended it to him in case any of your people shall choose to 
trade with him to procure and keep at his House such Goods 
as he Supposes they may want and be willing to purchase. 

As the Inhabitants of this province have always retained a 
true regard for their Brethren of the Six Nations tho by reason 
of our being at so great a Distance and almost Surrounded by 
Virginia and Pennsylvania there has not been much Intercourse 
between you & us. You may be assured that your Warriors will 
not meet with any Molestation or Interruption as they pass or 
repass thro this Province while they themselves behave Peace- 
ably and as Brethren which I hope they will always do. 

INDORSED: Gov^ Sharps Speech to the Six Nations. 



^Qri^inal destroyed by fire. 



70 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM JOHN HAMBLETON 

The preceding speech is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 64, by 
a letter of March 28th from John Hambleton, at Newtown, L. I., offering 
to buy from 200 to 400 acres of land, and inclosing inquiry of John 
Springer and Isack Forshe about terms of settling on Johnson's land. It 
was destroyed by fire. 



TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

Johnson Hall March 30'^ J J 63. 
Sir 

Herewith I have the honor to transmit your Excellency my 
Accompts of Indian Expences together with my Sallary & that 
of the officers in my Department calculated agreable to your 
Excelly^ directions to the 24'^ of this Instant, for all which I 
hope to be favoured with a Warrant. 

In my Letter of the 24'^ of September last I made your 
Excell^y acquainted with some farther attempts made by the 
people of Connecticut towards a Settle'"^ on the Susquehanna 
River, & of the Journey of Col^. Fitch & M^ Chew to me 
thereon, which scheme I was in hopes they would have droipped, 
but to my Great Surprise Coll Dyer & one M'. Woodbridge 
came to my House a few Days ago with some proposals to the 
Indians, desiring my Interposition & insisting on their title to that 
Country in Right of the Connecticut Claim Extends, to the 
South Seas, and of the Indian Deed which I formerly mentioned 
to your Excell«^y. After I had represented that the very attempt 
towards a Settlement must produce a Quarrell between us & the 
Ind^ whom I was often obHged to acquaint that the affair was 
dropped in order to pacify them thereon, I gave them my opinion 



^Original destroyed by fire. In the Public Record Ojfifice, London, 
England, is a transcript, in which the first paragraph is omitted and which 
differs in lesser particulars from the draft. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 71 

on the fraudulent method of obtaining the Deed, & likewise that 
I was certain the 6 Nations would never sufFer them to Establish 
themselves on that which was their Warpath and best hunting 
ground. 

Notwithstand^. which, these Gentlemen declared that the Sus- 
quehanna Compy. had been a great while concerned in the affair 
& had expended much money thereon, and therefore were deter- 
mined to settle imediately on the Land to the amount of 1000 
Families & upwards, whom they Judged sufficient to defend 
their Claims against any opposition. 

At the arrival of these Gentlemen, the Mohocks happened 
to be all present at a Meeting with me, & after having inquired 
into their errand. Expressed the greatest uneasiness thereat, as 
they said it must bring on a general disturbance throughout the 
whole Confederacy, they therefore had a private meeting 
together,^ the result of which was that they desired I wo*^. 
transmit their Sentiments on the Settlem'. to the Gov^ of Con- 
necticut together with a Belt of Wampum which they then 
delivered me requesting that Gov', to put a stop to the proceed- 
ings of these people, until after they held the meeting at 
Chenussio. 

I need not observe to your Excell^y the dangerous consequences 
which must inevitably attend the Settlement of these people, 
having been formerly honored with your Sentiments thereon. 
If they only were to suffer, I think their rashness & defiance of 
all publick authority deserves it, but I am very apprehensive 
it will not stop there, but may prove a means of oversetting all 
our good measures hitherto taken to satisfy the Ind^ and prove 
too general & fatal to the Neighbouring frontiers 

On this account I could not avoid requesting your Excell'^y', 
advice and interposition, otherwise these people will in a very 
short time throw everything into confusion and draw upon them- 



^In the London transcript these words follow "together": "at their 
Castle, the Result of which they came with, and delivered to me Two 
Days ago; which was to Desire I would transmit etc." 



72 Sir IVillhm Johnson Papers 

selves and their neighbours the Resentment of the whole 6 
Nations & the rest of their Allies beyond any probability of 
Reconciliation. 

I have the Honor to be 
Sir &c 
His Excell^y Sir Jeff^. Amherst. 



TO HENRY BARCLAY 

Johnson Hall March 30^^ jj^S 
Dear Sir 

I shall be very glad to know what progress, if any, hath been 
made In the Indian Book of Common prayer as it being a Work 
very much wanted, & greatly enquired after by the Indians. 
[And in case any other parts may he required towards the corn- 
pleating of the same, or that the Manuscripts which I sent you 
require any addition, I shall on notice thereof, use all my 
Endeavors to obtain what may appear farther necessary ] 

I am of opinion that this Edition will conduce to incline the 
Christian Indians to the Established Church, which will have a 
better effect upon them than what I see arises from their inclina- 
tion to the Presbyterian as all those Ind^. who are Instructed by 
the Dissenting Ministers, (who are the only Clergy in these 
parts) have imbibed an air of the most Enthusiastical cant, [and 
are in short intermixed with the greatest Distortion of the features 
& zealous Belchings of the Spirit, resembling the most bigotted 
Puritans Their whole time being spent in Singing psalms amongst 
the Country people, whereby they neglect their Hunting & most 
Worldly affairs, & are in short become very Worthless members 
of Society^] 



'In Library of Congress, Washington, D. C. ; in haridwriting of Guy 
Johnson. 

^Cr^ssed put in the original, 



Posi-War Period. 1763/774 73 

I cannot omit mentioning my opinion of the great necessity 
there is for some Ministers of the Established Church to reside 
in these parts, as well for the Whites, as Indians, without which 
the former must in a Short time become altogether Presbyterians, 
which I have observed seldom betters them. [Encreasing the 
Misanlhroph^ of the Splenelicff, & rendering them Enemies to 
all our Latvs & the British Constition; and as to the lnd\ who 
in general begin to incline to that Presbytery all those of that 
denomination, are lil^ejvise become the most troublesome & dis- 
contented Exchanging their Morality for a Sett of Cloomy 
Ideas, Tvhich always renders them Worse Subjects but never 
better Men] 

I am persuaded that on Yours, & M^ Ogilvie's Representa- 
tion, the Society would be readily induced to take the same into 
Consideration & make some appointments in this Country for 
Clergy of the Church of England, whose Character I shall at 
all times support amongst the Ind*. to the utmost of my power. 

As I imagine you agree with me in opinion of the necessity of 
w'. has been mentioned, I shall not offer at any Apology for what 
I have observed but assure you that, 

I am &ca 
The Rev D"* Barclay 

Indorsed: Johnson Hall March 30'^. 1763 
Letter to M^ Barclay concern^ 
the Indian Prayer Book, & the 
Establishing of Protestant Ministers 



'Crossed out in the original. 



74 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO JAMES HAMILTON 

Johnson Hall March 30^^ fJ63. 
Dear Sir 

A Few Days ago one Voll/ Dyer, together with one M'. 
Woodbridge, both of N. England arrived at my House & 
informed me they came from the Susquehanna Company and 
were charged with a sum of money which they purposed to give 
the Ind^ at a meeting they expected to have had with them at 
Albany, in order to reconcile them to the Settlement on that 
River. I assured them that the Ind^ certainly had no intention 
to meet them on any such acco'. as they wo'^. have undoubtedly 
made me acquainted therewith. The Chiefs of all the 6 Nations 
having been with me a few days before, and then gave them my 
sentiments on their intended Settlement as I had formerly done 
to Col'. Fitch, representing the fatal consequences which must 
inevitably attend such a Settlement not only to the Settlers, but 
the Inhabitants on the Neighbouring Frontiers too, and that I 
was convinced the Ind^ would never consent thereto. The 
answered that the Company having obtained the Right of the 
House of Representatives by virtue of the Connecticut Claims 
westward & having likewise obtained a Deed, & Expended much 
money in the affair were determined to make a Settlement thereon 
immediately with a formidabl body of Men sufficient to support 
their Claims, at the same time repeatedly requested my assistance 
or acquiescence & made some offers, which being rejected, they 
took their leave designing as they said to put their resolves in 
Execution. 

That Day I happened to have a Meeting with all the Mohocks 
who on my inform?, them of the Cause of their visit. Expressed 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

^"Voll" in copy; C being mistaken for V evidently. 



- Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 75 

the utmost uneasiness & Declared that such a procedure must 
occasion a Gen', quarrell with all the Confedracy and departed 
in great concern. 

On the 25th of this inst. they all came to my House & Deliv- 
ered me a Speech setting forth the fatal consequences which must 
attend the design, & desiring the Gov^ of Connecticut wo^. 
put a stop thereto at least until the result of a general Meeting 
which they are shortly to have at Chenussio when (amongst other 
matters) they wo*^. take the same into consideration & dehvered 
a Belt of Wampum thereon. 

Which speech together with their Belt I have this day sent to 
Gov^ Fitch at the same time writing to him fully thereon, & 
requesting he would use his utmost endeavours to put a stop to 
that scheme for the preservation of peace on the frontiers. I 
have also wrote to Sir Jeff: Amherst & strongly desired his 
interposition therein. 

As I found by these Gentlemen who attended me on behalf 
of the rest that they were unanimously determined to force the 
Settlement, I Judged it highly proper to make you acquainted 
therewith, that you may be enabled in time to make such remon- 
strances to Gov^ Fitch, or to take such other Steps as you may 
judge necessary, to prevent the fatal consequences which I am 
convinced must follow the putting their designs in Execution, 
from the resolution of the 6 Nations to oppose the same, which 
must certainly be felt in all the Neighbouring parts by breaking 
up the back Settlements to the great prejudice of the next 
Colonies, & which may probably involve us in a universal Indian 
War. I hope some measures may be speedily taken to put a 
final stop to a Scheme of so dangerous a Nature and am with 
great Esteem, D^ Sir 

The Hon^'^ Gov^. Hamilton. 



76 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO RICHARD PETERS 

Johnson Hall March 30'^ 1763 
Dear Sir 

I could have wished your favor of the 14*^ Ins*, had arrived 
a few days sooner, as I have lately had a meeting with the 
Chiefs of the 6 Nations, when in consequence of M^ Croghans 
letter I spoke to them concerning their haveing the Line run 
which they assured me they had not once thought of or taken 
into consideration, at which time had I been in possession of the 
Map since sent me I might have easily introduced the subject. 
The Quantity of Land unpurchased to y^ Branch appears to 
me to be about what you mention according as the same is laid 
down by the Map, and I think the River is the most certain and 
best Boundary for the preventing of Disputes with Indians, for 
which reason I shall not fail takeing an opportunity of laying 
the same before them, & desireing their concurrence with the 
Proprietaries request. Which should they agree to the same must 
be purchased. I should therefore be glad you would inform 
me what consideration they would chuse to give for the addition 
of Land that I may not be at a loss to acquaint them therewith. 
You may on that subject offer my kind Compliments to the 
proprietaries & assure them that I shall at all times heartily 
concur with them in any thing conducive to the increase of the 
province, consistent with the Duty of my Employment. 

A few Days ago Col'. Dyer & M^ Woodbridge of New 
England came hither from the Susquehanna Company & desire- 
ing my Interposition with the Ind*. & making me some offers, 
which being rejected, they declared their intention to Settle 
thereon with so Considerable a body as will maintain their pos- 
session. For farther particulars on that head I refer you to my 
Letter this day wrote to Gov'. Hamilton. I have likewise 
wrote to Sir Jeffy. Amherst, 6c to Gov"^. Fitch & enclosed the 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 77 

latter a Speech from the Mohocks relative thereto, as also 

desired his Interposition to prevent the consequences w*^^. I am 

confident must follow their prosecuting a Scheme w*^^. must draw 

the Imediate resentment of the whole 6 Nations not only on the 

rash Settlers, but the Innocent Inhab'*. on the Neighbouring 

frontiers. t Pk, c* s r» 

1 am L)^ oir fit*^*. 

RiCH^. Peters Esqr. 



TO DAVID VAN DER HEYDEN 

gjj^ Johnson Hall March 30'^ 1 763. 

I have had the favour of yours giving an acc^ of the Steps 
you have taken since the late fire in Albany, at the requisition 
of the Mayor & Corporation of that City, of which Steps I 
approve as there is no Nightly Watch established for that pur- 
pose, which 1 look upon to be very necessary tor the better 

government of the police, and I make no doubt that in a proper 
representation the Mayor & Aldermen & Commonalty wall be so 
far convinced of the necessity thereof as to take some steps for 
appointing such a Guard, which a City as considerable & Large 
as Albany most certainly requires, and will in my opinion be 
more than ever wanted as soon as the Regiments come to be 
disbanded, amongst whom there are many Men who from their 
having no livelyhood will be induced to commit Robberies & 
other Crimes incident to all large Towns. 

I hope however that there wont be much occasion any longer 
for the employing of the Militia on a Duty which must appear 
hard to them, and am of opinion that until the Corporation may 
take some such measures as I have hinted at. The Civil Magis- 
trates may by a strict Exertion of their authority detect such 
Villains, & in a great measure prevent such Outrages for the 
future. I am Sir 
CoL"-. David Van Der Heyden. . „ 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



78 Sir William Johnson Papers 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH HENRY VAN SCHAACK ETC. 

The preceding letters of the 30th are followed in the Johnson Calendar 
p. 164-65, by a letter of April 1st from Henry Van Schaack at Albany, 
acknowledging account against estate of Hitchen Holland and mentioning 
a slight matter to be set against it; by a letter of the 2d from William 
Weyman (printer) at New York to Dr. Henry Barclay on new edition 
of Indian prayer book (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:326-27; Q. 
4:209); by a letter of the 4th from John Macomb at Albany about 
molasses, the dog Prince, and loss of account; by a letter of the 4th 
from Alexander Colden at New York on Schenectady mail service, and 
state of Mr Cunningham's and other patents; by a letter of the 4th from 
William Darlington at New York about draft received and applied on 
account, trees, herbs, seeds, etc. to be sent on Volkert Dow's sloop, and 
price of Madeira — £70 per pipe; by a letter of the 4th from William 
Corry at Albany, sending account of collections, with account of estate 
of Garret Van Antwerpe, and mentioning suit for slander to be brought 
under the statute of Richard 2 in scandalum magnatum; by a letter of 
the 4th from Johnson at Fort Johnson to John Pownall [London] , inquir- 
ing about papers — proceedings at Easton in dispute between Delawares 
and Proprietors of Pennsylvania, deeds etc. — sent to the lords of trade, 
describing his titles to two tracts, one on the Susquehanna and the other 
on the Mohawk, and offering the former to the King for colonization or 
other public use, or to some land company, and asking such representation, 
by the lords of trade, of his labors in defending and settling the frontier 
as will procure him a royal patent for the latter, the Conajoharee tract; 
by a letter of the 5th from William Priddie at New York, offering to 
supply seeds or trees. These papers were destroyed by fire. 



TO GOLDSBROW BANYAR 

Johnson Hall April 7'h 1763 
Dear Sir 

A Few days before the receipt of yours of the 28*^^ Ult°. The 
Indians who had accompanied young Klock passed by my 
House where they met with Cap^ Claus one of my Deputys to 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 79 

whom they gave the particulars of their proceedings at New 
York," saying that they had there declared they had heard the 
Lands as far up as the Big Rocks in y'^ River, a verry remark- 
able place & called by y^ Indians from y^ earliest time Oneiade 
(which is three Miles below Schylers) had been disposed of, 
and that they had strongly persisted in affirming that no Land 
higher up the River had been sold, and that when a Tall Gentle- 
man (who by their description must be M^ Rutherford) had 
Insisted on the purchase Extending farther, they had denied it 
and Vehemently opposed the same. This is their Ace". 

I cannot for my part be induced to think that the Governor & 
Council would have approved of the Exammation of a few 
Indians who are Esteemed Vagabonds by the Whole Castle & 
by all y^ Inhabitants nor how Jacob who passed for a Chief 
among them, could mention his Ancestors having sold even to 
these Rocks, when his father was a flathead and taken prisoner 
by y^ Mohawks, much less can I imagine that they would ap- 
prove of, or receive the oaths of any Indians of the 5 Nations 
which I am certain has never yet been allowed as Evidence 
before any Persons whatsoever. The effects of such a precedent 
may be of the most fatal consequnces. Nay, I am positive the 
affidavits of the whole Conajoharee Castle may be imediately 
obtained if such is allowed in evidence to prove the contrary 
of what I am informed these few have sworn & falsely their 
Testimony. 

I am also very much surprised that after the order of the 
Gov"^. and Council directed to me to hear the Ind"^ Sentiments 
In the presence of sev'. Justices of the peace, which order was 
most Strictly complyed with the partys sho^. have taken any 
further measures with^ public authority, or that the least atten- 
tion should have been paid to any Protest whatsoever as it seems 
to throw a Reflection, & Evidently implys doubt of the Impar- 
tiarity of our proceedings. His Majestys Justices who sat with 
me in that Meeting, cannot but consider matters in the same light 



^On March 22d, Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 461. 



80 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and must certainly be greatly concerned at so little regard which 
is paid to their Testimony. 

I must farther observe as I have done lately in a Letter to 
the Attorney General that on strict inquiry it appears not one 
of the four persons whose names are inserted in the Indian Deed 
were either Sachems of Conajoharee, or persons of the least 
consequence at the time of obtaining the same, one of them 
being an Indian of Scoharee who never co*^. have pretended 
the least right therein and Aragheadicka of y^ Mohawks who 
signed it hath himself acknowledged several times in public meet- 
ings that he did not consider himself, neither was he of the least 
consequence as a Disposer of the Lands at that time. It is 
amazing that at that period when there were so many Indians 
of Great Consequence in y^ Castle & Leading men of the 6 
Nations, not one of them should have signed the Deed, under 
which the Parties claimed, and which if Legal, does not com- 
prehend one half of their present demands, and I am sorry I 
have the utmost reason to apprehend that the Ind^ appear not 
in a disposition to wait the very tedious determination of a Court, 
particularly as the News lately received of the Intentions of 
the Connecticut people to force a Settlement Imediately on the 
Susquehanna, hath sufficiently alarmed not only the Mohocks & 
all the 6 Nations, but their Allies, who are already greatly 
irritated on that Subject. 

I should be glad that you would make a proper use of this 
Letter by Communicate, the contents thereof to his Excell*=y. the 
Gov*". & Council as I think it my duty to make every such remon- 
strance which may appear Essential to the Peace and Welfare 
of the province. 

I am &c*. 
G. Banyar Esq^ 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 81 



RECORD OF MEETING WITH AN ONONDAGA 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar p. 165, by 
a record of a meeting on April 7th with Karaghijagiya, an Onondaga, 
who brings belts and friendly assurances, but expresses concern over 
Susquehanna settlement and troubles of Mohawks about possession of their 
lands, also of departure of Mohawk ambassadors for Onondaga meeting, 
and return of express with answer of Governor Fitch of Connecticut to 
Mohawk message and Johnson's letter. It was destroyed by fire. 



TO HENRY GLADWIN 

Johnson Hall April 8'^ 1763 
Dear Sir 

I did not receive your favor of November last, until a few 
days ago, owing perhaps to the stoppage of the Communication 
during the winter. 

Before this reaches you, you will undoubtedly have heard of 
the Preliminaries having been signed towards a General Peace 
between England, France & Spain, by which Portugal is saved, 
& France taken off the King of Prussias Shoulders, all Canada 
ceded to us by France, Florida by Spain and the River Missis- 
sippi to be our boundary tow'^^ Louisiana, so that we are to 
become Masters of Mobile & all their fine Settlements to the 
Eastward of that River, and your neighbours at the Illinois to 
become British Subjects, but I shall not enlarge on particulars, 
referring you to the publick papers which have been sent to 
Oswego long ago. We daily expect the Ratification of these 
preliminaries, and altho' nothing co'^. have so Effectually pro- 
moted the Security of our Frontiers as the Entire reduction of 
Louisiana. I am yet hopefull that the Limits granted us will 
prevent the Enemys having much opportunity to poison the Minds 
of the Ind^ I could wish you found your situation at Detroit 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



82 Sir William Johnson Papers 

more agreable and that the necessary Exipences attending such 
an outpost met with more credit, convinced that you would 
never involve the Governm*. in any Expences but such as the 
Service required of the necessity of which, all who command on 
the frontiers have been very sensible, & without which it will be 
impossible to maintain these posts. 

Whenever I get the Acc'^ of the Interpreters certifyed by y^ 
officers at whose Posts they serve, I shall apply to the General, 
who will certainly pay them, but I imagine it will save a great 
deal of time & trouble, if you include them in your own Acc'». 
for the future. 

I have not forgot the powerfull Effect of the Charms of the 
Lady who honours me with a place in her remembrance, & 
should be very happy in any opportunity which might offer of 
paying her my Devoirs. 

You will probably not remain long at Detroit. Whenever 
you change Quarters I heartily wish they may be for the better, 
and that it may afford you an opportunity of Visiting these parts, 
where I shall at all times be glad to see you. 

Lieu*. Johnson desires his Compliments to you & all friends 
and I am D^ Sir &ca. 

Major Gladwin at Detroit. 



FROM WITH AM MARSH 
A. L. 5.1 

A^eip York, April 8^^ J 763. 
Sir, 

This morning, and not before, I had the pleasure of receiving 
your kind, and intelligent Lre^ of the 23d ult°. Why it did 
not come sooner I know not, for M^ Darlington calls at the 



^Original destroyed by fire. 
^Letter. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 83 

Post-Office every Saturday. I have transcribed all relating to 
the Indians, which must please Sensible people, tho the Envious 
will Growl, and sent it to M^ Weyman. 

It gives me pain to find you so much plagu'd w^. Savage 
affairs, especially at this time of the year. In my last of the 
2^. instant, I had the honour of acquainting you with what Joe 
Newtymas & Ca^*. Bull were pleas'd to confess. The con- 
cessions made by the Chenussiaes and your conduct with respect 
to inhibiting the avaritious People to trade with them, are matters 
to be highly relish'd by the well-meaning. 

If any matter of moment happens before I reach the Hall, I 
beg you'll communicate it, according to your kind promise. I 
am extremely sorry I am not with you: but my blessed cause 
comes on this Term, and I must attend in person to Spur up the 
Lawyers, besides drawing Truth (if possible) from the 
Witnesses. 

You do me a great Favour by enquiring after my Health — • 
God knows 'tis bad enough, but the Gravel daily lessens. By 
a ship arrived in 6 weeks from England, we learn that Party is 
higher than ever: that the English are indiscriminately term'd 
Rebels : So the years 1 5 & 45 are forgot, and the Honest people 
in those times, who wo*^. have murder'd only two Kings and the 
Duke of Cumberland, have branded us with infamous 
Appellations ! 

Darlington swears Gov^ Monckton is married to M". Steele,^ 
by the approbation of his Friends. 

My complem**. to Cap*. Guy Johnson, & both Families, being 
ever, with sincere respect, D^ Sir W™. 

Yo"". much obliged & mo : H^^^. Ser*. 

WiTHAM Marsh. 

Honble. Sir W". Johnson, Bart. &c. &c. &c. 



^Monckton was never married. See Dictionary of National Biography. 



84 Sir William Johnson Papers 



CHARGES AGAINST URY KLOCK ETC. 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 165, by 
charges of April 9th under 13 heads against Ury Klock [drawn up by 
Dominie J. G. Lappius] ; and by an indenture of the 9th binding Margriet 
"the Daughter of Jannetye an Indian Squaw" in service to Johannis 
Roorbach for seven years, interest in service of Margriet assigned June 
1 0, in consideration of £.10, to Abraham Wendell, and assigned March 
13, 1 766, to Sir William Johnson. Destroyed by fire. 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Contemporary^ Copy^ 

New York, lO^f^ April 1763 
Sir, 

Just before I Received your Letter of the 30'^. March, I had 
Opened One from the Earl of Egremont^ on the Same Subject. 
Enclosing a Letter to Governor Fitch, wherein he Acquaints him 
of His Majesty's Disapprobation of the Steps taken by Con- 
necticutt People for Settling on the Lands on the Susquehannah. 
and Directing the Governor to Exert Every Legal Authority 
over the People in his Government, & Employ his utmost 
Influence to fprevent the Prosecution of any such Settlement, 'till 
the State of the Case can be Laid before His Majesty: I shall 
therefore. In Obedience to the King's Commands, Forward this 
Letter to Gov^ Fitch,^ which, I Trust, will at once put a Total 
Stop to any Proceedings of this Nature; Untill His Majesty 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, Ejigland. 

^Charles, Earl of Egremont, secretary of state. 

^Amherst's letter to Governor Fitch, written on the 10th, is printed in 
Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, 18:229-30, Fitch 
Papers, 2. 



Post--War Period, 1763-1774 85 

shall be thoroughly Acquainted with the True State of the 
pretended Claim to the Lands in Question. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, 

&ca. 
Jeff: Amherst. 
Sir W"^. Johnson, Bar'. 

INDORSED Copy 

Letter from Sir 

Jeffery Amherst to Sir W™. 

Johnson. 

In Answer to Sir W"".'^ of the 30*1^. 

March 

That he had just received a 

Letter from the Earl of Egremont 

to Gov^ Fitch, containing His 

Majesty's Disapprobation of the 

Steps taking by the Connecticutt 

People to Settle on the Susquehannah ; 

which he should forward to Gov*^. 

Fitch, & Trusted a Total Stop 

would be put to that Scheme, 

untill the King was thoroughly 

Acquainted with the Nature of 

the Whole Affair. 

Dated New York, 10*^. April 1763. 

in S'. J. Amherst's' of April 12: 1763 

N°. 2. 



FROM ANTHONY LAMB ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 166, are found the following: a letter of 
April 1 1 th from Anthony Lamb, at New York, sending ivory scale and a 
dial to answer the latitude of 43° 30' and seeds of apple of curious sort; 
a letter of the 12th from William Darlington, at New York, about re- 



^Amherst's letter does not refer specifically to these enclosures. 



86 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



ceipts and letter inclosed, articles forwarded which came from Ireland, 
etc.; a receipt of the 12th from Volkert A'm Douw, at New York, for 
articles from William Darlington, to be conveyed to Sir William Johnson 
or order at Albany; and a receipt of the 12th of Alexander Wallace, 
at New York, for Hugh Wallace, for £20 received by hand of Mr 
Darlington. These papers were destroyed by fire. 



FROM JAMES RIVINGTON 
A. L. S.^ 

N York April 13 1763, 
S^. W Johnson Bart. 

B°'. of Ja Rivington. 

Sundry New polite Pamphlets & a play 3 

The Court Register 

The Reverie 2 vs 

Chinese pieces 2vs 

The Cheval Pierrepoint 2 vs 

Millennium Hall 

The polite Lady 



1 


6 


5 





14 





13 





12 





7 





7 






£5: 19: 6 



S«. 

I have taken the Liberty to send you Sundry pamphlets & 
books of Entertainment much in request here as they intimate 
the present State of Politics in the most unsettled Nation of the 
World. The Reverie is a continuation of the Authors first work, 
y® Adv*. of a Guinea; in w'^'^. the same acrimonious Vein is 
highly preserved & a great variety of leading Characters are 
delineated in the most animated Stile. The others I presume 
may not be altogether unentertaining to the ladies. I am Sir 
your most obedient & obliged humble serv'. 

Ja Rivington. 

Charles Townsend is made Secretary of State vice Lord 
Egremond who goes to Ireland. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 87 

TO THE PROPRIETARIES OF THE LOW LANDS NEAR 
SCHENECTADY 

r> ,, Johnson Hall A pi. 14^^ 1763 

Lientlemen 

I have received your answer to the Mohocks relative to the 
Lands near Schenectady of the 25th ult". & agreable to your 
request assembled & made them acquainted with the purport. 
Notwithstanding which & w'. I said to them on y^ Subject they 
desire I may inform you that they remain still in the same senti- 
ments which they expressed at the former Meeting at my House, 
and that they cannot help thinking the Consideration was very 
trifling for the Lands w'^^. you hold, for which reason they 
desire you will fall upon some method which may make them 
forever easy on that Subject. 

I shall at all times be glad to do you & y*^ Township any 
Service within my power consistent with the duty of my Employ- 
ment and am Gentlemen &c. 

INDORSED: Letter to the Proprietaries of the Low Lands near 
Schenectady. 

TO WILLIAM DARLINGTON 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 66, by 
a letter of April 15th to William Darlington, mentioning draft, house 
that is building, pork and beef desired, trees, seeds, etc., and snow which 
will linger 10 days longer in the woods; by a letter of the 16th from 
Daniel Campbell at Schenectady, telling of imprisonment of McCord, 
a blacksmith, for debt, and suggesting in what way Johnson may recover 
part of McCord's indebtedness to himself; by a letter of the 16th from 
Elinora Cummins, at Schenectady, acknowledging favor in regard to 
the house which she is about to give up, as she will leave this part of the 
country; by a letter of the 1 7th from H. Van Schaack, at Albany, giving 
the news that 22 battalions are to be kept in America, several regiments 
are to go to Ireland, Governor Ellis is to be Governor of Canada, and 
"our Governor" is to go home. These papers were destroyed by fire. 



^Original destroyed by fire 



88 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 



FROM WITHAM MARSH 
A. L. S.^ 

Albany 18'^ April 1763. Vzafter 12 — 
Sir 

I am this instant arrived here, after a passage of 6 days from 
York. I've observed y"^ orders about Ganse; and by advice of 
friends have appointed Jerry Renslaer my Deputy, for reasons 
I dare not write; but approv'd by People you esteem. M^ 
Johnson's things for his Lady are in the Sloop with me, and due 
care shall be taken of them. No News when I came from New 
York, except it is positively assured our Governor goes to 
England next June. The Lady and Children go this Month. 
M^ Wade is sculking at Philadelphia. No prosecution. Poor 
Flood is returned to York - — pennyless &ca. 

Tomorrow the grand Riot, I hope, will be made in the Court 
here, about my deputation. Let them refuse it if they dare. 
The Attorney General has orders. As soon as I finish my 
affair with the Court (w*=^. will be very soon) I set out for the 
Hall to thank you sincerely for the favours you've done to Him, 
who is with great respect, Yo' most h^'^. & most obed'. Servant, 

With AM Marsh. 
Hon''!*. Sir W^. Johnson Bart. 



TO JOHN POWNALL 

Johnson Hall April 18^^ ]U3 
Sir 

I had the honour of transmitting to the Right Honourable the 
Lords of Trade last August my proceedings at Easton in Pensil- 
vania relative to the Delawares complaint concerning their Lands 
together with several Deeds and papers laid before me by the 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 89 

Proprietaries agents as also my Letter and report thereon, and 
likewise my proceedings at Detroit with the Western Ind'. in 
1761, but as I have not heard anything concerning their safe 
arrival in England, about which I am very anxious, I judged it 
proper to address you on that head, and must request you will 
please to inform me whether they have been received, and 
whether my procedings have meritted their Lordships approbation. 
And as I know no Gentleman who can give me better informa- 
tion I must also beg your advice and Sentiments concerning 
some Lands, in which I have been engaged within this Province, 
in order to which, I shall take the Liberty to trouble you with 
some particulars concerning one of TWo Tracts for which I have 
obtained the most Compleat Indian Deed of Gift ever granted 
by the Six Nations. It is Scituate on the North Side of the 
Mohock River, nearly opposite the Indian Castle or Village 
called Conajoharee, and is bounded as follows Vizt. Beginning 
at the North Westerly Corner of the rear line of a Patent or 
Tract of Land purchased by the late Teady McGinn & others, 
which Corner of beginning is on the bank of a Creek or Kill 
called by the Indians Dekayonharowe" and about thirteen miles 
from the Mohawk River, running thence Northwesterly to the 
Westerly bank of another large Creek or Kill called by the 
Indians Deyoghtaghraron," by the Christians Canada Kill or 
Creek at Burnetsfield, from thence down along the Westerly 
side or bank of said Canada Creek or Kill to the Lands patented 
formerly by the Christians, and so down to the Mohawk River, 
then round the several Tracts of Land already patented within 
the before mentioned two Creeks or Kills, taking in all the vacant 
Land between the said two Creeks from the rear line to the 
Mohawk River, containing by a rough computation about 40 
or 50 thousand acres of Land; and was given to me about two 
years ago by the Whole Mohawk Indians assembled in publick 



^Variants of these names for East Canada creek and West Canada 
creek occur in Johnson to Banyar, January 2, 1 761, q. v. For others see 
Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of New York, p. 92, 



90 Sir William Johnson Papers 

meeting, who requested I would accept of the same as a testi- 
mony of their Esteem for me and their desire to make me some 
return for my friendship to them whilst they had any Lands left 
to dispose of, and thereupon signed a Deed for the same declar- 
ing it as their unanimous and free Donation, but as I notwith- 
standing knew their wants, and that it was usual in such Cases 
to give them somewhat in return, I imediately afterwards gave 
them the sum of 1200 Dollars or £480 Currency in Specie 
together with a handsome present for their familys, after which 
I took the necessary Steps tow'^^ obtaining a patent for the same, 
in which I flattered myself I should have met with no opposition, 
but contrary to my Expectations many delays were made, and at 
length I was given to understand that in order to obtain the 
patent, I must admit certain persons as sharers with me therein, 
on which the afFair should be settled immediately. However, 
the delay which these persons had created, occasioned nothing 
to have been done therein at the time when His Majestys Instruc- 
tions to the Governor arrived, forbidding any further grants 
to be made without the Kings Special License and approbation. 
This effectually put a stop to my prosecuting mu^ Just claim, 
and determined me upon writing to England concerning it; 
Satisfied that the legality thereof would there be impartially 
considered, and that some consideration would be had of the 
many risques I have run both of Life and Fortune in Encour- 
aging and promoting the Settlement of the rest of my Lands in 
this Country, which I do assure you I have not laid aside as a 
thing which may turn to value hereafter, as is the custom of all 
the possessors of large Tracts within this province. Altho' my 
Lands lay on the Frontiers here, & much more open to the Incur- 
sions of all the Enemies parties than any other, I nevertheless 
at a Considerable Expence established above 100 Familys 
thereon during the heat of the War, furnishing them with Cattle, 
provisions & money to encourage them to remain thereon, at a 
time when all the Neighbourhood were abandoning their Settle- 

^My. It is "mu" in the copy. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 91 

ments, which they would have left to a Man to the great detri- 
ment of the province, if not induced to the contrary by my own 
Example & that of my Tenants, for which purpose I spent all the 
time in which I was not on the publick service, in a small Lodge 
in the Wild Woods amongst them. 

This duly considered I make no doubt will have great weight 
in England as the increase of Settlements and strengthening the 
frontiers (with the approbation of the Six Nations) must be 
thought of universal advantage and will, I flatter myself, induce 
his Majesty on the premises being duly submitted to his Royal 
consideration, to grant me a patent for said land that I may not 
suffer in my private fortune for my Endeavours which are as 
evidently calculated for the publick good as my own private 
interest. 

I have now only to request the favour of your advice and 
assistance in this affair, and that you would if necessary lay the 
same before the Lords of Trade, or thro' any other Channel! 
which may be the best for obtaining the same. I am encouraged 
to give you this trouble, as I am well acquainted with your 
ability, and have the strongest reliance on your confidence, and 
inclination to do me this friendly office, which I request as a very 
particular favor, together with your answer as soon as is Con- 
venient, and I beg leave to assure you that I shall at all times 
receive your commands with the utmost pleasure, and omit no 
opportunity of testufying how much I am with great Sincerity, 
Sir, 

Your most Obedient Humble Servant, 
John Pownall Esq^ 



92 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM RICHARD SHUCKBURGH 
A. L. S.^ 

Nerv York 18'^ April 1763 
Dear Sir 

I received your very kind Letter some Weeks after the Date 
being seldom in Town and having but few Correspondents I 
neglect going to the Post Office. 

I am doubly to congratulate you on the Marriage of both 
your Daughters and birth of a Grand child, which I sincerely 
do, wishing you and them a continuance of all the happiness 
you and they at present participate, being convinced you all 
mutually do enjoy a great Portion by the manner of your inti- 
mating to your old Friends those joyous Events. 

As to my Land in the Mohawks in conjunction with the Sieur 
Banjar, I would be glad if you could sell my part (which is Six 
hundred & fourty Acres at least) for as much N. Y. Currency 
as will purchase a Bill of one hundred & fifty Pounds Sterl. As 
to Culling it as Mess'■^ Fonda and Conine, those cunning Coun- 
erymen, have mentioned to me in the handHng way ; I cant come 
into it, and if it will not fetch the above Sum, it must remain till 
it will. In the meantime with your leave I shall send you a 
Power of Attorney to sell it for me, as by what I can hear our 
Regiment is going to England or Ireland; the latter of most 
talk'd of, and where I am most inclined, and have brought my 
family to the same way of thinking; if that takes place I shall 
beg to be the Carrier of some of your letters to your friends, and 
embrace your obliging offer of Recommending me again to My 
L*^. Hallifax. Your interest with him & some of your friends 
may be of Service to me in any scituation. Our Camp & other 
Regimental Equipage is some of it sold & the Q. M. Serj'. goes 
in a Day or Two to Philadelphia to Sell the Remainder there, 
such as Tents, Camp Kettles &c. The next Pacquet or Man 



^Qri^inal destroyed hj fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 93 

of War which is Expected may bring the News of the Definitive 
Treaty being signed which possible may determine my travels 
in the Wilderness where like the Wandering Jews I have been 
told of, shewn and even tasted the fruits of the rich Land of 
Promise and Poor Land of Performance but possibly twas 
ordained, as it is said of those Vagabond Hebrews, I shoud not 
arrive there. These ridiculous reflections help to dissipate the 
Chagrin I am constantly possess'd with on thinking how unluckily 
I was crowded out of your office where I had some reason to 
believe you wished me to remain: I endeavour to forget that & 
every disappointment being as merry as I can make myself & 
those about me & am apt to say somewhat like Scarron when he 
was dying, that I may have made more people laugh in my life 
time in this world of America than will cry at my departure out 
of it. I hear this Day that Transports are hired for Cork to 
sail in a Month of^ five Weeks but I dont know that it is for our 
Reg^ However I shall break up housekeeping upon the first 
News of our Moving & sell off all. Houses, Lotts of ground, & 
furniture such as large Service of Table China, soop Dish & 
other large Dishes w'^. four Dozen Plates, five with y^ soop 
Plates. Neat strong Mahogany furniture & w^^. if you have 
a mind to purchase I dont think you can suit yourself cheaper 
or better. If I can get leave & there should be time I shall 
Endeavour to pay my Compliment of taking leave in Person 
if I dont hear of your Coming to N. York. Be pleased to 
recommend me kindly to all about you for I cannot have a 
heartier affection for any but my own family than I have for 
every connection of yours. I came to Town this Morning to 
write this Letter & I am afraid I shall be too late for the Post 
so take my leave being in great sincerity y"^ most oblig'd & very 
humble Serv*. 

R''. Shuckburgh 

To the Honble SiR WiLLM. JOHNSON. 



i"Of" in the copy; "or" was doubtless written. 



94 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM CHARLES WILLIAMS 
A. L. 5.^ 

A^en; York 18 April 1763 
Dear Sir 

I should have done myself the honour to have answered your 
favour sooner but was prevented by M^ Jones being very 111 
at the time & after that was confined for a fortnight my self, 
at last when I spoke to him he told me he believed M"^. Oliver 
De Lancey had it. He directed me to Banyar who told me 
he had recorded it but had not the power. A few days agoe 
M^ De Lancey found it in his office & have it now in my pos- 
session with the other papers from M^ Jones w'^^. when you 
have an opportunity to order by some safe hand shall send you, 
not caring to trust them by the post, but did not advertize them 
as you directed because M"". Jones tells me the power of Attorney 
from M". Cosby to you is only for her lands in Albany County, 
that I must write to her to send you a General power to dispose 
of all her lands in this province which shall do by my son who 
is going with his wife and Child in the Intriped Cap*. Hale in 
about a fortnight by which time have her answer shall endeavour 
to Inform you about the lands & the ore. I remember it was 
opened & they found a large body of lead which was very good 
but dont remember they found the vein & they left off working 
it as some that was concerned in it did not care to be at the 
Expence of working it. However some Casks of it was sent 
home but never heard their opinion about it. We have some 
flying report here that M'. Pitt is made Secretary of State in 
the room of Lord Egremont. Some believe it & others do not. 
Have nothing more at present but M". WiHiams & my Family 
joyn me in Our humble respects to you. Wishing you a long 
enjoyment of health I remain with great respect Dear Sir 
Your most obed*. humble Servant 

Chas. Williams. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post'War Period, 1763-1774 95 

CORRESPONDENCE CONCERNING WESTERN INDIANS^ 

April 20— Ma^ 29, 1763 

Extracts of Letters, &ca. Regarding Some Bad Dispositions of 
the Indians in the Western Department. 1 763. 

N°. 1. Major Gladwin, Commanding Officer at the Detroit 
to Sir Jeffery Amherst, Dated 20*^ April 1 763. 

" I Enclose your Excellency a Letter, and a Belt from the 
Officer Commanding at Miamis; and I have only to Add, that 
I am pretty well Informed by Other Hands, that the Six Nations, 
Shawnese, & Delawares Indians are 111 Disposed, and that they 
have been Tampering with the Indians this Way, but I Believe 
without Effect: They say We mean to make Slaves of them, 
by Taking so many Posts in their Country, and that they had 
better Attempt Something now, to Recover their Liberty, than 
Wait till We were better Established; This they Told my 
Exipress (a Chief of One of the Nations here) on his Return 
from Fort Pitt, which I Thought proper to Mention to your 
Excellency, in order that you may Know their Sentiments. 

This Murder was Committed I have Wrote to Fort Pitt, 
last Summer, & was Attended Sandusky, & Presqu' Isle, 
with Several Shocking Cir- to Advice them of the 
cumstances : M^ Claphan was Temper of the Indians — 
a Trader Coming from the The Panis who Escaped 
Detroit, with his two Panis from the Guard last Win- 
Slaves, a Man & a Woman, who, ter, got off to the IHinois ; 
by their own Confession, Mur- therefore I Thought it best 
dered him, by Cutting off to Try the Woman, who 
his Head, & Throwing his Body was Sentenced to be Hang- 
in a River: They were Deliver- ed, for being aji Accom- 
ed up by a Party of Indians, plice in the Murder of the 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



96 Sir William Johnson Papers 

whom the Panis Charged as Late M^ Clapham, which 

being the Principal Perpetrators I had put in Execution in 

of the Murder, but this the the most PubHck manner." 

Indians Denied : The General 

however Sent a Warrant to 

Major Gladwin for the Tryal 

of the Murderers : And by 

this Letter it Appears that the 

Man has made his Escape, 

but that the Woman being 

found Guilty, has Suffered, 

according to her Crime. — 

N°. 2. Ensign Holmes, Commanding Officer at Miamis to 
Major Gladwin, Dated Fort Miamis, 30*^. March 
1 763 ; & Enclosed with the Foregoing. 

" I Received your Letter of the 22*^. February, with the Impor- 
tant News of a Peace, which I have, by your Directions, made 
Known to all my Garrison, & to the Indians about this Post; 
And since my Last Letter to you, wherein I Acquainted you of 
the Bloody Belt being in this Village, I have made all the Search 
I could about it, and have found it out to be True; Whereon I 
Assembled all the Chiefs of this Nation, & after a long & trouble- 
some Spell with them, I Obtained the Belt, with a Speech as 
you will Receive Enclosed: This Affair is very timely Stopt, 
and I hope the News of a Peace will put a Stop to any further 
Troubles with those Indians who are the principal Ones of Set- 
ting Mischief on Foot: I Send you the Belt, with this Packett, 
which I hope You will Forward to the General." 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 97 

N°. 3. Copy of a Speech made by the Chiefs of the Miamis 
Indians, at the DeHvery of a Belt of Wampum, 
Sent to them from the Shawnese Nation, & Referred 
to in the Foregoing — Fort Miamis, 30'*^. March 
1763. 

" My Brother. 

According to your Desire & Treaties with Us, I Have Con- 
sulted with our Chief Warriours, in respect to this Belt of 
Wampum, which you Discovered to be in this Village; & We 
all think it best to Deliver it to you, so that you may Send it to 
your General; thoo' We were not to Let this Belt be Known 
of, till it Arrived at Ouattanon ; and then were All to Rise, and 
put the English to Death, all about this Place, and those at the 
Other Places, 

This Belt We Received from the Shawnese Nation, & they 
Received it from the Delawares, & they from the Senecas, who 
are very much Enraged against the English: As for the Indian 
that was the Beginner We cannot Tell him, but he was One 
of their Chiefs; and One that is always Doing Mischief; And 
the Indian that Brought it to this Place, was our Chief, who was 
down at the Grand Council held in Pensylvania last Sunmier. — 
We Desire you to Send this down to your General, & George 
Croghan, and Let them find out the Man that was making this 
Mischief: For our l)arts. We will be Still, & Take no more 
Notice of their Mischief, Neither will We be Concerned in it: 
If We had ever so much Mind to Kill the English, there is 
always some Discovery made before We can Accomplish our 
Designs. 

This is all We have to Say, only you must give our Young 
Warriors some Paint, some Powder & Ball & Some Knives, 
as they are all going to War, against our Enemies the 
Cherokees." 
4 



98 Sir William Johnson Papers 

N°. 4. Sir Jeffery Amherst's Answer to Major Gladwin, Dated 
New York, 29'h. May 1 763. 

*' It is certainly best to be always on our Guard against any 
Attempt of the Indians ; for my own Opinion, is, that they Never 
can Hurt Us, unless We are Weak Enough to Put Ourselves 
in their Power, and I am Convinced they would Shew Us no 
Mercy, if they thought they could Escape with Impunity: 
While they Behave themselves peaceably, they are to be 
Treated as Friends, having an Eye, at all times, to Our Own 
Security; And if they should be so Rash and Ungrateful! as 
to Murder a Few of our People, which they certainly may Do, 
they may Depend on Meeting with such a Punishment as shall 
fall Heavy on the Whole Nation that is Accessary to the Crime. 

You did very Right to Transmit me the War Belt, & Ensign 
Holmes's Letter, &ca; I shall Send the Belt to Sir William 
Johnson, & Likewise Acquaint him, as well as M^ Croghan, 
of the Behavior of the Indians, that they may Take such Steps 
as they think best for CalHng the Nations Below (Who seem 
to be the Chief Instigators of this Mischief) to an Account for 
such Treacherous Dealings. 

Altho' I am always Sorry to Consent to the Sending of any 
Unhappy Wretch out of this World, yet the Execution of the 
Panis Woman, who was an Accomplice in the Murder of the 
Late M^ Clapham, has my Approbation, the Crime for which 
She Suffered being so very Heinous that Nothing Less than her 
Life could Atone, and Indeed I Sincerely Wish the Chief Per- 
petrator of that Murder had not Escaped, but that he might have 
Shared the same Fate, that the Example might have been the 
Stronger." 

N°. 5. Sir Jeffery Amherst to Sir W™. Johnson, Dated New 
York, 29'^ May 1 763. 

" By the Albany Post I Had a Letter from Major Gladwin 
Enclosing One to him from the Commanding Officer at the 
Miamis, with a War Belt, which had been Sent thither by the 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 99 

Shawnese, &ca; but Delivered up by the Chiefs of the Miamis 
Indians, who, at the same time, made a Speech to the Com- 
manding Officer, Acquainting him of the Evil Intentions of the 
Several Nations, who were concerned in Forwarding the said 
Belt — 

Altho' I cannot think the Indians have it in their Power to 
Execute any thing Serious against Us, While We Continue to 
be on our Guard, Yet I Judge it Necessary to Send you the 
Belt, which You will Receive herewith, as also Copies of what 
Major Gladwin has Transmitted to me, regarding this Affair, 
And I Desire you will make such Use thereof as may Appear 
most proper for Putting a Stop to such Treacherous Behavior 
for the Future, and for Shewing the Indians the Contemptible 
Figure they must make in our Eyes, by Violating the most 
Solemn Promises of Friendship, without the least Provocation 
on our Side; I Mention the Contemptible Figure, as it certainly 
is not in their Power to Effect any thing of Consequence against 
Us ; But if they are so Rash as to make an Attempt, the Mischief 
they Intend, will certainly Recoil upon themselves. 

I Doubt not but M^ Croghan will be fully Informed, by the 
Way of Fort Pitt, of this Intelligence ; I However shall Acquint 
him therewith by this Post; And if you should think it Neces- 
sary You may send Either Captain Claus, or Lieut. Johnson, 
with jDroper Instructions, to call those Nations, who have been 
Chiefly Concerned in Sending the Belt, to an Account for such 
Unwarrantable Proceedings; I cannot Omit Observing, that, 
in all the Mischief that has lately been Broached among the 
Indians, the Senecas Seem to have a principal Hand, and it is 
Matter of Surprize to me, to Find that Other Tribes, who have 
so often Experienced our Bounty, should be Misguided by them, 
& so readily Enter into Plots against their Benefactors, and 
Endeavor to Stirr up the Distant Nations, who are Newly become 
our Friends, against Us: These Last however (If We can Rely 
on what the Chiefs of the Miamis have Declared to the Com- 
manding Officer at that Post) Seem to be too Sensible of their 



100 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



own Interest to Enter into Engagements, which, if pursued, 
would Inevitably End in their own Destruction. 

Major Gladwin Writes me, that before he received my Orders 
for Trying the Panis Slaves, who Murdered M^ Clapham, the 
Man had made his Escape, and they since hear that he had got 
to the Illinois: The Woman was however Tryed Immediately, 
&, being found Guilty, Hanged in the most Publick manner: 
I am only Sorry the Chief Perpetrator did not meet with the 
same Punishment, for then the Example would have been 
Compleat." 

INDORSED: Extracts of Letters, &<^^ 

Regarding Some Bad Dispositions 

of the Indians in the Western 

Department — 

N°. America 

1763. 

in S^ J : Amherst's of June 1 1 '^ : 

1763 



FROM WITHAM MARSH 
A. L. 5.1 



Albany 2h' April 1763. 
Sir, 

Had not Jerry Renslaer made a gross mistake about executing 
the Mandamus, and sent an Express in my absence to York, I 
shou'd have set out from hence on Tuesday, tho' yet very lame. 
I forgot to acquaint you in my last, that mciny things were 
brought in our Sloop for you, of which I am taking the greatest 
Care, as D'. Stringer is not here, and have wrote to Cap'. Van 
Epps for a waggon &c. By M^ Mcllworth, I send two keys of 
Chests, deliver'd me by M^ Darlington for your Use, as it wou'd 
not be prudent to trust them with a wagoner. I am fearful, Sir, 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 101 

we are a-back about my affair, for Jerry seems afraid to act, 
w'^*^. with other matters intervening, detains me till the return of 
the Express, and to See your Freight sent off. The moment I 
had your Letter about not continuing Van Frog, I appointed 
Jerry, because I never will do anything contrary to y^ Judgment ; 
and therefore wish that you, and M^ Scott, wou'd terminate 
the mre^ as I am really tired, and by fretting have hurt my 
constitution. I hope, good sir, you'll not think me negligent; 
for, as God shall Judge me, I wou'd by no means merit y"". 
Displeasure; being, with real gratitude, y'. most respectful Ser*. 

WiTHAM Marsh 

Hon^i«. Sir W"^. Johnson, Bart. &<=. &^ &^ 



SPEECH OF ASARONDONGES 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 67, by 
a speech of April 21st of Asarondonges, chief of Onondagaes living 
at Otseningo, representing deplorable condition of his people from want 
of ammunition, and complaining of neglect by Sir William, and answer 
of Sir William, giving a small amount of ammunition, and reminding 
Onondaga from Otseningo of lukewarmness of that settlement when asked 
in 1 760 to join expedition to Canada. 



FROM HENRY VAN SCHAACK 

A. L. S.' 

Albany 24 April 1763 
Sir 

The Post for Schenectady is just now agoing off. I have 
therefor now only time to acquaint you, that a Pacquet arrived 
at New York aMonday after the Papers were Printed: We 
have certain Ace', by that Pacquet, that the Definitive Treaty 



^Matter. 

^Original destroyed by fire. 



102 Sir William Johnson Papers 

was signed at Paris 10 Febry. The English Papers say y' 80 
Reg**, are to be kept up, 20 in the West Indias & North 
America. The 15, 1 7 & 42 Go home to Ireland. The 44 & 47 
Royal Americans Erasers & some others remain on the Continent. 
My Friend in the Post Script of his Letter says The Peace is 
General throughout Europe, I have not time to Add A Word 
more. But to assure you that I am with great respect. Sir, 

Y^ most ob^ h^'^ Servant, 

W^ V SCHAACK, 



FROM CHARLES WILLIAMS 

A. L. sr- 

New York 24 April 1763. 
Dear Sir 

Since I did myself the honour of writing by the last Post the 
pacquet arrived by which have reced. the enclosed from Colb. 
Clinton. I find by letter its about some lands of the Governours 
& as a pacquet will sail about the midle of May if youl send 
an answer by that time I will inclose it to him. By what I 
understand those lands come to him having left the larger share 
of his fortune to Miss Clinton & but a small share to him after 
his Mothers death & that loaded with a Charge to the Colb. 
of £1500. He writes me no News neither is there much come 
more than that the peace is General & the definitive treaty being 
signed but not proclaimed when this last pacquet came away but 
Expect in a fortnight to have a confirmation of the whole. I 
heartily congratulate you on the Peace. M". Williams & my 
Family Joyn in our best respects & am with great regard Dear Sir 
Your most obedient humble Servant 

Chas. Williams 
To Sir William Johnson. 



^"W" in the copy; it should be "H". 
"Original destroyed by fire. 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 103 

FROM HUGH WALLACE 
A. L. S.^ 

New York 25 April 1763. 
Dear Sir 

I had the honour of yours 19 ult°. All your Country Men 
are much obliged to you for the Honour you do them, & the good 
opinion you have of them. I received the £20 from M"^. Dar- 
lington as you directed. 

I cannot help thinking the Manufacture of PotAsh deserves 
Attention & may be made very usefull to Great Brittain, & bene- 
ficial to y® Colonys, but before individuals embark their fortunes 
in such Schemes, they would do well to be assured, that they 
could carry on their Scheme to extent, & that what they made 
was good, & I would take the liberty to recommend to you, that 
a Cask or two of your Pott Ash be sent to England for Samples ; 
by this means you'll be certain as to the Quality, & know the 
value of it, & then you can calculate how well its worth 
prosecuting. 

Hemp must be a very considerable Staple here in time, & must 
be made a principal part of the Farmers Business in the back 
Countrys, where there is not Water Carriage, for Wheat & Flour 
will I think be so low, as not to be worth long land Carriage. 
Hemp sold here & at Philad^. this two years past as high as 56 s. 
to £3. per C*. but it will be lower now as it can be imported from 
Russia & sold here to a good Proffitt I think at about 45 s/. 
per C'. & often under. I fancy there is no great Judgment in 
raising it, if there is, its easy to get Persons well acquainted in 
that Article, as great Quantitys are raised in Pensilv^. & the 
back parts of Maryland, & in the Co. Limerick in Ireland. I 
believe also much depends on Good Seed, & verry loose rich 
mould, & keeping the Birds from it. 

Inclosed I send you the last years Book piiblisfhed by the 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



104 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Society for the Encouragement of Arts &c. There youll see the 
Premiums engrossed to be given in America, amongst which are 
Pott Ash & Hemlp. I do not know whether you have this book 
or not, so I send it at a venture, as I would be happy at any 
time, could I in any manner contribute to your Pleasure or 
Proffitt. We have no News here. I am told that a Man 
of War is hourly expected with y^ Difinitive Treaty, the Declara- 
tion of Peace & some Orders to Sir Jeffry about the Troops &c. 
I have already trespassed I fear too much by this long letter, so 
will not detain you longer than to present M'■^ Wallaces respects 
to you, & to assure you that I am with great Esteem & Truth 
Dear Sir 

Y'^. most obed'. Hum^. Serv*. 

Hugh Wallace 
Sir William Johnson Bart. 



FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL ETC. 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 67, by 
a letter of April 25th from Thomas Flood, at New York, about affairs 
in which zeal for Sir William's reputation has landed him in prison; 
by a letter of the 25th from Daniel Campbell, at Schenectady, about 
attempt of McCord to leave in clandestine manner, death of old friend, 
Mr Corry of Albany, enforcement of order concerning width of wagons 
on highways, price of nails, and money for which he would like a bill 
on Albany or New York; by a letter of the 25th from William Darling- 
ton, at New York, mentioning draft on Mr Mortier, trees sent by Mr 
Dyckman, articles to be sent in charge of Garret Marselis, things delivered 
to Dr Stringer, and strong demand for fruit trees; by a letter of the 26th 
from Abraham Lyle, at Albany, sending bill of Captain Montour in 
favor of Francis Wade and inquiring about several accounts; by a 
letter of the 27th from Daniel Claus about trees and other articles, from 
New York, brought in bateaux from Schenectady; by receipt of the 
28th of Gerrit Merselis, at New York, to William Darlington for barrels 
and keg shipped to Albany for Sir William Johnson on Merselis' sloop. 
These papers were destroyed by the fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 105 

TO CATHERINE CORRY 
Df.- 

Johnson Hall April 29^f^ 1763 
Madam 

I am greatly concerned at the Melancholy occasion which 
Providence hath afForded me in condoling with you on the great 
loss you have sustained by the death of my Friend M"". Corry, 
a loss so sudden and unexpected that I never once heard of his 
Indisposition until I received the disagreeable news of his 
Departure. ' i!*^' 

Having always considered you to be a Lady of good sense I 
shall not attempt to offer you the usual consolation on such 
occasions, convinced your direction will enable you to support a 
loss which is at present irretrievable especially as the care of 
your Family is now become your sole & particular charge for 
the Welfare of whom prudence demands the utmost Extension 
of those Abilities of which I know you to be Mistress. 

This will I am certain meet with your most serious attention, 
& in some measure tend to alleviate the Grief which is so natu- 
rally excited by the death of an Affectionate Husband, and as 
Providence did not deprive you of him so long as your Family 
remained in an Infant State, I make no doubt it will still con- 
tinue to second the Endeavors of an Affectionate Mother in 
forming their Minds & promoting their Happiness. 

I shall be always ready to convince you of my Esteem for the 
Memory of M^ Corry & friendship for his family, and do assure 
you that I am with much Sincerity, Mamam.^ 
M^^ Corry. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

^"Mamam" in the copy, a manifest error. 



106 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO JAMES HAMILTON 

Johnson Hall April 29'^ 1763 
Dear Sir 

Since my last in which (amongst other particulars) I men- 
tioned my having wrote to GoV. Fitch concern^, the designs ot 
the people within his Government, I have received his answer 
intimating " that he wo'^. take the first opportunity to lay the 
matter before the Assembly w'^^. would set in May & recommend 
these affairs to their Serious Consideration, doubting not but 
they would be disposed to take every proper Measure that might 
come within their province to preserve a Good Harmony & 
understanding with the Six Nations." 

About the same time Sir Jeff Amherst acquainted me by 
Letter that Just as he had received mine on that Subject he 
opened a packet from the Earl of Egremont thereon Enclosing 
a Letter to GoV^ Fitch wherin he acquainted him of his Majestys 
Disapprobation of the Steps taken by the Connecticut People 
for settling on the Susquehanna, & directing the Gov*", to Exert 
every Legal Authority over his People, & employ his utmost 
influence to prevent the prosecution of any such Settlement, 'till 
the case could be laid before his Majesty. 

I am hopefull this will meet with all just deference & that 
his Majestys orders will be obeyed, altho' those concerned have 
been hitherto blind enough to Slight the representations so 
repeatedly made them from me. & the whole Confederacy now 
met at Onondaga on ace", of a Message sent to them by me, 
to w^. I have sent some of both Mohawk Castles to enforce my 
desire, & as they are much alarmed at y® proposed Settlement, I 
dare say they will take the same into their serious consideration, 
with the result whereof I shall as soon as possible make you 
acquainted as I have nothing more at heart than the preservation 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 107 

of peace and the preventing any unjust Encroachments to the 
Prejudice of the Original Owners, and the Disadvantage of the 
proprietary of Pensilvania. 



I am &«=. 



The Hon*''^ Gov«. HAMILTON. 



FROM WITHAM MARSH ETC. 

There occur in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 68, a letter of April 29th 
to Rev. Dr Barclay on the plan of the forthcoming Indian prayer book 
and advantage of mission work not only to Indians but to the established 
church (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:330; Q, 4:211); a letter of 
the 29th from William Marsh, at Schenectady, with reference to added 
obligations to Sir William for espousing his cause, and intention of Mr 
Mcllworth and himself to set out for the fort on the following day in 
a wagon; a bill and receipt of the 30th of Sanuel Tyms at Schnectady 
to Daniel Campbell for cloth; a letter of May 2d from Richard Allen, 
at Fort Stanwix, complaining of loss at hands of Indians and asking that 
his grievance be laid before the nation responsible for murder and robbery ; 
Richard Allen's account of losses sustained from the Indians; and a letter 
of the 2d from Catherine Corry informing that Mr Corry is dead and 
asking advice and assistance in settling his affairs. These papers were 
destroyed in the fire. 



FROM JOHN TABOR KEMPE 

A. L. S.i 

New York May Z^. 1763. 
Sir 

Your favour of the 30* March, has been so long by me 
unanswered that I must confess it needs to be apologized for, 
but I did not receive it til just before the Term, when I was 
so engaged with the preparations for the Term, that I really had 
not an Opportunity of writing, or indeed thinking of any Thing 
but the Business immediately before me; however I did not 
neglect communicating to the Gov"^. your Letter as we were a 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



108 Sir William Johnson Papers 

little astonished at the appearance of those Indians, some of 
whom it was said were Sachems. They were introduced in 
Councir I believe to inform the Government that the Lands had 
been fairly purchased and that the Nation was satisfied except 
a few, among whom some have no Right to the Lands there, 
being of another Tribe. The Governor desired I would inform 
you of the Proceedings of that Day, which I cannot say I am 
very callable of, not having been in Council to hear the proceed- 
ings but was called in after the Indians withdrew, and desired 
to consider of some method to recover these Lands by Law, 
but I cannot as yet devise any means to get over the objections 
I formerly mentioned to you. After reading your Letter the 
Gov"^. told me that these very Indians met him in the Bowery 
Land^ a Day or two after they had been in Council, stopped his 
Chariot, and asked him whether he intended to give them their 
Lands again. Which seems a very odd Question if they knew 
the purport of their Testimony given in Council (which I under- 
stood was by affid®.) 

Klock is charged with a fraud in making the Indians drunk, 
and then procuring them to sign the Deeds, a copy of which I 
believe you have. There is no other Charge against him but 
that, there being no order for any other prosecution. I have 
seen no affidavits relating to this affair, but those transmitted 
by you to the Governor. 

The next Post I shall transmit to you the Subpoenas & Tickets, 
that there may be full Time to secure the Witnesses, and I 
should be glad if it suited your Conveniency you would be 
present at the Trial, as many questions may be necessary to be 
asked the Witnesses which for want of knowing the whole cir- 
cumstances I may omit. 

I have not yet applied to any other Lawyer not knowing how 
they were to be paid. I shall speak to one to assist as the 
Burthen of a Trial of such Moment, and where there are so 



^On March 22d, Calendar of Council Minutes, p. 461. 
^Bowery Lane. "Land" in the copy. 



Post'War Period, 1763-1774 109 

many Witnesses to be examined is too heavy for one person. 
The next post you shall know who I have engaged. 

I am S^ 

Your most Hum: Serv*. 

J. T. Kempe 
Sr. W^. Johnson Baronet. 

FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL 

The preceding is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 168 by a letter 
of May 3^ from Daniel Campbell at Schenectady, mentioning black 
cloth sent up and difficulty of obtaining fine cloth or a good tailor. 
Destroyed by fire. 

TO HENRY CLINTON^ 
Dfr 

Johnson Hall May 5 th 1763 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of receiving your letter a few days ago 
enclosed to me by M^ Williams, which afforded me much Satis- 
faction, as it made me acquainted with your safe arrival in 
England. 

With regard to the Land you speak of, and which is one 
Sidth^ part of a Tract of 20000 acres now in my possession, the 
same was by me purchased from your Father (whose memory 
I shall always greatly Esteem) who Released the same to me 
on the 31st October 1753, for the sum of £213,* the Witnesses 



^Sir Henry Clinton, only son of Governor George Clinton. He was 
made a lieutenant in the Coldstream Guards November 1 , 1 75 1 , a 
colonel June 24, 1762, major general May 25, 1772, lieutenant general 
and knight of the Bath in 1 111 , and commander-in-chief of the forces 
of North America in 1 778. 

-Original destroyed by fire. 

'"Sidth" in copy; "sixth" it should be. 

*5ee Banyar to Johnson, November 5, 1753. 



1 1 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to which were Mess". Chas. WilHams & Richard Shuckburgh, 
& the same was after acknowledged in the presence of Judge 
Chambers. I am unacquainted with any other lands of the late 
M^ Clintons but should my Enquirys or assistance in that or 
any other matter appear at all necessary you may rely on my 
entire services to do anything in my power conducive to your 
Interest or the increase of your fortune which I should gladly 
be an Instrument of promoting. 

I hope the Wound which you received may not prove any 
ways detrimental to your health but that you may live to enjoy 
all the advantages of [preferment to which you are so justly 
entitled. 

Be assured I shall at all times be glad to hear of your Health 
& prosperity, and that I am Sir, &c. 
CoL^. Clinton. 



TO HENRY MONTOUR 

Instructions for M'^. Henry Montour. 

Johnson Hall May 5'^ 1763 

Sir 

You are to proceed from hence to Chilliequagey on the River 
Susquehanna, and there and in the Neighbourhood thereof use 
all your Endeavours to increase His Majestys Interest amongst 
the Indians and promote friendship & good understanding 
between them & his Subjects, giving likewise all the assistance 
necessary for that purpose to M"". McKee the Assistant Deputy 
Agent, & Conmiunicating all matters necessary for him to be 
made acquainted with. You are to use every method of satis- 
fying the Ind^. concerns, their present fears about their Lands 
by assuring them I shall use my utmost efforts to prevent their 
being unjustly deprived of their property. You are likewise 
from time to time to transmit me any material Intelligance rela- 



■^Original destroyed by fire. 




o 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 1 1 1 

live to Ind", affairs, as also to M^ Croghan, Depy. Agent, and 
you are to follow such other orders & Instructions as you shall 
receive at any time from myself, my Deputy, or any other your 
Superior officers. 

Given under my Hand at Johnson Hall May 5'^ I 763 



TO CHARLES WILLIAMS 

Johnson Hall May 5th 1763 

Dear Sir 

Herewith I transmit you a Letter in ans^ to that from Col'. 
Clinton inclosed in your favor of the 24'*^ ult°. & w'^^. was con- 
cerning a Sixth part of a Tract of 20000 acres in my possession, 
which sixth belonged to the late Gov^ Clinton & was by me 
purchased from him, for the sum of £213, as appears by his 
release to me for the same dated 3 1 ^' Oct^ 1 753 to which you, 
& M"". Shuckburgh are Witnesses. 

I am heartily sorry Col', Clintons proportion of fortune is 
not so considerable as I could wish, and should with pleasure 
receive his commands relative to any thing in my power. 

I return you thanks for the intelligence you were so kind as 
to Communicate to me concerning the peace which I hope may 
prove of a permanent duration, and remain with sincere Com- 
pliments to M". Williams & all your good Family, D^ Sir &ca. 
Chas. Williams Esqr. 

FROM ABRAHAM LYLE 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 68, by 
a letter of May 5th from Abraham Lyle, at Albany, inclosing communi- 
cation from Hugh Wallace, and mentioning arrival of commodities for 
Johnson by sloop, the return of draft to Mr Wade, and credit which 
the writer has too freely granted. Destroyed in the fire. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



112 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON 



In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 69, is a letter of May 6th from William 
Darlington, at New York, on sending copper plate and prints, inclosing 
receipt for articles previously sent, and denouncing De Bruls's charge 
for plate and prints. Destroyed by fire. 



FROM JOHN TABOR KEMPE 
L. S. 

Neiv York Ma}) 9 1763 
<SiR> 

<:^ Agreeable to my last I herewith enclose you four subpenas 
& sixteen Ticketts in the case the King ag*. George Klock. 1 
have not filled up the subpoena's or Ricketts^ with the names 
of the Witnesses not knowing whether the Witnesses whose 
names I know, are all of them living. The Witnesses whose 
names I know are Colin Mc:Leland Ccit)t. Jacob Klock, Han- 
joost Klock, Mrs. Eve Pickard, Wm. Wormwood, John Diffen- 
dorp, Solomon Miers, Jacob Keller and Henry Miers. You 
will be pleased to let the names of such of these and other wit- 
nesses as can be subpoenaed, be inserted in one of the writs and 
on the top of a subpoena Ticket and that subpoena showed the 
witness in which name is wrote (so that he may see the seal) 
and the Ticket be delivered to him. 

That you may be the better able to judge what proofs may 
be wanting on the part of the Crown I have enclosed a copy of 
a list of papers read in Council on Behalf of George Klock, by 
which you will see he has collected among other things a good 
deal of proofs tending to shew the Indians were sober when they 
Executed the deeds he is prosecuted for unfairly Obtaining. 

It will lie on us to prove the Indians were drunk when they 
executed these deeds with equal weight of proof at least, more 
indeed we ought to have, or the weight of evidence will be equal 
if not against us, or to take off the weight of the Evidence by 



^Tickets. "Rickettts" in the copy.. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 113 

such proof as will either incapicitate ye witnesses or Destroy the 
Credibility of their Testimony. If therefore any of Klocks 
Witnesses are interested in the Event of the suit; are persons 
of bad Fame, little Credibility, have made any declarations of 
their swearing so as that Klock should not be found Guilty, or 
in short if they are in any wise biased so as to be improper Wit- 
nesses, or their Credibility to be suspected, we should have 
witnesses ready to prove these Facts, and to support with all 
the strength we are able the charge against Klock, Viz, that he 
made the Indians drunk and then got the deeds signed. 

As it would be almost impossible without running into great 
lengths to insert in a letter all the proofs that may be wanting 
in the Tryal of a Cause so complex as this, as they may perhaps 
go into a proof of their Title in order to avoid the Charge of 
fraud, I have drawn up a sketch of a Brief wherein I have 
stated such proofs as may be wanting on our part, what I con- 
ceive may be Klocks defence, and how that ought to be opposed, 
and have marked the names of the witnesses I already have to 
the points I suppose they will prove leaving it to you to mark 
the other witnesses you shall discover, on the Brief, at the points 
they can prove, and if you should find any other thing material 
that any iperson can prove should be glad you would make 
another point of it and insert the names of such persons on the 
Brief ag*. the point so to be proved. 

We ought also by all means to strengthen our proof with 
relation to the Fraud in the first purchase, and the surreptitious 
survey by Collins, for there I think our proof is weak, or unless we 
have more than I know of will be so on the Tryal, it being all 
hearsay, David Schuyler who was on the survey is dead and I 
fear his affid*. will not be proof. The Affid* of Eve Pickard 
and Will™. Wormwood contains no knowledge of their own 
with Regard to that Fact, but only what they heard David 
Schuyler, Collins, & Peter Wagoner say. However they will 
be corroborating witnesses as Collins & Schuyler are dead, but 
should be supported if possible by more witnesses to the same 
purpose. If that Peter Wagoner is liveing we should subpoena 



1 1 4 Sir William Johnson Papers 

him by all means. He was on the survey, as was also a servant 
of Collins's, his name I know not, who if liveing and a white man 
should be also subpoenaed. We ought also have proof of the 
death of Schuyler, Collins (& Wagoner if dead) that we may 
be enabled with propriety to give in Evidence what they have 
declared about the matter. Schuyler is said to have been mad. 
We should have proof that he was not so, or had a lucid Interval 
when the declaration was made to Mrs. Eve Pickard & Will'" 
Wormwood, and when his affid*. was taken by yourself. 

With regard to the rest of the proof I can only say that I hope 
we shall not be deficient of good Creditable witnesses. White 
men: I should not chuse to be driven to the Necessity of making 
use of Indian Testimony if it can be avoided* because they are 
interested in the Lands, tho in this prosecution against Klock I 
dont see any thing that incapacitates them from being witnesses. 
Except those that have executed the deeds (a copy of which 1 
presume M"". Banyar sent you some time since) and it is not 
clear to me that even they may not be witnesses, tho I think it 
would be better to do without them, and indeed any Indians if 
possible. If we are obliged to make use of any of them, we 
must prove them to be Christians or they Cannot be Sworn. 

I cannot think of anything else necessary at this time for me 
to mention but again to repeat my request of your being present 
at the Tryal. 

M^ William Smith Jn^ is concerned for Klock in this prosecu- 
tion, so that I cannot get him to assist. I have spoke to M"^. 
Hicks who does not seem averse to it. M^ Scott I am Informed 
is not concerned for Klock. I beheve I can procure him. If 
I can I shall write you word.^ 

I am also to try at <! Albany Col. John Henry Lydius for 
Intrude ing on the Kings land near <^Fort Edward and on the 
Otter Creek^ If you can inform me of any <^persons that 
can prove any thing^ relating to his Intrusion, setling, <^sur- 
veying, selling or^ Leasing any of those Lands or taking the 
Proffits cutting <^the Timber etc.^ I should be Obliged to 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 115 

you to advertise me of<^it Imediately^ that I may get them 
supoenaed. It is a suit the Government have <^much> at 
Heart, and in which I would wish for <^all the> proof 
possible. 

I am Sir 
Yours most Obed'. Humble Servant 

J. T. Kempe 

P. S. You will be pleased to return me my Brief at Albany 
at <^the^ court as I shall want it at the Tryall. 

ADDRESSED : To 

Sir W'". Johnson 
INDORSED: Letter from M^ Atty General 
concerng Klocks prosecut". &c 
with sev'. papers — 

TO WILLIAM SMITH, JUN^. 
Df. 

Johnson HallMa^ 1 1^1^ 1763. 
[Sir] 

I received your Letter of the 3"^ inst. concerning your being 
retained on the behalf of the Germans served with Ejectments 
by M^ Livingston. The Death of M^ Corry whom I had 
directed to lay the whole case before you and in whose hands 
many of the papers & proceedings relative thereto were depos- 
ited, prevents me from being as particular as I could wish, but 
I shall put them in the hands of another Attorney for your 
inspection, and in the meantime must refer you to the Attorney 
General, who will give you the necessary information you 
require only observing in brief that The Lands occupied by the 
Germans are part of the Tract now in dispute between the 
Claimants under M^ Livingston and the Indians to whom these 
people have paid rent many years. The Patent was obtained 
by Virtue of an Indian Deed signed by four Inconsiderable 
Indians which can be made appear, & which takes in above 



1 1 6 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Double the Quantity mentioned in the Deed, This Tract was art- 
fully augmented by the Late Surveyor Collins who in a Moon- 
light night about 30 Years ago went to Conajoharee without the 
privity of the Indians & Run a Course which comprehends the 
present Claim after which he retired with the utmost fear & 
precipitation, leavs. his Instrum'. Staff behind him & sev^. other 
things as will appear by sev^ affid**. 

[So soon as the Indians discovered the affair the^ publicl(l^ 
disavowed it, & that in such a manner, as occasioned M'" Liv- 
ingston to drop proceeding therein, perhaps Tvith design to Wait 
the dissolution of the Ind\ at that Castle, for, man^ ^ears after 
some of the first German Settler went to M^ Livingston to J^now 
whether he [would give] them Deeds and Divide the same & 
whom he put off [M^\] Livingston saving to him he must not 
pretend to attempt [doing] anything therein so long as any of 
the Indians were alive. This likewise will he proved hy 
Evidences.^] 

On the Indians finding that the Lands [began to he settled] 
were setling fast they applied to the Settlers for rent, who 
accordingly have ever since paid it to them in Corn, or other- 
wise as they desire it, for wch they gave them regular rect* 
[considering them as Landlords, & Original proprietaries.] 

[In the year 1754, at Albany the Ind\ in my presence com- 
plained to the Governor & Council of the injustice of the patent, 
which they had then lately heard was ta^en out, when M*' 
Alexander, (now Lord Sterling,) & M''. W'". Livingston seemed 
so well convinced of the Ind\ rights to the Land that they 
readily & imediately offered to relinquish their Claim as Share 
therein, but many of the other partners being Young, or abroad 
prevented any thing effectual from talking place at that time.] 

The Distance & situation of the Germans residing on the 
Lands in Dispute will I apprehend not permit them to go to York 



^Words in italics and within brackets are erased in the manuscript. 
Words within the included brackets are supplied from a quotation in 
Stone's Life of Johnson, 2:1 77 (note). 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 117 

within the Time you mention, but if you will send up some blank 
Subpoenas they shall be filled up, and served on the proper 
persons and all Instructions necessary prepared against your 
arrival at Albany. 

I am Sir 

&ca 

W"^. Smith JuN^ Esqr. 

INDORSED: Johnson Hall May 1 1*^. 1763. 
Letter to M^ W"". Smith Jun^ 
concerning his being retained as a Lawyer 
on behalf of the Germans at Conajoharee 



TO JOHN TABOR KEMPE 
Df. 

Johnson Hall May 12^^ 1763. 
Sir 

I have had the fav^ of yours of the 2^ Ins* and altho I was 
at a loss how to act by not hearing from you for some time, I 
never<^theless^ well know the situation of your affairs and the 
multiplicity of <^bus^iness to which your Silence must be 
attributed. 

The circumstance relative to the Ind^ stopping the Gov^ in 
the Bowery Lane may convince you of their real inclinations to 
keep their Lands, however otherwise they might have been per- 
suaded to Express themselves before the Council which as the 
Creatures of Klock I was not surprised at, but I must confess 
their being Examined on Oath is a new precedent, and may prove 
a very fatal one, in the Province. 

The other day I received a letter from M^ Smith jun^ (who 
was retained by M*". Corry to defend the suit of the German 
settlers who were Ejected,) desiring to be informed of the par- 
ticulars on which the defence was to be grounded. As the 
papers relative thereto were in the hands of M^ Corry his death 
has occasioned my not anss. him Explicity, & have therefore 



118 Sir William Johnson Papers 

directed him to apply to you for Information therein, until his 
Arrival at Albany, when all matters shall be prepared for 
Inspection, and where I shall be personally present. 
Wishs you an Agreeable Circuit 

I am &*=. 
J. T. Kempe Esq^ 

INDORSED: Johnson Hall May 12, 1763 

Letter to Mr Kempe Att^ Gen^ 

FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL ETC. 

There are entered in the Johnson Calendar, p, 1 69—70 a letter of May 
1 4th from Daniel Campbell, at Schenectady, about an action against 
Will Printup's son for a small debt to "a man in this town," and chance 
to obtain a sum due from the elder Printup to Campbell; a letter of the 
14th from John Byrne aboard the Frigate Chatham to Captain Warren 
Johnson, asking letters of introduction to persons in New York, to be 
inclosed in letter to Admiral Tyrrell or sent in his care; a letter of the 
16th from Abraham Wnupas (New England Indian), at the Albany 
Jail, imploring intervention to procure speedy trial or release from con- 
finement, in which he is held on false charge of murder, describing his 
sufferings and attributing all to inhumanity of his brethren; a letter of 
the 1 6th from Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, at Hartford, about Joseph 
(Brant) and Charles Jeffry Smith (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y., 4:330- 
31 ; Q, 4:211-12), and a letter of the 16th from Witham Marsh, at 
Albany, giving results of conference with Mr Sylvester on the wrongs of 
the Indians and means of punishing "Rogue Young" for slander, with 
a description of Van Scheit (opponent in lawsuit) and enemies in 
Schenectady, whom the writer means to remember. These letters were 
destroyed in the fire. 

TO THOMAS FITCH 
Df.^ 

Johnson Hall Ma^ /7'^ 1763 
Sir 

I have been favoured with your Letter of the 7'^ ult°. ac- 
quainting me with your intention to lay the affair of the Settle- 



^Original destroyed by lire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 119 

merit intended on the Susquehanna River before the Assembly, 
which I make no doubt will be seriously considered as a very 
dangerous project. A few days ago some Chiefs of the Six 
Nations from Onondaga arriv'd here to acquaint me with their 
having been dispatched by the whole Confederacy and were 
charged with a Speech and Several Belts of Wampum to you 
concerning that Settlement which has created so much uneasi- 
ness amongst the Indians that they are now all on their way 
hither, thereon, and had requested I would send one of my 
Deputys with them to be present at their interview with you. 

I have accordingly sent Lieut. Johnson Dep. Ag'. for Ind". 
affairs agreable to their request together with one of my Inter- 
preters who will explain the purport of what they have to say, 
which you will find to be in general a representation of the 
Grievance which they labour under by reason of the Claim, & 
requesting that a Stop may be put to the Settlement. I hope it 
may serve the better to convince the persons concerned of how 
serious consequence it appears to all the Indians, and may induce 
them to observe the Proclamation you so wisely issued for 
prevent^, a Settlem^ which from my certain Experience of the 
Ind^. prest sentiments would prove fatal to our frontiers. I am 
with much Esteem Sir 
The Hon^'^ GovR. Pitch 



FROM JOHN BRADSTREET 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 70 by 
a letter of May 1 7th from Colonel John Bradstreet, at Albany, concern- 
ing provisions which he has ordered to be conveyed from Schenectady 
to Johnson Hall. Destroyed in the fire. 



1 20 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM KELLY 
A. L. 5/ 
gjj^ A^en; York May 1 7^^ 1 7 63. 

A Vessell arrived this day from Martinique with an acc°*. 
that Col°. Coote^ (on his return from the East Indies) met a 
Vessell bound to that Island & detained her till he wrote the 
Govr. a Letter giving him an Acco*. that the Manillas Surrend- 
ered to His Majesties arms about the last of October & that they 
had taken the annual Ship from Aquapulcha which made the 
Cash to the Conquerors am*, to two million Sterling. The par- 
ticulars I am well informed our Gov"^, has in a Letter by the above 
Vessell so that I think theres little reason to doubt but the News 
is generally true on which I congratulate you with great pleasure. 
The Ship Beaulah Green is Just arriv'd from London & bro*. 
the Letter I now inclose you in one from Aid". Baker & as I 
am informed Mr. Gilliland does your Business here shall send 
him the Bill Lading that he forward the Goods not that I would 
be in the least Backw'^. in doing any Service of this kind for you 
but rather to avoid being thought officious. I salute you with 
Esteem & Respect and am very truely Sir 

Your Most Obed^ Serv*. 

William Kelly. 
Sir William Johnson Bart. 

FROM PETER SILVESTER 

A. L. S.' 

Albany the 17 ^^ May 1763 
Sir 

Agreeable to your request communicated to me by M''. Marsh 
I have perused the depositions of Coenradt Wolk and others 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

'Sir Eyre Coote, British officer, eminent in a campaign in India and 
victor in the decisive battle of Wandewash. 
^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 121 

taken before Justice Butler relative to the report spread by 
Frederick Young and have consulted with the Law Books upon 
the Subject and am of opinion that the Author of that rumour 
may be proceeded against by the Information or Indictment 
which will be in the name of the King in which is' the person is 
convicted a fine will be set & the offender Imprisoned til the fine 
is paid — Besides which I think a private suit may be brought 
against him in your name for which I think very heavy damages 
ought to be recovered. 

M^ Marsh further told me you was desirous of knowing 
whether I was any way concerned in the cause of the King ag'. 
Klock. I told him I was not. I am sir. 

Your very humble servant, 

P. Silvester 

To the Honourable SiR WiLLIAM JOHNSON Baronet. 



TO THOMAS PENN 
L. Sr 

Johnson Hall Ma^ 1 8^K 1763 
Sir 

I was favoured with your verry friendly letter of January 
last a few days ago, and do assure you that I am verry happy 
in finding my proceedings with the Delaware Indians have proved 
so agreeable to you & your Brother, as I shall at all times gladly 
do everry thing in my power consistent with the duty of my 
employment towards promoting your mutual Interest in America, 
and it gives me pleasure to find the favourable Sentiments of 
the Indians concurring with mine on the late occasion. — 



^So in copy; "if" was plainly intended. 

"In the Pennsylvania Historical Society, Penn Manuscripts — Indian 
Affairs 1757-1772. Philadelphia, Pa. A draft, dated May 12, was 
destroyed by the fire. A copy is preserved, which lacks the postscript and 
some other matter here printed. 



122 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Some Gentlemen deputed from the Susquahana Company 
(as they are called) in New England, have severall times been 
with me making many offers, and most Earnestly solliciting for 
my Interest, more particularly last March when they likewise 
brought with them a Sum of Money, fatt Cattle &ca for the 
Indians, but as I am aware of y^. weakness of their Claim, and 
the fatal consequences w^. would infallibly attend such a Settle- 
ment, I dismissed them after declaring that I would give no 
manner of encouragement to a project which I was well con- 
vinced would draw the resentment of the Indians on the Frontiers, 
they then told me they were determined on prosecuting their 
Scheme, which occasioned my writeing imediately to Gov'". 
Fitch. Governour Hamilton & to Sir Jeffery Amherst^ for his 
interposition, he has since informed me that the Earl of Egre- 
monts Letter is arrived to order the Gov', of Connecticut to put 
a Stop thereto until his Majesty shall have enquired into the 
Affair. — 

But I am too well acquainted with the nature & disposition 
of that People to think they will be easily restrained; some of 
the Chiefs of the Six Nations are now with me thereon, and 
are to sett out imediately with a Message, and several Belts of 
Wampum to the Gov"", of Connecticut in the name of their whole 
Confederacy, Lieut Guy Johnson my Deputy with one of my 
Interpreters shall attend them thither and prevent any unfair 
proceedings or imposition, after whose return, I hope to be 
enabled to inform you of their laying aside their Attempts, in 
the mean time I beg leave to assure You that I am with great 
Esteem & compliments to Y^ Brother 

Sir 

Your most Obedient 
& most Humble Servant 
W^. Johnson. 
P. S. as it is become so difficult here of late, to send or receive 
letters with any degree of certainty, I gladly embraced this 
opertunity of writeing you by the Bearer M^ Fury, an Acquaint- 
ance of Mine, who promised to deliver it safe to You. 
The Honr^l*^ 

Thomas Penn Esq^ 



^In the draft Fitch and Hamilton are not mentioned. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 123 

FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 70, are entered a letter of May 20th 
from William Darlington, at New York, sending receipt by Captain 
Wendell and promising accounts by post, also mentioning trees from 
Mr. Dykeman; a receipt of the 20th of Harmanus J. Wendell, at New 
York, as master of sloop, for articles from William Darlington for Sir 
William Johnson; a certificate of the 21st of Lieutenant James Gorrell, 
at Fort Edward Augustus, that Charles Gaultier DeVerville served as 
interpreter, August 23, 1762, to May 20, 1763; a letter of the 23d 
from William Darlington, at New York, sending invoice of goods and 
statement of transactions, and mentioning letter from Sir William to 
[John] Pownal, forwarded by man of war Intrepid; a letter of the 25th 
from William Kelly, at New York, with information that he has for- 
warded goods, as Mr Gilliland hesitated to do so without orders; a re- 
ceipt of the 25th of Philip Lansing, at New York, for articles shipped 
on his sloop by William Kelly, to be delivered to Dr Stringer for 
Sir William Johnson; a letter of the 26th from Jacob Harsin, smith, at 
Niagara, asking authority to obtain provisions; and a bill and receipt of 
the 27th of Greg. Cunningham, at New York, to William Darlington 
for £ 1 7 for lace bought at vendue. Destroyed by fire. 



AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 
D.S. 

A Conference with Dep<^uties of the Six Nations of^ Indians. 

In the Council Chamber at Hartford <^in the Colony of^ 

Connecticut on the 28th Day of May 1 763. 

Present 

The Governor Council and Assembly of said Colony 

Togwerote Mohock 

Sagayenquaraghta (Speaker) 1 ^ , 

T- 1 ., ^Onondagas 

Toghuasquantha / I Deputies of the 

-T^ 1 -N I Six Nations. 

1 ogheres 1 

Oghsegwarona J 

G: Johnson Esq"^, D. Agt. attends. 

with William Printup — Interpreter sent by S^ W™. Johnson 

agent for Indian Affairs. 



124 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Deputies after being taken by the Hand, and bid Wel- 
come into the Government, seated themselves. Then Sagayen- 
tjuaraghta, arose and delivered a Speech, which from the Inter- 
preter was taken as foUoweth viz. 
Brethren 

We were sent by the Chiefs of y® Six Nations, and it has 
pleasd God that we are Ariv^. Safe at this place to see you. 
Brethren 

We are Deputies from all the Chiefs and they Understand 
that you are not quite sound within & we give this to Clear your 
Eyes that you may See & open your Ears that you may hear 
And Cleanse your hearts that you may Entertain Cordially 
what we shall Speak to you. 

A Belt of Wampum. 
Brethren 

We have no Writeings of it, but we have a Tradition that 
God the Maker of all things hath given to the Six Nations our 
large Country to dwell and subsist in, and made them a strong 
People, & our Nations have of Old appointed a Fire Place at 
Onondauga and by that Means united together and so became 
a strong & Powerfull Confederacy, and afterward they saw at 
Albany a white People and found Means to enter into a Con- 
ference with them and made a Silver Chain, a strong Chain of 
Friendship, which they and we have from Time to Time 
<^ Brightened and^ kept clean, and at this first Interview <^ liked 
you so well that we^ gave You Room for You to settle upon 
our <^Land and you> have since become very Numerous and 
prosperous <^for which we^ are Glad and Rejoice. 
And Brothers 

We have been very helpfull and assisted One Another 
Against our Enemies and by the Help of God We have gained 
the Superiority over them. 
And Brothers 

You'll exscuse us, we have no Records of former Proceed- 
ings But hint at such things as were done formerly by our Fore 
Fathers & have Nothing further to offer on this Head. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 125 

Now we are come to another Head. 
Brothers 

We have heard very grevious News this Winter, that you 
were about to come with Three hundred famiHes to settle on our 
Lands which was very astonishing to Us, and that You designed 
to build, Forts, and strong Places, on our Lands, and for that 
Reason our Sachems considered upon it and have sent us down 
to this Place. By that Means Brothers we are here to acquaint 
You with what News we hear, that you have a Design to settle 
on the Susquahannah River & Claim the Land to the West Seas. 

We have heretofore given away Land to the white People 
but of the Sale of this Land the Six Nations know Nothing 
that they have ever given it away or sold it to any, and what 
Little we have left, we intend to keep for ourselves, we know 
not of any such Sale, and if any such thing has been acted, it 
must have been done by particular persons in a separate manner, 
and not in any General Meeting or Councill of the Six Nations 
as has been the usual Manner of their giveing or selling their 
Lands. 
Brothers 

Our Custom is not to keep anything secret we have heard 
that one Lydius at Albany <^had endeavoured to purchase^ 
some Lands at Susquahannah, and it is <^not the Manner of 
the> Six Nations to keep anything in Reserve. He was up 
<^among the Nations^ to obtain a Sale, but could not obtain it, 
but we have <^heard that he has^ since got a Deed from the 
Indians which he obtained from <[them singly^ or one by one, 
and that from Straglers and such as we know <^nothing^ of. 
We have often sold Lands to the white People, but then it 
•<was done^ with Consent of the whole in some General Meet- 
ing and this is the <^Land>> which we have reserved for our- 
selves as we have but Little left, <^and we> are surprised at 
such a measure being taken to obtain a Deed without <^our> 
General knowledge or Consent. 

We have been told that Lydius has reported that he paid a 
great D<eal> of Mony for this Land which we know Nothing 



126 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of; and this is our hunting Land which we depend up>on for our 
Support and are not wilHng by any Means to part with it. 

Then the Speaker presented a broad Belt which he held in 
his Ha<^nd.> 
Brothers 

We Would have You take this Matter into your serious Con- 
sideration, we here present You the Emblem of the Six 
Castle<^s^ belonging to our Nations, and through it is the Road 
or Path through which we come to strengthen and confirm our 
Covenant Chain and consider, whether settleing on those Lands 
in such a Manner, may not unhappily tend to break this Cove- 
nant Chain. 
Brothers 

Seriously take it into your Consideration, and think how You 
would like it, to have your Lands taken from You in an unfair 
and injurious Manner. You are a praying People, better 
acquainted with Books and Learning than We, and must needs 
know better what is right than to think it well to have your 
Lands as we may say stolen from You, surely You could not 
Like to be treated in such a Manner, to ha<^ve]> your Land 
taken from You that You deipended upon for Your Support. 
Brothers 

Take it seriously into your Consideration how strong our 
<i| Union used to be^ formerly, when we were as it were united 
<\Under one head, and were^ one Body, and Blood, & happily 
<^united in our Af^fections. 
Brothers 

As I have told You before, that We have been sent here by 
our Chiefs to let you know that we have heard about your Design 
of entering upon our Lands, and we deliver in this Belt to shew 
the Minds of the confederate Nations, that you do not incroach 
on those Lands which we have reserved and design to keep for 
our selves & our Children to the latest Posterity, and will not 
part with them, they are such as we set by & will not sell. 
Brothers 

If you proceed to incroach on our Lands We shall not be 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 127 

Easy, but will return Home to our own Places and apply our- 
selves to the King our Father to obtain Justice, and I myself 
will go and on my going out of the house will return home, 
and leave You to consider on it, — and now I have said all I have 
to say. 

Then the Gov^ directed the Interpreter to tell them that he 
was able to give them a satisfactory Answear and desired they 
would stay till the Begining of the Week at which Time they 
should have an Answear. 

To which they answeared that their Chiefs directed them 
to make no Delay, but as soon as they had made their Speech 
they were to return, but at the Governour's Desire they would 
Stay for an Answear. They then withdrew. 



AN INDIAN CONFERENCE 
D. S 
Att the Councill Chamber in Hartford 

<May30thA. D. 1763.> 
Present as above 

The Governour made answer to the foregoing Speech in the 
<^ words following.^ 
Brethren 

We heartily welcome You to this Place and are glad to see 
You safe a<^rrived^ and that You are sent by Your Chiefs to 
brighten the Covenant Chain made by our Fore-Fathers 

You tell us Your Chiefs think we are not all sound within 
and give a <^Belt^ to Clear our Eyes to see, open our Ears 
to hear, and make our Hearts clean that We may cordially 
receive what You speak to us. 
Brethren 

We are sorry your Chiefs think we are not sound within we 
assur<^e^ You our Eyes are clear, our Ears are open, and we 
cordially receive You [r Message] as Friends & kindly receive 
your Message. 



128 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Brethren 

We rejoyce with You that God has prospered the Arms of 

the Great King George our Common Father, so that Your and 

our Enemies are subdued and now we hope, we shall live in 

Peace and Friendship as long as the Sun and Moon shall endure. 

We come now to Your Message 

Brethren 

You tell us the News You have heard that we were about to 
come with 300 Families to settle on the Susquahannah River, 
which was very astonishing to You and that we designed to 
build Forts on Your Land. 
Brethren 

We assure and tell You this Government has not given any 
Orders for any such Settlement, We are no Ways concerned 
in that Matter, only as Friends to You have endeavoured to 
prevent the People from going to settle those Lands. 

We have indeed been told that a Number of particular Per- 
sons some liveing in Connecticutt, some in the Massachusetts, 
some in New York and some in other Governments were about 
to settle on those Lands, but we advised them not to proceed 
in their Attempts. And Lately I received Orders from the King 
our Common Father <^Com^manding me to use my Authority 
and Influence <^to prevent^ these People from attempting to 
settle on those Lands till the <^ Matter^ should be laid before 
the King. 

In Obedience to his Majesty's Commands I acquainted the 
Ch<^ief^ Men among them with the King's Orders and advised 
them <Cto]> lay aside the Prosecution of that Settlement for 
the Present. 
And Brethren 

I have now the Satisfaction to acquaint You that I am well 
informed, these People have had a Meeting and have in Testi- 
mony, as well of his Majesty's fatherly Care as of their ready 
Submission to and acquiescence in his Orders, unanimously 
agreed that no Person whatever of their Company shall enter 
upon or make any Settlements on any of those Lands untill his 



Post-War Period, J763-I774 129 

Majesty: our common Father's Pleasure be known m that 

Matter. 

Brethren 

Seeing we as Your Friends and agreable to the Kings Orders 
have taken so much Care to prevent those Settlements wihch are 
so grievous to You and have now given You Accounts that the 
Attempts are Stopt, we think You will be fully satisfied and 
inform our Brothers your Chiefs and your Nations of this and 
Rest easy and quiet. 

We assure You of our cordial Friendship and wish You a 
safe Journey Home and desire You to present our kind Com- 
pliments to the Sachems of the Six Nations. 

Farewell 

To which the Deputy's of the Six Nations Reply'd as 
follow's (viz) 
Brethren 

We have heard with Attention what you have Said and are 
well pleased with the Same and we hope you will Endeavour 
to prevent any more people from making purchases of us: And 
as to those Lands we have Talked about we Do not at present 
Design to f>art with them but if Ever we Do, it Shall be to 
those purchasers of your people before any others If they Desire 
it; We are to Receive no presents on this <^Occas^ion but as 
to your offer to <^ Discharge our Expences while in^ this town 
we Gratefully Accept & Acknowledge the Same <^and heartily 
bid^ You Farewell. 

A true Copy examin"^. 

By George Wyllys Secrety. 

INDORSED: Minutes of a Conference 

held by the Gov^ of Connecticut 
at Hartford with the 6 
Nation Deputies 
May 28'h, 1 763 

Ent^. in Vol. VIII Ind". Records 
Page 419 

5 



130 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS FITCH 
L. S. 

Hartford <30'^ Ma}) 1763y 
<SlR> 

I have the Honour of your Letter by L^ <^Johnson^ 
acquainting me with the Delegation of the Confederate 
Nat<^ions^ of Indians; Five of them with the Interpreter 
arrived here <^under^ M"^. Johnsons Conduct last thirsday and 
on Saturday they were admitted to make their Speech and 
Deliver the Message they said they were charged with in the 
presence of the Council and Assembly And this Day in like 
manner I made a Speach to them with which as the Interpreter 
informed they were well satisfied. I should have inclosed 
Copies of them but the Time is short and L*. Johnson will have 
them to which I beg leave to refer you. 

Soon after receiving your Letter with the Speach and Belt 
some time ago I received orders from the Secretary of State 
Signifying His Majesty's Pleasure I should use both Authority 
and Influence to prevent the prosecution of the Settlements of 
the Lands on the Susquehannah &c. till the matter could be laid 
before the King and in Consequence of those Orders (which 
I acquainted the principal Gentlemen of the Company with) 
they have agreed to stop all proceedings towards a Settlement 
and acquiesce in the Kings orders. I therefore conclude there 
will no remain no uneasiness among the Indians. I am Sr. with 
great regard 

your most obedient & most humble Servant 

Tho^ Fitch 
Sir Will^*. Johnson Baronet &c. 
INDORSED: Hartford May SO^^. 1 763 

Gov"". Fitches Letter 

relative to Susquahana 
Lands 

Ent^. in Vol VIII Ind" Rec^* 

Page — 425 



Post-War Period, J 763-1774 131 



FROM PETER SILVESTER AND ISAIAH CORRY 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 171, 
by a letter of May 30th from Peter Silvester, at Albany, advising that 
the case against Frederick Youngs, [for slander], be kept for the assizes, 
as it can not be brought before Court of Common Pleas or Circuit Court 
at approaching sessions, and asking full and precise inform<>tion regarding 
action against Klock; and by a letter undated, from Isaiah Corry about 
affidavits and other papers relating to Klock, together with some bonds 
and accounts. Destroyed by fire. 



FROM WILLIAM HERVEY' 

A. L. s:- 

Schenectady 2^ June 1763 
Dear Sir 

I had intended doing myself the pleasure of seeing you at 
Fort Johnson, but upon inquiry am disappointed in being in- 
formed that you are not there. I left Gen'. Gage at Montreal 
the 19*'^ ult who desired to be remembered to you, as well as 
your friends of the 44''^: I hope. Sir, That you will not forget 
one who wishes to be remember'd to you, & who will always be 
glad of proving himself 

Your much obliged humble Serv^ 

W. Hervey 

If you have any Commands for England, I shall be glad to exe- 
cute them; by enclosing your letters^ Col. Amherst they will reach 
me. I met Cap^ Claus well at Crown-Point the 27''^ Ult. 
To the Honble SiR WiLLIAM JOHNSON &c. 
INDORSED: Major Herveys Letter. 



^Hon. William Hervey, captain of the 44th regiment. 

^Original destroyed by fire. 

^An omission occurs at this point in the copy. "To" may be supplied. 



132 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS MCKEE 
A. L. S.^ 

[June2J763] 
Sir 

Upon my arrival here I found Mr. Croghan, who informs me 
that you have not received any of mine, at which I am very 
much surprized as I have wrote several. 

I am now to return you very hearty Thanks for the favorable 
Sentiments you conceived of me when you was so kind as to 
appoint me in the Agency under you, in which Station, depend 
upon it Sir, it shall ever be my study to render you all Satisfaction, 
But I must begg Leave to observe. That if I had my Commission 
it would enable me to act with greater Authority. 

The New Englanders are actually settling at Wyoming; 
about 3 Weeks agoe I was informed of a few having settled 
there and that by this time a large Number to the amo": of 
3 or 400 wou'd be there ; This, by what I can learn is extremely 
dissagreeable to all the Indians, and will certainly be productive 
of very bad Consequence unless some immediate Method is 
fallen upon to prevent it. 

This piece of Intelligence I thought necessary to acquaint you 
with, and must now conclude with asshuring you That I am 
with Greatest Respect Sir 

Your most Obdedient and obliged Humble Servant 

Thomas McKee. 
The Honble SiR W^. JOHNSON Bart. 



A BILL OF SALE 

There is found in the Johnson Calendar, p. 171, a bill of 
sale from Cornrat Lagranse to Abraham E. Wendell, of negro Jacob, 
for £ 1 09 New York currency ; dated June 3d. Destroyed by fire. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 133 

TO WILLIAM HERVEY' 

Johnson Hall June 4"' 1763 
My Dear Sir 

Your verry kind favour of the 2*^. Inst. I yesterday received, 
& do assure you it would have given me great pleasure to have 
had your company at the Hall, w^. is about 2 hours ride from 
y* Fort & where I am building and improveing as fast as I can, 
endeavouring to make up for the time I spent in y* service without 
pay or promotion. I am glad to hear Gen'. Gage & my friends 
of the 44'*^ are well, & am obliged to them for their kind remem- 
brance. Let me assure you Dear Sir that no distance of time 
or place can ever make me unmindfull of your merit while I had 
y* honour to Command, nor of the great regard I have ever since 
had for you, and my most hearty wishes are, that you may (as 
I make no doubt you will) meet with a suitable return on y^ 
arrival in England where I wish you a happy meeting of your 
noble connections, eminently distinguished for their Activity & 
zeal for his Majestys service. If your departure be not too 
sudden, I shall make bold to trouble you with a letter or two, 
which I enclose to Coll. Amherst, to whom please to make my 
compliments. 

I wish you a safe and agreable Passage and am Dear Sir 
with cordiality y' most obedient Humble Serv'. 
P. S. It will afford me great Satisfaction to hear of y^ safe 
arrival in England, & should you see our worthy friend Lee" 
please to remember me to him, & tell him I heartily rejoice at 
y* Honr'''^- mention made of him, as well as at his promotion. 

FROM ELINORA CUMMINS 

The preceding letter is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 171, by 
a letter of June 4th from Elinora Cummins, at Frankfort, about expense 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

"Captain Charles Lee, of the 44th regiment ; later, a lieutenant colonel ; 
later a major general of the Continental army. 



134 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and difficulty of living in Frankfort, neglect on the part of Frank and 
Ferrale Wade, and Indian outbreak against back settlements. Destroyed 
by fire. 



FROM JEAN BAPTISTE DE COUAGNE 
A. L. S.^ 

Niagara 5 th June 1763. 
Honoured Sir 

A few days ago I did myself the honour of Writing you by 
Knaggs in which I acquainted you that Wapackcamigat, the 
Chief of all the Indians here abouts, had come here and asked 
the Commandant for some Rum, which he could not give him 
as he had the Generals orders to the contrary. Upon Wapack- 
camigat said he would come here once more, and if he was 
Refused Rum (as he only asked a little) We must take Care 
of the consequence, but believed the English were more Gen- 
erous than the French, as to his own Oppinion, But he thought 
the English were too Venturesome to go so far into the Indian 
Country, as they gave them no presents, & he was afraid that 
We should soon hear bad News. What I suspected is come 
to pass for about three Oclock in the afternoon of the 2d, Six 
Boats had put ashore at the big River where the Chippeways 
live, and six or seven of the Crews standing together were fired 
upon out of the Bushes, which kill'd one Wendell a Trader, 
Wounded his Brother, and kill'd one of the Servants. Upon 
this one Van Veghten who was himself Wounded push'd off 
his Boat, as did likewise one Seager in another Boat, and on 
the 3d Van Veghten arrived at Little Niagara, and brought 
us this Account. He further says that after he push'd off, he 
saw the Indians painted Black and Red standing with the Rest 
of the people to the number of fourteen, but what the Indians 
did with them he knows not. That same day a Chief of the 
Six Nations Come and made the same demand for Rum as 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 135 

Wapackcomigat did. I went with him to the Major," who 
gave him presents but no Rum, and I have tould the Indian 
(to keep him quiet) that he will have the Generals answer 
Concerning Rum &ca. 

As I look upon it to be of great Consequence giveing you the 
most Early Accounts of this Intelligence, I have dispatched this 
Express, hoping you will approve of it. I shall always be ready 
to execute your Commands. 

I am with the greatest respect Honoured Sir, 

Your most Obliged Humble Servant 

DeCougne. 

The Honourable SiR W". JoHNSON. 

P. s. 

More disagreeable is just arrived. An Officer is just come 
in and Report that he and his party About 1 00 men was Attack'd 
by Indians near the Detroit River. Only himself & about 30 
or 40 men are Come here. The Major is Writing to the Gen- 
eral of this affair. 

DeCougne. 

TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:522-24, under date of June 6th 
is a letter from Johnson to Sir Jeffery Amherst, in which he mentions the 
visit of deputies from the Six Nations to the governor of Connecticut, 
repeats complaints addressed to himself by a large deputation from those 
Indians touching the state of trade and a demand made upon them for the 
surrender of certain murderers, and exposes designs of the French to stir 
up the Six Nations. 

FROM DANIEL CLAUS 
A. L. S.- 
Montreal 6'^ June J 763 

HoN». Sir 

I arrived here the 31st ult°. after a Journey of 9 Days from 
Schenectady, I had the letters of two Mails from York in my 



^Major John Wilkins, of the 60th regiment, commander of the Niagara 
post. 

^Original destroyed by fire. 



136 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Care, by which the Military here expected to have their Destina- 
tion of Arrangm'. in America, but they were disappointed as 
there was not a word of it to any Body, and they now wait their 
Fate with Impatience. Gen^ Gage was surprised at my being 
dally 'd with in the manner I was ab*. selling out, but thinks I 
have lost nothing and may get Bargains hereafter, giving me 
Examples of last War when full Prices were paid for reduced 
Companies it being advantageous to the Purchaser upon a new 
Wars breaking out, w*^^. was L'. Coll. Beckwiths case, who 
purchased half pay and by that means came in Captain this War, 
which gave him that great advantage of rising, besides there is 
a report in Town that the officers of the 2. Battry. which are 
to be reduced will sustain their Rank in the Reg*, and receive 
full pay, but how true that is I dont know. As soon as we are 
reduced I find I cant hold my Ind". Employm^ without a par- 
ticular Sanction of thq Commander in chief, wherefore should 
be glad to hear from you on that head. I think it will be surest 
for me to keep my half pay since if that is once resigned its gone 
forever, whereas there might be a chance to get in the other 
hereafter. 

The Caghnawagey Ind«. have sent a Deputation to acquaint 
me that all their people were now come from hunting, and con- 
gratulated me on my safe arrival. I returned them my thanks 
& let them know that I intended to visit them in a few days, 
when I shall acquaint them with what you charged me. I find 
they labour still under some Uneasiness about their Lands which 
bind upon Chateaugay the line running thro' some of their 
Plantations; I am going to have it surveyed soon, and should it 
fall out to their Dislike I must endeavour to pacify them for 
awhile, since G. Gage sticks to the letter of the Patent as the 
French would have it, tho I think the Sense of it may be clearly 
turned in favour of the Ind"^ 

I hear there are 2 Battoeloads of Ammunition &ca. to be 
sent to Detroit as a present for the Ind"®. there. Gen'. Gage 
mentioned nothing to me about it as yet. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 137 

Mess". Welles & Wade have sold off all their goods upon 
Credit of different Terms to honest & able French People. They 
will clear to themselves a good deal after paying what they owe. 

I beg leave to recommend to your Care the work going on at 
my Place, and made free to tell my Serv'. to apply to you for 
Directions. 

A Vessell arrived lately at Quebec from England. It sailed 
the 5'^ Apr'. & brings an Acco'. of the Proclam". of the Peace 
at London the End of March with little Solemnity or rejoicing 
by the Citizens; Gen'. Murray said to be Gov^ General of 
Canada. 

I am with greatest Respects Hon<^. Sir 

Your most dutifull and obedient son 

Dan. Claus. 
Cap'. Lottridge presents his Respects. 
To the Hon'^'^ Sr. Wm. JoHNSON Bart. 



FROM JEAN BAPTISTE DE COUAGNE 

A. L. S.' 

Niagara 6'^ June 1763. 
Honoured Sir 

By my letter of yesterday you'll be fully informed of every 
thing that come to my hands since my last of the Month of May. 
I shall only signify to you at present what accounts has come 
here since last night, first, that the Queens Independants upon 
their way to the Detroit and a Serjeant & twenty Men of the 
60. Reg^ within 25 miles of that place at 1 1 oClock at Night 
were attacked by a party of Indians and out of 76 of the Inde- 
pendants only 36 Returned here.^ 

That the Old Belts Daughter has been informed this day 
by a Senecas Chachim to quit this place, as they have reed, a 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

^Lieutenant Cuyler's detachment. For an account of this affair, see 
pages 138-44, Journal of Pontiacs Conspiracy), 1763^ published by 
Clarence M. Burton, Detroit, Mich. 



138 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Belt from the Indians about Pittsborough, to take up the Bloody 
Hatchet, and that all the Surrounding Indians in them parts are 
absolutely determined thereupon. An answer the Senecas have 
not yet given to those who sent the Belt till such times as all the 
Schachims must be first made acquainted of their proceedings. 
They likewise have sent with the Belt three Scalps that they 
took in or about Pittsbourg. You may depend upon me to give 
you the most timely Notice of every thing that pertain to His 
Majestys Service in the most distinct manner that my capacity 
will permit & never shall fail Meriting, Honoured Sir, to be 
your faithfull Servant 

De Cougne 
The Honb'^ SiR W'^. JoHNSON 



TO JAMES HAMILTON ETC. 

There occur in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 72, a letter of June 7th to 
Governor Hamilton, giving an account of a meeting between deputies of 
Six Nations and Governor Fitch, and expressing hope that Connecticut 
people will desist from their purpose to settle on the Susquehanna, and 
that contention will be settled by the King ; and a letter of the 1 I th to 
William Darlington, acknowledging services, and asking that a hogshead 
of West India rum, a cask of port and hundred of loaf sugar may be 
sent him by an honest skipper. These papers were destroyed in the fire. 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Contemporary Cop^^ 

New York, I2'K June 1763. 
Copy. 
Sir, 

You will no doubt have Heard that the Indians near Fort 
Pitt have been Doing Mischief; And it would Seem that the 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 




MAJOR GENERAL AMHERST 



Posl-War Pcriol 1763-1774 139 

Affair is more General than I had once Apprehended: I Here- 
with Enclose you Copies of what I have Received from Colonel 
Bouquet: The Last part of the Intelligence seems to be greatly 
Exaggerated, as I Cannot Entertain a thought that they have 
been able to Cutt off the Garrison of the Detroit, or any of the 
Posts where Officers were Stationed. I Have however Ordered 
Major Campbell, with the Light Infantry Companys of the 42^^. 
& n^. Regiments, to March towards Philadelphia, in Case 
Colonel Bouquet should See Occasion to Employ them on that 
Communication, And the Light Infantry Company of the 1 7'^ 
Embark this day for Albany, from whence they are to Proceed 
to Fort Stanwix: They will be followed in a few days, by the 
Rest of that Regiment, From what I Wrote you in my Last, 
I Doubt not but you will have taken the Necessary Steps for 
Cautioning those Misguided Indians from pursuing such Meas- 
ures, that in the End must bring Certain Ruin on their own 
Heads, should they be so Rash as to Persist in them. 
I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, &ca 

Jeff: Amherst. 
Sir W". Johnson, Bar^ 
INDORSED: Copy. Letter from Sir Jeffery 

Amherst to Sir W"". Johnson. 

Dated New York, \2'^. June 1763 

Acquainting him of the First 

Mischief Done by the Indians 

near Fort Pitt; and of the 

Measures he was taking for 

being in Readiness to Send some 

Force for the protection of the 

Country &ca. 

in S"": J: Amherst's of June 27, 1763 

N°. 17. 



140 Sir William Johnson Papers 

PETER D^: Schuyler's affidavit 

A. D. S. 

Canajoharee June [13, 1763] 

I Peter D*: Schuyler Do herewith [ ] I have 

heard my father David Schuyler Say [ ] times that 

when he was About Survaying [ ] of this Patent 

where I now Live upon tha [ ] A Little Indian hut 

and the Survaior Collins along [ ] him and another 

men And he Said Collins got up with the Breake of Day And 
Run up Along [ ] till he came over Against a 

mouth of a Creek Running into the Mohaks Rivier And Put 
up his Compas and toke a Corse from the Mouth of Said krick 
into the woods and as Soon as he had Done he Came Running 
Back And Called my father and the other men to git up And 
fley away for he was afread the Indains would Come and Nock 
them in the head And) Said Come Lett us go for the Indains 
will kill us all And So the whent into the knou And my father 
had forgot his Ax And would go Back for the ax And Collins 
Said Dem the ax Lett Your Partuners Pay it I have Cut halve 
of of the flats the May well Pay that ax and so they made of 
as Soon as the Could And So went home — Saccondly I have 
Been with george klock and he having a meeting with the Indains 
and Desired them to Sign a Daclaration And one of them his 
name is Cobus Said Lett us Sign and lett klock have the Land 
But the others did not mind it And this was in Indain which 
klock keep about two years in his house or about his house And 
the other Indains toke But verry Little Notice of him till it Came 
to Sign And then the Refused till the toke them out And Prom- 
ised them Each a Blanked of Strouds or other Blankeds And 
forther fonda toke one of the Indains By the hand and Poolled 
him to te table to Sign till he did it at Last and So gentlemen I 
know no more. As only the Indains Came from over [ 

] And was Drunck [ ] And Said I had no 

[ ] he george klock had And that he would Soon 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 141 

go [ ] more But gentlemen I hope to be [ex]cused 

for not Coming Down Bacase [ ] in Distress 

Sir Your Humble Servent 

Peter D^: Schuyler 

Canajoharee June 13^^ — 1763 
Then appeared Parsonaly Before Me Peter D* Schuyler And 
made oath upon on the holy Evagelist of the Almighty God 
that the above Lince And the other Side Lince is the truth and 
nothing But the truth Sworn Before Me 

Jacob klock Justice 
INDORSED: [ ] David 

[ ] regard to what his 

[father] David Schuyler inform'd 

him in regard to Surveying 

Lands at Conejohare, & those on w'^'^ 

he now lives. 

In oath from 

Peter D*: Schuyler 



WILLIAM WORMWOODS AFFIDAVIT 

D. 

[June 13, 1763?] 

This day appeared before me Sir William Johnson of his 
Majesties Council for the province of New York [Will™]' 
Wormwood of Conajoharee in the County of Albany, who was 
duly sworn on the Holy Evangelists [of Almighty God\ 
deposeth and sayeth that many years ago M^ Collins Surveyor, 
& Peter Waggoner came to the house of said Waggoner where 
the Dep*. then was, & then told the dep*. that they had been up 
to survey the land at Conajorahee for M"" Uvingston, & that 
they had proceeded up the river during the night which was 
moonhght to a Creek called Onaavadaga on the west shore, that 
whilst David Schuyler, & Peter Waggoner were asleep the said 
Collins fixed his Compass at the mouth of said Creek and took 



142 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a course up into the woods, that before day next morning said 
Collins waked David Schuyler, and Peter Waggoner who were 
surprised to see the Compass fixed; that thereupon said Collins 
bid them make haste and embark in their Canoe for fear the 
Indians should discover them as they should knock them on the 
head. That on embarking in a hurry, a bag with Waggoners 
name on it, & an axe was left behind which Waggoner was 
desirous to go fetch, but Collins prevented it, saying, that those 
who had got the land could easily afford to pay for them — 
That they then iproceeded down the River said Collins having 
his Compass fixed in the Canoe all the way, he took the several 
Courses of the shore, that he desired said Schuyler, & Waggoner 
to make haste & paddle briskly without touching the Canoe, 
least the Indians should hear them, and that on coming [to] 
near to the place where David Schuyler now lives they landed 
said Collins & Waggoner then proceeded to the house of 
[ ] Waggoner where the dep* then was, & where' 

they informed [ ] of the beforementioned particulars. 

That the Dep'. has heard the said Waggoner frequently since 
relate the s^ affair in the same manner adding that had they been 
discovered the Indians would certainly have killed them, and 
that he expected to have been very well payed for attending said 
Collins but never received more than two rix dollars. That 
during the last War the Indians of Conajoharee occasioned a 
great alarm in that neighbourhood threatning to murther the 
Inhabitants, and the dep^ was informed that the cause thereof 
was their having being cheated of their lands by the before- 
mentioned Survey, and further the Deponent sayeth not. 
INDORSED: Affidavit of Wilh. 

Wormwood relative to 

Collin's Survey of the land 

at Conajoharee 
N-. 6 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 143 

affidavit' regarding collins's survey. 
D. 

[June 13, 1763?] 
About eighteen or nineteen years ago M"^ Collins Survey 
[or ] [David Schyler,] & Peter Waggoner told the Dep'. 

at y^. House that they [ ] been up to survey the 

land at Conajoharee for M^ Livingston [ ] that 

they had proceeded up the river during the night which was 
moonhght, to a Creek called Ononadaga on the West Shore, 
that whilst Dav"^. Schyler, & Peter Waggoner were asleep 
the said Collins fixed his Compass at the Mouth of said Creek, 
& took a Course up into the woods, that before day next morning 
said Collins waked Dav<^. Schyler, & Peter Waggoner, who 
were surprized to see the Compass fixed, that thereupon said 
Collins bid them make haste, & embark in their Canoe for fear 
the Ind^ should discover them as they would knock them on the 
head — that on embarking in a hurry a Bag with Waggoners 
name on & an axe were left behind which Waggoner was 
desirous to go fetch, but Collins prevented it saying, that those 
who had got the Land could easily afford to pay for them. 
That they then proceeded [to the house down the Paver,] near 
to [the where David Schyler now lives,] said Collins having his 
Compass fixed in the Canoe all the way, and took the severa[I] 
Courses of the shore, that he desired said Schyler & Waggon [er] 
to make haste, & paddle briskly without touching y^ Canoe 
[mailing a noise] least the Indians should hear them, and that on 
coming to the place aforementioned they landed & said Collins, 
& Waggoner proceeded to the house of said Waggoner where 
the Dep*. then was, & when they informed him [ ] 

particulars [ ] has heard the said Waggoner 

[ ] the [ ] affair in the same manner 

adding [ ] been discovered the Indians would cer- 

tainly have killed [ ] & that he expected to have 

been very well payed for atten[ ] said Collins, but never 

received more than two Rix Dol[lars] [at which he was greatl}^ 

^Made by an unknown person. 



144 Sir William Johnson Papers 

] That during the last war the Indians of Conajoharee 
occasioned a great alarm in that Neighbourhood, threatning to 
murder the Inhabitants, and the Deip'. was informed that the 
Cause thereof was their having been cheated of their land by the 
beforementioned Survey and further the Dep* says not. 



CHARGES AGAINST GEORGE KLOCK 
A. D.' 
P ' It is unprecedented to make 2^. purchases [ ] 

Ind^ for Lands Pattented formerly, as also to run lines 
[ ] & that unknown to the Indians, & they 

after doing [ ] 

2 Klock never paid y^. Consideration money mentioned [ ] 

3 Deeds, notwithstanding w^. Tillebagh then Justice ( [ ] 
with Klock) was an Evidence to them — Here I think 
Tillebagh was wrong In signing w*. he must know to be 
false. 

4*^. The Deeds had no certificates or other Proof on y^. B [ ] 

5*^. Deeds Signed by Several who have no right to sign them 
Such as Shawanese, Oneidaes, Lower Mohawks, & Chil- 
dren w^. I can prove, as can also y^. Sachims, & Klock 
must own it. 

6*^. Ury Klock was y^ Person who helped to Settle the Rent 
w^. the Tenants pay to the Ind^. these many Years, this 
can be proved by the Tenants. 

7'^^. Not one Principal Sachim of Conojohare Signed y^. first 
Deed, as can be iproved by y^. Ind^ and Eve Pickard, 

8*^. the Deed on w^. the Pattent is founded does not Com- 
prehend half the Land now claimed, as ^ said Deed will 
appear, neither are the bounds by S*^. Deed, either clear or 
ascertained 

9*. if M"". Livingston &a knew their Title to be good, why 
would they not give Klock & Fonda a Warrantee, y*'. 



^In Johnson's handwriting. 

-In the manuscript check marks are set against most of the statements 
in the list. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 145 

Deeds will shew that they have only given a quit Claim — 
or why not divided as yet in 33 years. 

lO'*^. Jacob G. Klock is Son to George Klock, & not qualified to 
Interpret. Jacob Forbes another of their Interpreters 
declared to me he did not understand enough of y*^. lan- 
guage to interpret between Klocks Party, & the Ind*. on 
y^. 9^^. of December as ^ his Affidavit, will appear & y'. 
y^. Ind* all but one were unwilling to sign s"^. Declaration 
Justice Klock says s^. Ind'. except one Cobus alias Negroe 
a Creature of Klocks were unwilling to sign s^. 
Declara[tion] 
1 1 *. also the Declaration of y^. 9^^. Decb^ on w^. much Stress 
is layed was Signed by 2 Men, their Wives, 2 of their 
small Children & two Lads under Age, and those are 
called in S'^. Declaration the Majority of the Indians of y^. 
Conojohare Tribe, these Indians who are in S*^. Declara- 
tion Said to [ ] y^. general Meeting of y'. 
Castle y^ lO'*^ of last [March ] word to say, as 
will appear by the Minutes of S^. [ ] by 
order of the Gov^ & Council in mine & the presence 
[ ] of his Majestys Justices of the Peace. 

1 1 *^. M^ Duncan one of the Party acknowledged in y^ presence 
[ ] the Justices y^. 10*^. of March that Klock was 

a great Roug[ ] that he plainly saw there had been a 
great deal of dirty work made use of in the Affair, & was 
sorry he was concerned in it his Letter of y* 1 March may 
also shew a good deal, but do not choose to make use of it 
if I can avoid it, nor of M^ Rutherfords dated 2 1 *^ Feb'^ 
1763 

Quere. Why that Pattent has never been divided, respecting 
David Schylers Claim of 1 500 Acres according to M^ P. 
Livingstons letter to D: & P Schyler y^. 16'^ April 1761 
Hanjoost Klock Brother of Ury Klock after being Sworn 
acknowledged w^ he had swore to M^ Hend'^. Fry & 
Severall others Also to his Brother Jacob Klock who has 
swore the same. 



146 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



June l^*.Jacob an Oneidae told me four or five days ago that 
he was made Drunk by U Klock & Signed it, and that on 
being asked lately to Sign some other paper, he told him 
he would if paid for it, on my asking him why he would 
sign for Lands he had no right to. He answered y*. was y^ 
reason of his Willingness, Since Klock & Fonda were Fools 
or Knaves enough to ask him when they knew it. 
Hance, alias Takarihogo the chief Man who Signed the 
late Deed for Klock, declares he was drunk, & that before 
& after he was always ag^*. parting w'^. S*^. Land, and is 
willing to declare y^. same, as is also Aughsaghrogo who 
signed it drunk 



Jacob Grome 
[Hendk. Market] 
Hend*^. Feling 
Peter Waggo" Widdow^ 
Thomas Davis 
Lenart Helmer 
D°. Lodowick Crane 



[ ] John Heathcock 
[ ] Solomon Myer 

Hend^. Meyer 

Hannis Deifendorf 

[John Eisenlord] 

Jacob Forbes 

William Wormwood 

Eve Pickard 

[Frederick Galer] 

Joost Klock — Says y^. Ind* 

Justice Klock were made Drunk 

Collin McCleland — 

Peter Schyler — 

[Peter T^ger of Stonerab^] 

W«. Fox 

Wm. Seber 

M«s. Schyler 



to be Supoenaed 

ag^* Klock ; who say Klock was 
y^. Man made a Barg" for 
them with y«. Ind^ & S'^. it 
was the Ind^ Lands — 
& kept as Rent Roots thereof 
tell w*. Livingston & Wife 
Say^^ concerning y®. Ind^ 
Claim to y^. Lands 
ab*. Ind^ being forced to Sign, 
concerning y^. Survey by night 
sayed he could get Klock 
hanged if he would devulge w*. 
he knew 



^Check marks are set against nearly all these names in the manuscript. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 147 



FROM SAMUEL STRINGER 



In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 72, there occurs a letter of June 1 3th 
from Samuel Stringer, at Albany, about goods forwarded and lodging 
which he is prepared to furnish. Destroyed by fire. 



INDENTURE OF AN INDIAN WOMAN 
D. S.' 

June 15, 1763 
THIS INDENTURE Witnesseth that Margrett Daughter of 
Jannitye an Indian Squaw of full age for Sundry Good Causes 
& valuable Considerations her thereunto moving Hath of her 
own free will & Accord put herself Servant to Abraham E. 
Wendell of the City of Albany Gent, to serve him His Exe". 
Administrators and Assigns all the Days of Her Natural Life 
and also She the said Margrett doth Promise Covenant & agree 
with him the said Abraham E. Wendell that in Case She 
Happens to have any Children Born of Her Body whether 
Male or Female that the said Children shall be & become 
Servants to him the said Abraham E. Wendell during all the 
Days of Their Natural Life & the said Abraham E. Wendell 
His Exe": and Assigns during the time of their Servitude shall 
provide for the said Margrett & her Children Sufficient Meat 
Drink Washing Cloathing, Lodging and for the true Perform- 
ance Hereof both the said Parties bind themselves unto each 
other by these Presents. In Witness whereof they have Here- 
unto interchangebly Sett their Hands & Seals this 15'^ Day of 
June in the Third Year of His Majesties Reign Annoque 
Domini 1 763. 

her 
Margrett X Van Cealen 
name 



^Original destroyed by lire. 



148 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sealed & Delivered in the Presence of 
VoLCKERT P\ Douw Mayor 
Peter Lansingh. 
INDORSED: I do hereby assign and make over unto Sir William 
Johnson Bart, all my Right, Title, Interest, prop- 
erty Claim and Demand unto the within bound 
Margaret by Virtue of this Indenture. 

As Witness my hand this 1 3th March 1 766. 
Abraham E. Wendell. 
Witness 

Dan. Claus 
L. Perthuis. 

FROM JEAN BAPTISTE DE COUAGNE 

The preceding document is followed in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 72, 
by a letter of the 15th from Jean Baptiste de Couagne, at Niagara, 
informing that a sloop has brought news of siege of Detroit by Indians, 
valiant defense by Major Gladwin, fidehty of the French, and Indian 
barbarities, and mentioning relief expedition from Niagara. This paper 
was destroyed in the fire. 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Contemporary) Copxi^ 
Copy NeTv York, 16^K June, 1763. 

Sir, 

I am to Thank you for your Letter of the 6*^^. Instant, which 
I have this moment Received, with some Advices from Niagara, 
Concerning the Motions of the Indians, that Way, they having 
Attacked a Detachment under the Command of Lieut. Cuyler 
of Hopkins's Rangers who were on their Route towards the 
Detroit^ and Obliged him to Return to Niagara with (I am 
Sorry to Say) too few of his men. 



^In Public Record Office C. O. 5.63, London, England. 

"See Francis Parkman, The Conspiarcy of Pontiac. 1 :272— 79, and 
Journal of Pontiac s Conspiracy, ed. M. Agnes Burton, tr. R. Clyde 
Ford. p. 136-44. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 149 

Upon this Intelligence, I have thought it Necessary to Dis- 
patch Captain Dalyell/ my Aid de Camp, with Orders to Carry 
with him all such Reinforcements as can possibly be Collected, 
(having, at the same time, a due Attention for the Safety of 
the Principal Forts) to Niagara, and to proceed to the Detroit, 
if Necessary, and Judged proper. 

I am persuaded I Need not Say any thing to you, on this 
Occasion, to Use your utmost Influence with the Several Tribes 
of Indians, to Shew them the Folly & Madness, as well as the 
Ingratitude of such Proceedings, which, altho' they may Create 
some Trouble to Us, at present, from the Small number of 
Troops there are here, & may be Attended with Fatal Con- 
sequences, by the Deaths of our Unhappy Countrymen, who may 
Fall into their Hands, must, in the End, bring Certain & Inevi- 
table Ruin on the Whole Race of the Indians, that are so Rash 
as to be Concerned, & Persevere in this Perfidious Behavior. 
I am, with great Regard, Sir, &c. 

Jeff: Amherst. 
Sir W". Johnson Bart. 
INDORSED: Copy. Letter from Sir Jeffrey 

Amherst to Sir W"*. Johnson, 

Dated New York, 16'^. June 1763. 

Acknowledging the Rec'. of 

Sir W'"'^ of the 6*^. June, And 

Acquaints him of Lieut. 

Cuyler's Defeat, which had 

Determined the General to Send 

all the Force he could Collect 

to Niagara, &ca, — Desires 

Sir William will Use his utmost 

Influence with the Indians Below, 

to Shew them the Folly & Madness, 

as well as Ingratitude of such 

Proceedings, &ca — 

in S': J: Amherst's of June 27: 1763 

N°. 19. 



^Captain James Daiyell, of the first regiment of British foot. 



150 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. His. N. Y., 7:524-25 is a letter dated June 19 
from Johnson, at Albany, to Sir Jeffery Amherst on the siege of Detroit 
by Ottawas, Chippewas and Delawares, measures proposed for quelling 
the uprising, and the suit over the Mohawks' lands. 

FROM ABRAHAM MORTIER ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 172-3, there occur the following: a letter 
of June 20th from Abraham Mortier at New York, acknowledging 
receipt of Sir (General) Jeffery Amherst's warrant in Johnson's favor 
for £2923, 2s, 6d currency, regretting that he can not pay it through an 
Albany correspondent, and advising Sir William to draw on him in favor 
of some one in New York ; a letter of the 20th from Goldsbrow Banyar, 
at New York, saying that he will be unable for a time to visit Johnson 
Hall, expressing hope that General Amherst and Sir William will succeed 
in pacifying the Indians, and mentioning (Cadwallader) Golden and 
Governor (Josiah) Hardy, late of New Jersey, in connection with 
official places to be filled; a letter of the 21st from WiUiam Darlington, 
at New York, concerning articles desired by Johnson and Captain Claus. 
These papers were destroyed in the fire. 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Contemporary) Cop^^ 

Copy A^eiP York, 22^. June 1763. 

Sir 

Last Night I had the Favor of your Letter of the \9^. and, 
at the same time, Received One from Major Gladwin, of the 
1 4^. May, at which time the Detroit was Invested by a Large 
Body of Indians, who had in their Usual manner, Inhumanely 
Butchered those of our People who had been so Unfortunate 
as to Fall into their Hands. 

I Flatter Myself Major Gladwin will have been able to have 
Defended the Place untill the Reinforcement, which Major 
Wilkins^ Writes me he had Sent him. Arrives. — The Base & 
Treacherous manner in which those Savages Murdered Sir 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 
^Major John Wilkins, of the 60th regiment. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 151 

Robert Davers, Lieut: Robertson & all their Boats Crew, and 
afterwards came to Major Gladwin, as he Writes me, with a 
Pipe of Peace, Offering to Renew their Friendship; And on 
his Refusing to Receive any but their Chiefs, Immediately Com- 
menced Hostilities, & Attacked the Fort, Surely Calls Aloud 
for the Severest Punishment that may be in our power to Inflict : 
I Cannot think that Major Gladwin Knew of the Above men- 
tioned Murders having been Committed, when the Chief of the 
Ottawas^ (who Seems to be the Ringleader of this Mischief) 
Came to Offer Friendship; for, if he Did, he Certainly ought to 
have put the Villain and Every Indian then in the Fort to 
Death: This, altho' but small Revenge for such unprovoked 
Barbarities, would have been Paying them back in the only way 
they Deserve : And I am persuaded, would have been Attended 
with better Consequences than We can Expect, from Treating 
with them. 

You are, without Doubt, the best Judge of the Disposition 
of the Indians, and Consequently of the Methods most likely 
to Succeed in Engaging them to Fall upon One Another: At 
present our Chief Attention must be to Regain, as soon as pos- 
sible, the Entire Command of the Country. 

My Faith in the Indians has always been so small that this 
Behavior of theirs does not Surprize me, altho I am Sorry they 
have been able to put their Schemes so far in Execution, owing 
to the Thinness of our Garrisons : I am well Persuaded that our 
Security must always Depend on our own Superiority & not to 
their Friendship, or Generosity. 

I Have Ordered Captain Winepress to proceed with his Com- 
pany to Oswego; And I am Sure you will Leave Nothing 
Undone in your Department, for Keeping the Indians below 
Quiet as well as for Procuring all the Assistance in your Power 
from the Militia, &ca, for the Protection of the Posts on the 
Communication . 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, &ca 
Jeff: Amherst. 

^Pontiac. See Journal of Pontiacs Conspiracy, p. 44—46. 



152 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir W^^ Johnson, Bar*. 

INDORSED: Co^py. Letter from Sir Jeffery 
Amherst to Sir Wm. Johnson. 
Dated New York. 22^. June 1 763. 
In Answer to his of the 1 9*^. June. 
That Sir WiUiam was certainly the 
best Judge of the Disposition of the Indians, 
& the Methods most likely to Succeed 
in Engaging them to Fall upon one 
Another; but that at present, our Chief 
Attention must be to Regain, as soon 
as possible, the Entire Command of the 
Country. — Mentions, with great 
Concern, the Barbarities the Savages 
had Committed at the Detroit, which 
Called Aloud for the Severest Punishment 
that is in our power to Inflict, &ca 
in S'. J. Amherst's of June 27:1 763 
N°. 21. 

FROM JOHN MACOMB 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 73, there occurs a letter of June 27th 
from John Macomb, at Albany, about articles sent in care of Mr. Van 
Eps, and others desired by Mrs. Brant. This paper was destroyed in 
the fire. 



TROUBLES OF THE NARRAGANSETT INDIANS 
Contemporary Copy 

[June ?] 1763 — November 2. 1764 

[ '] 

[We the] Subscribers being a large Part of [the ] 

[Indi]ans whereof Thomas Ninigret reigns [as Sa[chem] ] 

[ . . . . '^ 

[ ] That the Land belonging to said Tribe of Indians 

[ ] [reserved to] said Tribe by old Ninigret the Nara- 



^Lines missing. There is a duplicate of this memorial, from which 
some burned portions of this manuscript are supplied. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 153 

gansett Sachem [by him reserved] to and for his Use and the 
Use of his Said Tribe and their [children] [forever] And the 
Rest of his Estate in Narragansett was by him and [his said 
Tribe] surrendered up to this Colony for their Protection: And 
a Law w[as passed in this] Colony agreeable thereto, to make 
void all Grants Deeds and Leases [made] by the Sachem of 
said Tribe of Indians without the Consent and approbation of 
the General Assembly with a Fine thereto annexed. The 
Int[ent] [W] hereof was to prevent the Indians from coming 
to Poverty by Means of Impositions from designing and ill- 
minded People. Nevertheless said Law (Altho' it was long in 
Force and very serviceable to said Tribe) hath lately been 
repealed which is likely to prove their utter Ruin : For since the 
Repeal thereof Thomas the present Sachem hath alone (to 
answer his own Purposes and [the] Purposes of others, design- 
ing People) without the Consent of his Tribe or as [king] the 
Approbation of the General Assembly sold and conveyed away 
by Deeds divers Tracts of Land belonging to said Tribe to 
English People and is daily [so] doing; and threatens to sell 
as much thereof as he pleases without the Consent of his Tribe: 
So that they are in the utmost Danger of having all their Settle- 
ments and Lands taken and sold away from them to their utter 
undoing. And unless your Honors interpose they are most 
likely to be set a starving or become a Town Charge ; which will 
be the Case of many old Women and young Squaws and young 
Children who will be in Danger of perishing when they all 
depended they had an Inheritance in those Lands from their 
Forefathers for them and their Posterity to enjoy and possess 
as they had done for Ages before. They therefore are obliged 
to apply to this Assembly and pray for Protection and that 
your Honors would pass an Act (agreeable to the Intent of the 
Royal Charter) to prevint their being imposed on and to pro- 
hibit the said Sachem from selling any more of said Land from 
them (especially their particular Settlements) without absolute 
Necessity and the Consent as formerly of his Tribe and of the 



154 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



General Assembly; otherwise Ruin and [Destruction must be 

] no Dependance on this Sachem who is spend 

] he can. And as many Men of said Tribe 

] some lost their Lives in the Kings Service in 

] Wives and Children ought to be supported on] 

which we hope you] will also consider duly and gr[ ] 

Petition: And till you hear] us on the Subject Matter hereof 

we pray said Sachem may be] prohibited selling any of said 

Lands (which he [threatens to do because] he heard of this 

our Application to this Assembly) [And as] we depend entirely 

on your Honors for Safety we shall ( [if you take] Care of us 



as we expect) forever have Reason to thank and [ 
your Honors. 



] 



Tobias Coheis X 
Joseph Coheis ® 
Ephraim Coheis ^ 
Samuel Niles S 
Jos : Tuchigh E 
James Niles X 
Thomas Lewis O 
John Shadock X 
Charles Antony O 
Thomas Pall O 
David Secator X 
Peter Shadock O 
Tobias Shadock X 
John Tuchigh X 
Thomas Tuchigh X 
John Shadock Jun. X 
Simeon Niles X 
Sarah Niles X 
Abigail Baron X 
Mary Shadock X 
Josusha Niles X 
Sarah Samlpson X 



Subscribed 

Hannah Thompson X 
Ruhamah Talker X 
Betty Joshua X 
Sarah Tacketis X 
Marey Siass X 
Mary Cotrell X 
Sarah Shadock X 
Betty Danal B 
James Chanem X 
Sarah Danail X 
David Mox O 
Mary Mox X 
Hannah Penny O 
Jacob Cantone X 
Sarah Poall X 
James Danal 
Sonto John X 
Betty Sam X 
Abigail Primes X 
James Coof X 
Sarah Coof X 
Chomo Cke X 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 



55 



Hannah Tuchigh X 
Jane Tuchigh X 
Mary Pall X 
Bettey Coheis X 
Hannah Tomb X 
Betty Runnis X 
Betty Niles X 
Sarah Coheis X 
Hannah Shadock X 
Margaret Antony X 



Subscribed 

John Wompoy X 
Sarah Wompoy X 
Anstres Lews X 
Marrey James N 
Mary Reade V 
Hannah Coies B 
Sarah Antony Z 
Matha Tobey E 
Samson Poall V 
Roger Wobby X 



Additional Names 

The following names are added to the list of signers of the 
duplicate memorial in a separate manuscript. 



Names omitted in copying 
[ ] Hazard X Sarah Sekesock X 

[ ] Roger his Mark X 

[ ] Hazard X 

[ ]Sheesuck X 

George Paull^ 
[ ] Abraham his X Mark Betty Ephraim X 

[ ] Tiking his X Mark Deborah Shesock X 

Anthony Wilson X 
Sarah Penny X 
Cate Aron X 
Dinah Podheck X 



Hannah Simon X 
Dinah Mikel X 
Sarah Hamar X 
Mary Roger X 



Grace Antecomp S 
Hannah Garret Jun X 
Abigail Aper X 



June 1 6^^^. 1 763 To the House of Mag^*^ 

Gent. 

Resolved^ that this Petition be referred to next Session of 
Assembly: And that Thomas Ninigret Sachem be served with 
a Copy of this Petition and cited to appear at next Session 
to answer the same: And that in [the mean Time] [the said 

^Burned portions of these legislative proceedings supplied from a dupli- 
cate manuscript also injured by the fire. 



156 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Thomas Ninigret Sachem [be] and he is hereby restricted and 
forbid to sell and dispose of any Lands in the Narrangansett 
Country on any Pretence whatever] 

[Voted and past ^ Ord. J. Lyndon Cler.] 
June ]&^ 1763=Reso [ ] 

By [Ord— Henry Ward ] 

[Aug.] 5^ 1763 To the House of Mag'f\ 

Resolved That this Petition be granted. 

Voted & past ^ Ord. J. Lyndon Clerk 

To the House of Deputies 
Gent. 

It is the Opinion of this House That on the Petition of the 
[Indians that] a Committee be appointed to set off and bound 
the various Tracts of L[and] [tha]t heretofore have been appro- 
priated by the Sachems of the Narragansett Tribe [of] Indians 
to that Tribe for their sole Use Maintenance and Support he the 
S[achem] of said Tribe agreeing and consenting to give and 
execute a good and effect [ual] Deed to said Tribe; and also 
Liberty of passing and repassing on his Lands to the Pond and 
Sea for the Advantage of fishing: And which the Petitioners 
in Presence of this House have agreed to accept of; which this 
House are of Opinion may have a Tendency entirely to quiet 
the Uneasiness that at present seems to subsist among them. 
August 5*^. 1 763 Voted & passed By Ord. Henry Ward Secry 

Read the same Day in the Lower House and concurred 

^ Ord. J. Lyndon Cler 
To the House of Deputies 
Gent. 

Resolved that Joseph Lippitt and Thomas Church Esqrs with 
such others as shall be added by the Lower House be appointed 
a Committee to perform the Service within mentioned. 
Aug*. 6*^. 1 763 Voted & ipassed by Ord. Henry Ward Secry 
Read the same Day in the Lower House and concurred with 
the Addition of Job Randall Esq^ & M'. William Potter and 
John Barker Esq"^. for this Purpose above. 

Voted and past Ord. J. Lyndon Clerk. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 157 

To the Hon. General Assembly to be held at Newport within 
and for the County of Newport on the First Monday of 
August A. D. 1763.' 

Humbly shew Thomas Ninigrett Chief Sachem of the Narra- 
gansett Indians together [with the principal Ind[ians sen]sible 
of the many Favors they and [ ] Time received from 

the Colony with whom [ Jrictest Friendship since 

the setling of the English among [ ] Times have 

exerted themselves] in their Defence in the various [wars?] 
[the English have] been unhappily engaged with the other 
[Indians in] America and have demeaned themselves as good 
and [faithful Subjects to] his Majesty and those of His Pre- 
decessors and always [shall continue so] Yet still it hath so 
happened that some Evil and designing People [with a] View 
of making private Advantage to themselves have industri[ously 
been] for a long Course of Years endeavoring to make and 
foment D[ivisions] and Discord amongst the said Tribe and 
alarmed them with [needless] Fears and Jealousies to their great 
Hurt and Disquiet who otherwise would have remained peace- 
able quiet and happy: An Instance which is now before this 
Hon. Assembly by a Petition brought for [ward] and signed 
by some of said Tribe to which your Memorialists beg Leave to 
observe That it is with Concern they are obliged to say that 
there is not the least Foundation for any of those Suggestions 
and Insinuations therein contained. They cannot pass unnoticed 
the Introductory Part thereof calling the legal and actual 
Sachem as a Person who now only acts as such when it is well 
known That he is not only the legal Heir according to the 
Course of Discents but as One who had the Voice of the Tribe 
upon the Decease of his Father. In the said Petition it is urged 
that the Sachem hath sold and disposed of several great Tracts 
of Land and are under great Fears and Apprehensions (as they 
express themselves) of the whole of his Estate being wasted & 



^There is a duplicate of this memorial, from which burned portions have 
been supplied to a considerable extent. 



158 Sir William Johnson Papers 

squandered away to the great Prejudice of the Sachem and his 
Tribe. To which your MemoriaHsts answer, True it is that 
he the Sachem hath sold some Lands and was under Necessity 
so to do that his Father and himself for near Thirty Years last 
past for the Support and Defence of their Right in the Sachems 
Lands have been engaged in Law Suits brought against and 
by them almost every Court during that long Space of Time; 
and was at last obliged to answer an Appeal brought against 
them before His Majesty in Council and was there pending 
over Ten Years before he could obtain a Decree : The Expence 
of which Law Suits involved them in so great a Debt that they 
could not discharge it without disposing of some Part of their 
Real Estate as they had no t>ersonal Estate with which to 

[ '] 

[As to what the Petitioners [ ] under 

Apprehensions that the Memorialist will ] 

the Remainder of the Estate is equally [fallacious for he is 
[ ]hath ofFered] to give them any Security for the 

Lands they [ for their use] and that of the Tribe they 

now enjoying greater Rights [than] [ev]er they have done any 
Time heretofore in any of the Sachem [s Reigns] [But no] thing 
seems to be satisfactory to said Petitioners but a Convey [ance] 
[of the] whole of the Lands in the Improvement of said Tribe 
to One or T[wo] [of them] and the other Part of the Tribe 
to depend on them which your Memorialist apprehends would 
be very injurious and unjust. Your Memorialists cannot con- 
clude without returning the Government [their] Thanks for 
their Care and Protection of them heretofore; not being 
desirous of being further Troublesome to them as now being 
calpable of taking prudent Care of themselves and their Estates. 



^Several lines missing. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 



59 



Subscribed 



Thomas Ninigrett 

David Philip X his Mark 

Henry Harry Q 

James Daniel E 

Christopher Harry O* 

Daniel Harry X 

Philip Harry X 

Joseph Jeofry X 

John Daniel X 

Joseph Wobby X 

Daniel Skesock X 

Christopher X Harry J"^. 

Harry Daniel X his Mark 

James Daniel Son to John X 

William Sachem Jun 3 

Samson Philip X 

Manuel Simon X 

James Chawcom 

Mary Harry 

Betty Sock X 

Catharine Ninigrett 

Abigail Hammer X 

Sarah Cook X 

Mary Puckeye X 

Sarah Cooke X 

John Anthony X 

Anthony Shadock X 

Samuel Puckeye X 

Joseph Puckeye X 

Joseph Cosin X 

W™. Sacham X 

Michael Toby X Mark 

Thomas Sachem X 

James Robin X 

John Shadock 



John deceased X 

James Niles Jun O 

Anthony Tobe X 

Benj. Champlin X 

Harry Hazard I 

John Skesock X 

Benjamin Garret 

Isaac Michil X 

Hannah Tican X 

Cotton Read X 

Sarah Aaron X 

Mary Secator X 

Mary Peter X 

Abigail Daniel X 

Sarah Simon Jun^ X 

Sarah Wequechi ^ 

Mary Simon O 

Sarah Manhom X 

Mary Hawkins O 

Hannah Tift X 

Sarah Philip O 

Sarah Simpson Jun*" X 

Dinah Secator X 

Hannah H[ ]ry X 

Betty O Abraham 

Hannah Garret 

Sarah Simon O 

Hannah Daniel X 

Dinah Sock X 

Marey Philip her Mark X 

Sarah Tom X 

Marey Harry X 

Sarah Pinch X 

Patience Daniel X 

Margery Hammer X 



60 



5rV WilUam Johnson Papers 



Son of Anthony X 
John Thompson X 

[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ]aul X 

[ ] Jeofry X 

Mary Moses X 
Phebe Jeofrey X 
Dorothy Tom X 
Sarah Wabby X 
Abigail Wabby X 
Prude Wabby X 
Mary Shesock X 
Barshe Harry O 
Betty Sam X 
Mary Sam X 
Betty Robin X 
Betty Paul X 
Martha Harry X 
Mary Apes X 
Hannah Simpson X 
Abigail Tuhigh X 
Mary Sock X 
Daniel Skesock X 
James Waby X 
Thomas Hammor X 
Peter Shadock Son to 



Subscribed 

Mary Coyhez X 
Mary Dick Jun^ X 
Patience Waby X 
Hannah Philip X 
Mary Pinch X 
Sarah Wapy 
Betty Waby 
Abigail Waby 
Thankful Tycan 
Phebe Niles X 
Betty Coon X 
Sarah Tobe X 
Betty Read O 
Margery Hammond X 
Widow to James diceas [ed] 
Hannah Puckey X 
Hannah Skeezuck 
Hannah Bapcock X 
Mary queen X 
Sarah Sheezuck X 
Mary Dick X 
Pashento Cumeck II 
Sarah Jefery X 
Marey Harry X 
Sarah Quaquance X 
Marey Anthony X^ 



We the Subscribers with M^ William Potter being appointed 
by the Hon. General Assembly at their Session in August last 
to set off and bound the various Tracts of Land that heretofore 
have been appropriated by the Sachems of the Narraganset 
Tribe of Indians to that Tribe for their sole Use Maintenance 
and Support &*=. do report That agreeable to said Appointment 



^A number of names missing. There is another list, also injured by 
the fire, which is a little longer than this. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 161 

we have been and viewed the said Lands and on examining said 
Indians & others we cannot find any Lands set off or appro- 
priated by the Sachems to the said Tribe as a Tribe: But we 
find various Tracts or Pieces of Land which hath been set off 
to particular Persons or Families amounting in the whole to 
between Two and Three Thousand Acres which the Sachem 
saith is what he meant to give and execute a Deed of to said 
Tribe and is still willing to do it according to his Agreement and 
Promise at said General [ 
[ ]ibe than the Petitioners who [ 

to remain with the Sachem as heretofore [ 
off by themselves but they are not willing to [ 
But we not having Authority to set off any Lands [ 
if we could have persuaded them to agree where and how 
[ ] several Days waiting on them trying to get them 

to agree to ho[w] [ ] off and where but could not we 

were obliged to return and do [ ] abovesaid. All 

which is submitted by 

N. B. As the Lands set off and improved by Joseph Lippitt 
the Tribe or particular Persons are intermixed Tho^ Church 
with other Lands some leased and others unim- Job Randall 
proved we think if it be set off from the other John Barker 
Lands it must be surveyed which is a Work of 
considerable Time. 

June 15*^ 1764 T[o] the House of Mag^*^ 
Gent. 

Resolved that this Report be accepted 

Noted & past W Ord. J. Lyndon Cler 
In the Upper House = Read the same Day and concurred 

By Ord, Henry Ward Secry 
Rhode Island &^. Ss To the Hon. General Assembly now 

sitting in Newport by Adjournment. 

Ephraim Coheis and Samuel Niles Two Indians of the Nar- 
raganset Tribe Indians of which Thomas Ninigret is Sachem 



^Several lines missing. 



162 Sir William Johnson Papers 

in Behalf of themselves and the Rest of the said Tribe come 
before this Hon. Assembly and pray Liberty to inform this 
Assembly That altho' at the Session of this Hon. Assembly in 
August A. D. 176 [3] it was resolved by the said Assembly as 
their Opinion That on the Petition of the [ ] Ephraim 

& Samuel together with other Indians then before said Assembly 
a Com[mittee] be appointed to set off and bound the various 
Tracts of Land that theretofore ha[d] been appropriated by the 
Sachems of the Narragansett Tribe of Indians to that Tr[ibe] 
for their sole Use Maintenance & Support; he the Sachem of 
said Tribe agreeing and consenting to give & execute a good & 
effectual Deed to said Tribe; & also Liberty of passing 

[ '] 

the Matter [ ] Sachem be & he was thereby 

restricted [ ] Narragansett Country on any Pre- 

tence wl ] at the s'^. Session of Assembly agreed 

before the Upper [ ] with the Petitioners not to sell 

any more Lands nevertheless you [ ] I ]ged 

to inform your Honors That altho there was a Committee 
[ ] off said Lands they disagreeing about the Terms 

of s"^. Vote with I ] nothing therein. And the said 

Sachem hath sold divers Tracts of Land I ] belonging 

to said Tribe and some Houses and Land belonging to some of 
[ ] Petitioners and they have been brought into 

Danger of their Lives by [ ] thereof: He hath took 

away their Fields of Grain & disposed of them to others & their 
[ ] they have built & had & possessed many Years 

in his Ancestors Lives Time as th [ ] & by their Grants 

& Approbation has he disposed of. And unless this Assembly 
interp[ ] hold him said Sachem to his said Agreement & 

oblige him to fulfil the same and [ ] prohibit him 

from selling their said Lands ever more and make void the Sales 
so made Your Petitioners fear very much fear it will be fatal 
to the Lives of many of the [ ] And as Thomas 

goes on sell [ing] Land the Tribe will soon have none I ] 



^Several lines missing. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 163 

the Lands in said Country are his and there is none belong [ing] 
[ ] and he will do what he pleases with those Lands 

more especially as he is told [ ] no Law to hinder 

him. And by these Means those of the Tribe that outlive th[is] 
impending Storm of all Ages and Sexes will be set a starving. 
These are truths not to be dallied withal & call loudly for your 
Hon*. Interposition with your whole Power & they doubt not 
you will grant their Prayer & rectify all those Grievances. And 
as in Duty bound pray 

Ephraim ^ Coheis's Samuel 2 Niles's 
Mark Mark 

June 15'^^. 1764^=To the House of Mag'''*.=Gent.=Resolved 
That this Petition be referred to next Session of Assembly & 
that Thomas Ninigret be served with a Copy of this Petition 
& cited to appear at next Session to answer the same & that in 
the mean Time the s'^: Thomas Ninigret be restricted from 
selling any Land. Voted & Past ^ Ord^ J. Lyndon Cler.= 
In the Upper House=Read the same Day & concurred^By 
Ord. Henry Ward Secr'y=Sept. ]4'\ 1 764=To the House 
of Mag'^'*.=Gent=Resolved that this Petition be referred to 
next Session of Assembly and that Thomas Ninigret be served 
v\ath a Copy of this Petition & cited to appear at next Session 
to answer the same & that in the mean Time the s'^. Tho*. 
Ninigret be restricted from selling any Land. Voted & past %^ 
Ord. J. Lyndon Cler=M^ Augustus Johnston Att°. to the 
adverse Party agress in this House that the adverse Party is 
sufficiently cited for next Session tho' it was too late for this 
Session Teste J. Lyndon Cler=In the Upper House^Read 
Sept. 1 5'*^ and concurred By Ord. Henry Ward Secry=Novem^ 
2^. 1 764=To the House of Mag"^**. Gent.^Resolved That this 
Petition be referred to next Session of Assembly & that in the 
mean Time Thomas Ninigret be restricted from selling any Land 
Voted & past ^ Ord. J. Lynton CIer.=In the Upper House= 
Read the same Day and concurred By Ord. Henry Ward 



164 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Secry. What is written above and upon the Seven preceding 
Pages contain true Copies of original Papers now on File in my 
Office 

Witness Henry Ward Sec'y 



TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:530-31 is a letter of July 1st to 
Sir JeiTery Amherst on an expected conference with the Six Nations at 
German Flats, keeping an interpreter at Ontario and measures suitable 
for preserving the neutrality of the Six Nations. 



TO THE LORDS OF TRADE 

A paper in the Johnson Calendar p. 1 73, that was destroyed by the 
fire is Johnson's letter of July 1st to the lords of trade, stating grounds 
of hostility of Ottawas to the English, mentioning his endeavors to dis- 
arm their jealousy, his suspicion that Missisagas and Chippways have 
been instigated to attack Detroit by emissaries from New Orleans, defeat 
of relief detachment from Niagara on its way to Detroit, destruction of 
settlements and posts, investment of Fort Pitt by Delawares, measures 
taken to redeem the situation, attitude of Six Nations, and his invitation 
to them to meet him at German Flatts, pointing out the mistake of despising 
Indian strength, stating the policy that should be pursued with Six Nations, 
and asking instructions. It is printed in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
7:525-27. 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 73, there occur the following: a letter 
of July 1 st from William Darlington, at New York, mentioning articles 
sent by Switts, illness of Isaac Low, son in law of Cornelis Cuyler, and 
"lace purchased out of the French Prize" ; and a receipt of the I st of 
Cornelius Switts, at New York, for rum, pork, and sugar to be delivered 
at Albany to Sir William Johnson or order; Johnson's account current 
with William Darlington, dated at New York the 4th; a letter of the 
same date from William Darlington concerning the same account; and 
a letter of the 6th from Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell reporting theft 
of sheep by Oneida Indians from the royal blockhouse and their dis- 
appearance from their castle. These papers were destroyed in the fire. 



' Post'War Period, 1763-1774 165 

lo jr.rr-KRY amhe:rst 

In Doc. Rel. lo Col. Iltsl. N. Y., 7:531-32 is a letter of July 8th 
to Sir Jeffery Amherst on Johnson's cfForls to influence the Six Nations 
and the Canadian Indians, expectations of the Indians that they will receive 
at German Flats a message from Amherst, a report of the fall of 
Venango,^ French intrigues in the west and panic among the inhal:itants 
of the Mohawk valley. 

FROM THE SACHEMS OF CANAJOHARIE 

L. S. 

[/«]/]; 5"' 1763 

Deer Brother 

We Sachims of Canajoha[ree] Desire You will Be So kind 
as to ma[ke] George klock his Poeple the Indains Easy who 
are in Love with him for Som Rum or a D [ ] or two or 

Ells the will do a Morder amoung Us here as the have tratened 
us this two Days Long Josep kray & one onyde han Juery 
would kill old Brands wife And him Selves old Bran[d] So 
Brother we hope yo'': Provent trouble or Els there will Be 
Mischeiff Done here on one Side or Another Pray Brother Be 
Pleased to Lett the General! know of it how goerg klock men 
the Indains Behaves them Selves And as Livingston is the had 
of all Evill So we desire the general! will Be So kind as to 
make a Stop to this affair And Make this Poeple Easy to 
Provent all Mischeiff or harm Brother You Desired Us to Lett 
You know the News as Soon we Recieved it it will Be So So 
and we hope yo": Do the Same to us And Lett us know 
the news You have for us this is a great Deal of harm for us 
that this trouble is happened with these Poeple And we hope 
Brother You will Put a Stop to this we think it is the Best way 
for Goerg klock to take this Poeple to his one house and take 
Care of them then there will Be no trouble with them As the 
offered to kill old Brand and his wife if it had not Been Cowcake 



^Fort Venango and its garrison were destroyed on June 1 8th by a large 
body of Senecas. 



166 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and other onyde Indains which the hindered to Do so Brother 
no More att Present from Your Breetheren As Reamain Your 
Breetheren till Death our Complements to You 

Paulus Petesen 

his 
Nicolaes n Brandt 
mark 
To the Honarable 
Sir William Johnson Baron' 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

Contemporary Copy 

Copy^ A^en; York, 9'K Jul]) 1763 

Sir 

I am Favored with your Letter of the l^*. Ins^, And am very 
Sorry to hear of your Indisposition : I Sincerely Wish you a Speedy 
Recovery, and that you may be able to Attend the Conference 
which you have so Judiciously Appointed to be Held with the 
Six Nations, in order to Repeat Our Assurances of Friendship, 
while they Remain Steadfast to Us — Your presence there, 1 am 
well Convinced, will be of the Utmost Consequence; & I Send 
Orders to Colonel Bradstreet to Furnish you with such a Quan- 
tity of Provisions as you may think Necessary, upon this 
Occasion. 

There is no Doubt but it is, & has been in the power of the 
Six Nations to Interrupt the Communication, at any time, since 
the Troops were Detached from this Continent to the Havana, 
were they Disposed thereto; But there is as Little Doubt but 
that such a Step would, in the End bring Certain Ruin on their 
own heads; And therefore 'tis as much their own Interest as 
Ours to Remain Quiet and peaceable: Indeed it is more so; 
for their Commencing Hostilities against Us, and persisting 
therein might be Attended with the Loss of our Inferior Posts, 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



- Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 167 

and a few of Our People at first, but must Inevitably Occasion 
Such measures to be taken as would Bring about the Total 
Extirpation of those Indian Nations. 

An Interpreter at Fort Ontario may be very Usefull, to pre- 
vent Misunderstandings between the Garrison and any Indians 
that may Come there, But I would not have any Commanding 
Officer, particularly at present, put the least Trust in what an 
Indian might say : We have too many proofs of their Insincerity, 
and Nothing but Our being at all times on Our Guard, can 
give Us perfect Security against Such perfidious Treacherys as 
the Indians in General are Capable of Acting. 

I Had Acquainted the Governors in Canada of the Attack 
on the Detroit, that they might take the Necessary precautions 
for keeping Every thing Quiet in their Respective Governments; 
Captain Claus Cannot be better Employed than there at present, 
but I should think the Assembling of those Indians, in a Formal 
manner, on this Occasion, would rather give them Room to 
think themselves of more Consequence than they really are. 

L'. Colonel CampbelF Writes me of the 1*^ Instant that 
Upwards of Thirty Voluntiers from Below had Joyned him, 
and that he Expected as many more Daily ; which I shall be 
very glad to Learn, that he may be Enabled to Spare some more 
Men to go Forward to Niagara, &ca. — 

I Wrote you the 7^. Instant, Acquainting you of the Intelli- 
gence I had Received from Fort Pitt of the Loss of Presqu' 
Isle," &ca ; And Since then I have had Nothing New from that 
Quarter. 

If Three or Four good Trusty Indians Could be got, I could 
Wish they were Sent to Capt Dalyell, to be Employed in going 
between Presqu' Isle and Fort Pitt, with Intelligence, as Oc- 
casion may Require; And I now Advise Colonel Bouquet & 



^At Fort Stanwix. 
-Fell June 22, 1 763. 



168 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Capt. Dalyell of this, & Likewise Major Wilkins & Major 

Duncan,' as they may be soon at Niagara, by Oswego. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, &ca 
Jeff: Amhersit. 

Sir W«= Johnson Bar': 

INDORSED: Copy. Letter from Sir Jeffery 
Amherst to Sir W"". Johnson. 
Dated New York 9^. July 1 763 
In Answer to Sir Wilham's of the 1^'. 
Approves of the Meeting Sir W™. 
Intended to have with the Six Nations 
at the German Flatts ; Acquaints 
him that he had Ordered Colonel 
Bradstreet to Furnish him with what 
Provisions he might think Necessary 
for that Meeting, &ca; and Desires 
Sir William to Endeavor to Procure, 
& Send to Captain Dalyell, three or Four 
Good Trusty Indians, to be Employed 
by him, or Major Gladwin, in going with 
Intelligence between them & Colonel 
Bouquet, &ca. 

in S"" J : Amherst' s of July 23 : 
1763 
N°. 10. 



FROM JOHN MACOMB AND DANIEL CAMPBELL 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 173, there occur the following: a letter 
of July 10th from John Macomb, at Albany, describing missionary pur- 
pose of Rev. Mr Smith, bearer of the letter; and a letter of the same date 
from Daniel Campbell, at Schenectady, offering to supply goods for 
Indians and pleading losses through stagnation of Indian trade. These 
papers were destroyed in the fire. 



^Major Alexander Duncan, of the 55th regiment. 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 169 

TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist., N. Y., 7:532-33, is a letter to Sir JefFery 
Amherst, dated July 1 I , on the fall of Venango and other forts, hostility 
of the Chenussios, loyalty of the Onondagas and a coming conference at 
the German Flats. 

INDIAN INTELLIGENCE 

[July //, 1763] 
Intelligence from a Waweotonan^ Indian 
The S': Joseph Indians, Puttewatimies & Ottawas, with a 
tribe of the Chepwas, from Mitchilimacina, with an Indian calld 
the Grand Sota at their head, are much disafected to the Enghsh 
Interest, & threaten to renew the War. They have been at the 
Ilinois, & received large Presents privatly from the French, & 
is to attempt their first stroke at MitchiHmacina. This Intelli- 
gence has been Confirm'd to me, by the twightwees from 
Meamies who say, those disafected Tribes ask'd them to be 
Concern'd with them. 
INDORSED: Intelligence from 
Michilimackinac 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A. L. S.' 
Johnson Hall July 1 3^K 1763— 
Dear Sir/ 

It gave me great Satisfaction to hear of your entering again 
upon the Administration,^ with which I was only acquainted the 
day before the receipt of your kind favour of y^. 2^.^ 

The present unhappy troubles in which y^. Westeren Ind*. &ca 



'Wawiaghtonon, Ouiatonon, a French town in Indiana, at the junction 
of the Tippecanoe and Wabash rivers. 

^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 

^By the departure of Governor Robert Monckton, who had sailed for 
England. 

*See Collections of the New Yorf( Historical Societ}), 1 876, Colden 
Papers, p. 216-17. 



170 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have involved Us, have been some time a brewing, and have 
been greatly occasioned by their meeting with much neglect, 
& recevng. few or no favours from Us, for permitting us to 
Occupy the Several Out Posts in their Country, for which 
toleration, as well as on Other Acer's they were always well 
treated, and largely rewarded by the French, the Indians were 
likewise not a little Jealous at our keeping up & erecting several 
places for which they apprehended we had no occasion, unless 
to forward some designs against themselves, and as they are 
naturally of a disposition w^. renders them very suspicious, as 
well as Spurred by the French, Several of whom have lateh 
been sent among them from the Gov^ of New Orleans, they 
were readily induced to commence Hostilities. 

On receipt of the first Intelligence of their cutting of Our People 
& some out Posts, I sent several Messages to the Six! Nations 
which have been of y^. greatest Service, & Lately I Judged it 
necessary to call them to a Meeting at y^. German Flatts, that 
I might settle y^. minds of the Wavering, & secure them to our 
Interest at least so far as to keep them Neuter, to which meet- 
ing they are now on their way, and I purpose setting out for y^. 

place appointed to morrow Morning, On the first Alarm 

I Issued the necessary Orders to the MiHtia, w^, were to provide 
themselves with Sufficient Amunitation & Arms, So as to be in 
readiness when called upon, I am sorry to say they are but verry 
111 provided particularly with Amunition, it bemg a verry dear 
& Scarce Article here and many so poor they are not able to 
purchase it, which I think ought to be considered by the Govern- 
ment — I have also had the Militia in Arms, and got about 
50 Volunteers to go up to the Posts, but several of them I 
understand have deserted, on hearing they were to be sent to 
Detroit Sf*^*., be assured Sir I shall on everry occasion continue 
to Issue such farther Orders as may appear necessary, and take 
everry other Step in my power w^. can possibly appear requisite 
for y®. good of the Service, and the protection of the Country, 
the Inhabitants of Which are in a great panick, & only induced 
to Stay by my encouragement, & Example. 



Post-]Var Period, 1 763-1 774 171 

The Senecas (who have long been much under the French 
direction, from their vicinity to Niagra Sc*^*.) and of whose 
attachment to us I long doubted, have at length declared them- 
selves against us, as I lately heard, and have taken Venango 
Fort, but the rest have refused their Sollicitations, & them of 
the Westeren Indians. As soon as I return from the conference, 
wK I expect will be within a Week, I shall do myself the pleasure 

of acquainting You with the result thereof. 1 am very 

heartily glad you enjoy your Health, and most cordially wish 
you a long continuance of the same, as also of the administra- 
tion, being with much sincerity, & respect 

Dear Sir 

Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 

W". Johnson 
The Honb'^. LiEU^^. Gov«. CoLDEN 

FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 74, are entered a letter of July I 4th from 
William Darlington, at New York, notifying that he will remit sum of 
money by Garrit Marselis, having received £2598, 2s, 6d, from Mr 
Mortier; a receipt of the 16th from Gerrit Merselis at New York for 
£1007, 2s, 4d, received of William Darlington to be delivered to Sir 
William Johnson or order at Albany; and a letter of the 16th from 
William Darlington, at New York, sending receipt for £1007, 2s, 4d, 
remitted per Garrit Marselis, and informing that the balance will be 
remitted per Captain Samuel Pruym. Destroyed in the fire 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

Contemporary) Cop}).^ 
Copy' 

gjj^ Nerv York, 1 6^K July 1763. 

Last Night I received your Letter of the 8'^^. Instant, by the 
Albany Post, and Soon after an Express from Colonel Brad- 
street, Arrived with that of the 1 1'^., Containing some Particu- 
lars Concerning the present Insurrection of the Indians, which 

4n Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



i 72 Sir IViUiam Johnson Papers 

from the manner you have received this Information, I Imagine 
the particulars may be nearly true, & I am very much Obliged 
to you for the Intelligence. 

With regard to what you mention in your first Letter, that the 
Indians, at the Intended Meeting, will Expect a particular 
answer respecting the Trade &ca to be Carried on at the Posts, 
I can Say Nothing more than that Every precaution has been 
already taken for Carrying on the Trade, agreable to the Regu- 
lations You Fixed, when you went to the Detroit; and when 
the present Disturbances are Quelled the same Care shall be 
taken to prevent any of the Traders from going with their 
Goods, but to the Places where there are Posts Established. 

Before this Can Reach you I Conclude the Meeting will be 
Over, and I hope, from what you will Say to the Indians that 
Do Attend, the Several Tribes who have not taken any part in 
this Insurrection, will be Convinced that it is very much their 
own Interest to Remain Quiet: I Cannot Say my Expectations 
are great from any thing that Could be Done by Employing 
Indians in fighting against One another, but you are, without 
Doubt the best Judge, and will Act accordingly: A Few Trusty 
Indians, to be Sent for Carrying Intelligence as I mentioned in 
my Last, & which I hope you will have procured and Sent 
forward, I think may be of great Service. 

I am very glad to Find the Onondagas seem so Steady in 
Our Interest, and that all the Rest of the Six Nations (Except 
the Senecas) had Promised to Attend your Meeting: The 
Intelligence you transmitted to me, points out the particular 
Nation who are Engaged in this Treacherous & Rash Attempt 
and Agrees with what I have been Informed of from Pittsburgh : 
I am therefore fully Determined that, in the End, they shall Suffer 
Severely for their Barbarities, Those who Remain Quiet, will 
hereafter Reap the Advantages of their Constancy & Friend- 
ship to the English, who are the only People that can be of Use 
to them, & without Our Assistance they must all Starve: It 
therefore Certainly Behoves them, for their own Sakes, not to 
Break with Us. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 173 

I Wish you had had the Intelligence a little Sooner, of the 
Designs of the Chenussios having Sent Partys towards Lake 
Ontario; altho' I Trust Captain Dalyell will have proceeded 
with Such precaution, as to have Defeated any Attempts that 
Could be made by those Villains: I Should hope the Six Nations 
would, at least. Resent the Other Tribes Daring to Come Down 
with an Intention to Commit Hostilities so near them, and that 
they would keep Every thing Quiet in their Country. 

You will probably have had the pleasure of hearing that 
Captain DalyelP Left Oswego the 3^. Instant, with about Three 
Hundred Men; and I hope he is by this time at the Detroit; 
and that Every thing in that Quarter will turn out to be very 
Different from what the Indians Represent. 

The Assembly of Pennsylvania have Enabled the Governor to 
Raise 700 Men, for the protection of the Back Settlements, 
which will put it in Colonel Bouquet's power to Send the more 
Men forward to Presqu' Isle to be employed as Major Gladwin, 
or Captain Dalyell, may think proper. 

I Flatter Myself that the Result of your present Conference 
will Dispell the Fears of the Inhabitants on the Mohawk River: 
I must Confess I have been very Apprehensive for that Com- 
munication, as I know it has been in the power of the Indians 
to Cutt off any of the Settlements, if they were Mad Enough 
to make the Attempt, & Nothing but the want of Troops pre- 
vented my Securing it by a Proper Force: I Applyed to the 
Governor of the Provmce to Raise Three Hundred Men 
Immediately for that Service; He was in hopes of getting it 
Effected, but the Next Day Acquainted me that thai Measure 
could not take place, without Calling the Assembly, & that 
would have been Attended with too many Delays to have 
Answered the End proposed, — Should any Troops Arrive 
here from the West Indies, I shall Immediately Order them up 
the Country, to Strengthen the Garrisons &ca. 

I am, wdth great Regard, 
Sir &ca 

^Captain James Dalyell, of the first regiment. J^^ * Amherst. 



174 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir W"^: Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED: Copy: Letter from Sir 

Jeffery Amherst to Sir W"". 

Johnson 

Dated New York, I6'K July 1763 

In Answer to Sir W™ ^ Letters of the 

8'K & //»K July.— 

Reminds Sir William that Every 

Precaution for Carrying on the Trade 

at the Posts had been already taken 

agreable to the Regulations he (Sir W'^.) 

had Fixed when he went to the Detroit 

in 1 761 : And that when the present 

Disturbances are Quelled, the same 

Care shall be taken to prevent the 

Traders from going with their Goods 

but to Places where there are Posts Established : 

Answers the other Parts of Sir W™ *. Letters, 

and particularly mentions how much it is 

the Interest of the Indians to Remain firm 

Friends to the English, who alone could Help 

them ; And that he was fully Determined to 

Punish, with the utmost Severity, those who 

had been Guilty of the Late Barbantys 

&ca — 

in S^ J : Amherst's of July 23 : 1 763 

N«. 13. 



FROM JACOB KLOCK ETC. 

There occur in the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 74, the following: a letter of 
July 2 1 St from William Darlington, at New York, about letter forwarded 
to the lords of trade on the Pitt packet, money remitted in care of Samuel 
Pruym, skipper, hinges and grass seed, Jersey money paid by Mr Mortier, 
medicines from Mr Lindner, and presents from Mrs Darlington ; a receipt 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 175 

of the 2 1 st from Captain Samuel Pruyn, at New York, for wine and 
£992, 1 7s, lYl^t received on his sloop from William Darlington for 
Sir William Johnson; Captain Soverinus Deyger's "list of ye state" of 
his company, lately at the German Flatts, dated the 24th; and Captain 
Jacob Klock's list of his company doing service at the German Flats, 
with names of those lawfully absent and one without lawful excuse, dated 
24— 28th. These papers were destroyed in the fire. 



AN ORDER AND A RECEIPT 
L.Sr 

Jul^ 23^ and 25^K 1763 
Whoever has brought up a Sum of Money for me from M'. 
W™. Darhngton of New York, will be pleased to deliver it to 
M^ Witham Marsh Secr^. for Indian Affeiirs, & Clerk of the 
County, whose receipt shall be a Sufficient Voucher for the 
Same. 

W'«. Johnson 
Canajoharie 
July 23d. 1763 

July 25^^. 1 763. — Rece"^ from Cap*. Samuel Pruyn, a paper 
Bundle, Said to contain nine Hundred, ninety Three Pounds, & 
odd money. New York Currency, for the use of the Hon^'^. Sir 
William Johnson, Baronet, contents of the said Bundle unknown 
to me. 

Witham Marsh 



TO CADWALLADER COLDEN 
L. 5.2 

Johnson Hall July 25^K 1763— 
Dear Sir 

Since my last of the 13*-. instant I have had a Meeting with 
the Chiefs &c to the amount of 340 of all the Nations (Except 



^In collection of Mr Willis T. Hanson, Jr., Schenectady, N. Y. 
^In the New York Historical Society, New York City; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson, 



176 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Senecas) at the German flatts, from whence I returned on 
the 23< 

The Congress lasted some days, but my present hurry, accom- 
panied with many alarms will not permit my giving a recital of 
the proceedings, I must therefore only observe in General, that 
the Indians of the five Nations who attended the Conference 
Expressed their resolutions in the warmest terms for continuing 
peaceable and well disposed towards us; Imputed the behavior 
of the Western Indians, partly to belts, and speeches left amongst 
them by the French, to instigate them to defend their liberties, 
and partly to our cool Treatment and the many posts we occu- 
pied thro' out their Country. They then assured me of their 
intentions to bring the Senecas to reason, or otherwise to Quarrell 
with them, and after saying much on the article of Trade and 
the number of our posts concluded with representing that the 
Senecas held one end of the chain of Friendship and the 
Mohocks the other, that one end was already gone & that the 
other must follow unless the Enghsh did the Mohocks justice 
concerning their lands, but particularly the disputed tract at 
Conajoharee which they insisted on having restored to the 
Indians. 

My Speech to them was pretty full, and my answer on the 
subject of the Lands, was, that I should again lay the matter 
before those in power who I doubted not would take some 
measures for satisfying them. 

You have certainly heard that nothing was done in the late 
Trial at Common law. A patent being in that Court a Sufficient 
title however fraudulently obtained. This has enraged the 
Ind"\ to the greatest degree and by the insinuations of Klock 
(who had acted with such artifice that he was not convicted 
of making them drunk) they are now divided into parties. Sev- 
eral of them would not attend the Conference, & their whole 
time is spent in quarrelling, to the prejudice of his Majestys 
service at this Juncture, & the great Terror and risque of all the 
white Inhabitants in any wise concerned. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 177 

Instead of a Stop being put thereto it seems to encrease, by 
the notorious falsehoods, with which he sets them by the Ears, 
and in order to maintain his party, they are eternally drunk at his 
House, of which I was a Witness having lodged a few nights 
ago at his Brother's House within 100 yards of his, where by 
their Singing dancing & other noise I was disturbed during the 
whole night, in this State all the Neighbours say they have been 
ever since the Tryal. 

Notwithstanding there are more notorious villainies laid to 
him than can well be conceived, and notwithstandmg the iniquity 
of the whole affair, I plainly perceive that at Comm.on law 
where they stick to Letter, and Word, the Ind^ may Expect 
little redress, I must therefore take other imediate measures 
till I hear from England, in order to punish the Author of all 
this disturbance. I should therefore be glad you could point 
out somewhat effectual to that purpose, but if nothing can be 
done in the civil way, the Safety of his Majestys Subjects, and 
the great consequence which the unanimity of the Mohocks 
must be of at this Juncture, requires his Coming under the cog- 
nizance of the Military as an Enemy and disturber of his 
Majestys Service. 

I have already sent out two parties of Indians on service, and 
hope shortly to be able to procure more, provided the Indians 
meet with Justice, and good Treatment. 

Yesterday I received an Express with intelligence that the 
Enemy Indians were on their way to cut off the Mohock River, 
on which I ordered up the Militia in these parts and, veiy early 
this Morning a Second Express arrived with news that they were 
near that place, I have thereupon ordered up part of the first 
Batt". to Schenectady for the defence of the River Settlements 
in the absence of those gone to the frontiers. 

As I had but just recovered from a dangerous fit of illness 
when I went to the Congress, and am at present very un\vell & 
eternally plagued with Ind"^ from all Quarters, I am as yet un- 
able to set out for the flatts in person, but I shall do so at any rate, 
as soon as I possibly can, if it appears necessary. I cannot but 



1 78 Sir William Johnson Papers 

think that the Case of the Mihtia on this frontier is peculiarly 
hard, they being necessitated to leave their harvest, and go on 
every alarming intelligence to the distant settlements, and as 
these alarms are often repeated before the blow is Struck, the 
time of which can never be certainly known, their Marches must 
of necessity become more frequent, and render it worthy your 
attention and that of the Legislature to consider their Expence 
and losses on these occasions, and make them an allowance for 
the same which will encourage them to a good performance of 
their duty on a Frontier the Safety of which is of so much con- 
sequence and advantage to the rest of the Province. 

I must farther observe that the Albany Troop of Horse being 
very distant is never up in any Sufficient time I am therefore 
of the opinion a Troop to be formed out of the 2^ Batt". at and 
near Schenectady might be of some Service, as would also the 
forming two Companies of Grenadiers one for each Battallion, 
to be composed rather of the best Men than the tallest and to 
consist of such persons as might be depended upon, beyond the 
Generality of the People whose hearts are always at home. 

I think some such might be procured, and might do good 
Service, If you approve therefore of my proposal, I shall take 
the liberty of recommending to you such persons as I know to 
be most fitting to command them, neither can I conclude without 
observing that an Adjutant would be on many accounts, a very 
usefull person for the Regiment. 

On these several heads I must request the favour of your 
Answer as soon as convenient, and I beg you will believe me 
to be with the utmost Sincerity. 

Dear Sir. Your most Obedient, 

& verry Humble Servant 
p t; W". Johnson 

I must repeat my former representation 
of the poverty, of many of the Inhabit^ 
& their incapacity to procure either 
Arms or ammunition, the latter is scarcely 
to be had at any pric^ 



' Post-War Period. 1 763-/ 774 179 

TO DAVID VAN DER HEYDEN 

Conlempcrary Copy^ 

July 25, 1763. 
Sir W*". Johnsons Order 

On receiving several Expresses with Intilhgence that the 
Enemy Indians to a large Number are on their Way to the 
German Flatts on which account I have sent up all the Com- 
panys on the Mohawk River to the support of that settlement 
& the Fronteirs. You are therefore hereby ordered to march 
with 5 of the most compleat Companies in and about the City 
of Albany immediately to Schenactady for the support & defence 
of that part of the Country and the Mohawk River, as occasion 
may require ordering the five Companys to be replaced by five 
others from the lower or more distant part of Country, and after 
your arrival at Schenactady you are there to waite such further 
orders as You may receive from me for the good of the service 
and protection of the Country 

Given under my hand at Johnson Hall 
July 25 1 763. 7 in the Morning 
To Leiu^ Colo: Van 
Der Heyden commanding 
the first Batt. of the Militia 
for the County of Albany 

I just now obtained a sight of S"" W™. Johnsons orders which 
I have only time to Copy for you. Be kind enough to commu- 
nicate this to my friend D"" Barr 

I am 

D-^ Sir 

Y" for ever 

^ , J,. . H V SCHAACK 

1 uesday IVlornmg 

3 oCock 

INDORSED: Copy of S"" William Johnsons 

orders to the Militia 



■^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



180 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:533-34, is a letter of July 30th 
to Sir Jeffery Amherst, dealing with information given by one Van Eps, 
a trader, of French and Ottawa conferences, and mentioning personal 
danger to Johnson and the fidelity of his Mohawks. 



INDIAN INTELLIGENCE 

In the Johnson Calendar, page 174—75, occur the following: a letter 
of August 2d from Alexander McKee, at Fort Pitt, to George Croghan, 
at Fort Bedford, stating that the messenger between them, John Hudson, 
has been detained by Indians, and mentioning an ineffectual attack by 
savages on Fort Pitt; a letter of the 2d from Lieutenant Governor 
Fauquier [of Virginia] at Williamsburgh, to General Amherst (extract), 
expressing opinion that late annoyances were committed by northern Indian 
bands returning from war with the Cherokees; a letter from Thomas 
Barton, declaring esteem and commending John Henry, gunsmith, \vha 
wishes to settle at Detroit [no date] ; a letter of the 4th from Captain 
Daniel Claus, at Montreal, concerning proceedings with Indians, particu- 
larly in congress at Caghnawagey, message of Caghnawageys to western 
Indians, assurances given by Mohawks and Onondagoes, conference 
between Canada Indians rnd Governor at Montreal, peace movement of 
the Swegachies, arrival of Captain Ethrington and Lieutenant William 
Lassley with account of loss of Missilimakk, agency of Pontiac in that 
affair, action of Ottawas in rescuing prisoners, favorable attitude of 
Chipways at Falls of St Mary, of nations at La Bay and the Sioux, 
responsibility of Chenusios [Genesee Senecas] , Delawares and Shawan- 
ese, expediency of a meeting at Detroit, suspected French agency in up- 
rising, difference between Caghnawageys and Mohawks over hunting 
grounds, Claus's commission, coming Indian conference in Canada, draft 
on Mr. Darlington, necessity of large present to Indians, General Gage's 
relation at Captain Butler's and account of proceedings to be sent by 
Peter; also messages undated, sent with four belts of wampum (both by 
way of Lake Ontario and Ottawawa river) by the Caghnawageys, 
Caneghsad's, Arundax, Skaghquanes, Swegachies, St Francis and three 
River Indians and Hurons near Quebec to the western nations, assuring 
them that Europe is at peace, French possessions as far as the Missisipi are 
ceded to the King of England, and Canadian Indians regard him as 
a common father, that he has power to destroy the Indians by suppressing 
trade through his control of two great rivers leading from the sea, but 
means to give them an advantageous trade, and desiring the Western 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 18) 

nations to lay down the hatchet (printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
7:544-45) This message was inclosed in Claus' letter of the 4th. These 
papers were destroyed by fire. 



TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:534-35, is a letter of August 
4th to Sir Jeflery Amherst on the proposal to employ the services of 
Indians against hostile nations, and on the need of protecting the frontier. 



FROM THE LORDS OF TRADE 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:535-36, is a letter of August 
5th from the lords of trade, stating the need of regular correspondence 
between the Indian superintendents and the board, outlining a proposal 
made to the King to forbid purchase of Indian lands within certain fixed 
bounds, also asking a report of the state of Indian affairs, definite in 
particulars. 



HENRY GLADWIN TO GEORGE CROGHAN 
Contemporary Copy 

Detroit August [6, 1763] 
This is to Certify That the Bearer Abrah[am] Jones has been 
employed in His Majesty's service as Gun Smith for the Indians 
at D'troit, at seven Shillings and Six Pence P"^ day, and his Son 
Isaac Jones at three Shillings and Nine Pence P*^. day, from 
the 24th. day of Oct^ 1762 till the 25'K of April 1763, both 
days inclusive Being One hundred and two Pounds, seven Shill- 
ings and Sixpence Pennsylvania Currancy 

Henry Gladwin 
Major of the 80*^ 
l£ 102— 7-6 Commandant 

To M'* George Croghan 
Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs — 
INDORSED: Copy of Major Gladwin' 
Certificate to 
Abraham Jones & Son — 



182 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM HENRY BARCLAY ETC. 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 75-76, are found a return of August 
6th from Captain Hendrick Frey, Junior, at Canajoharie, regarding 
officers and men in his company who marched with him to Fort Herkimer, 
also those who did not march ; a return of the 8th from Lieutenant Goshin 
Van Alstein of his company, 85 men and officers, including 1 2 men to 
be fined; a letter of August 8th from Rev. Dr Henry Barclay, of Christ's 
church, at New York, to Rev. Samuel Johnson about the advisability 
of Mr. Bennet's going among Indians for missionary work, proposal of 
Boston commissioners, negotiations with Sir William Johnson regarding 
sale of Barclay's farm for missionary use, and matters, in a letter from 
Rye, regarding Mr Palmer and Mr Punderson (printed in Doc. Hist. 
N. Y., 4:332-34, Q, 4:212-13); also a journal, dated the 8th at 
Detroit, sent by Robert Rogers, of officers at Detroit, narrating siege of 
fort, preceding Indian treachery, capture of Captain Campbell and Lieu- 
tenant McDougal, fall of Sandusky with capture of commander. Ensign 
Pauley, and murder of garrison, heroic escape of three soldiers opposite 
Fort Detroit, defeat of relief expedition from Niagara, under Lieutenant 
Cuyler near mouth of Detroit river, loss of Fort Maiamies under Ensign 
Holms by Indian artifice, fall of St Joseph's, with capture of Ensign 
Schlosser and massacre of garrison, fall of post at Ouiattanon, Lieutenant 
[Edward] Jenkins and garrison being taken and conveyed to the Ilonies, 
story brought from Captain Etherinton and Lieutenant Lessly of fall of 
Michilimakenac, destruction of blockhouse at Presqueisle with capture of 
Ensign Christie and most of his soldiers, escape of Lieutenant McDougall, 
murder of Captain Campbell, and report of fall of Vinango and La 
Beuf (printed in 5iege of Detroit, ed by F. B. Hough, p. 125-35). 
These papers were destroyed in the fire. 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Contemporary Copy 

Copy/ A^en; York, W^h August 1763 — 

Sir, 

Captain Gardiner" who is the bearer of this, will deliver it 
to you, if you Should be at Fort Johnson or in the Neighbour- 
hood, as he goes up the River, & I shall be much Obliged to you 
that you will give Captain Gardiner any further Intelligence you 
may have Received of the Disposition of the Savages since I 
last heard from you. 

^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 
^Valentine Gardiner, of the 55 th regiment. 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1774 183 

The Detachment I am Sending under the Command of the 
above Officer is merely to Act Offensively against the Nations 
who have so unjustly & treacherously Commenced Hostilities, 
& Who have used their utmost Efforts to pursue them, and with 
such a Scene of Cruelty as cannot hereafter be Credited: A 
Check is given to their Depredations, and a proper Punishment 
must follow. 

The Six Nations on this occasion (Senecas excepted) deserve, 
and may be assured of every mark of Approbation that can be 
given them for their firm & dutifull Attachment to the English, 
& that they may see a proper Distinction is made, it is highly 
Necessary that the Senecas should be punished ; I shall therefore 
be glad you will give Captain Gardiner any Information you 
think can be Usefull to him, in Effectually Chastising that 
Nation; Wliich is one of the Services I have pointed out to him 
as Requisite to the future peace & Welfare of His Majesty's 
Subjects. 

I am, with great Truth & Regard, 
Sir &ca, 

Jeff: Amherst 
Sir William Johnson Bar*: 
INDORSED: Copy. Letter from Sir 

Jeffery Amherst to Sir 

William Johnson. 

Dated New York, lO'K Aug^*: 1763. 

Acquaints him of the Corps under 

Cap' L'. Gardiner; and Desires Sir 

W"". will give Capt. L^ Gardiner Every 

Information in his power for his 

Executing that part of his Instructions 

relative to the Chastizement of the 

Senecas, who had so ungratefully 

Joyned in the present Insurrection. 

In Sir Jeff: Amherst's, of the 

13»^ Aug'. 1763. 

N°. 7. 



184 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall August JO'K 1763. 
Dear Sir 

I have had the favour of your letter of y^. 28'^. Ult°.,^ and 
am glad to find You concurr with what I laid before You. 

No doubt the attention of y^. Ministry hath been Sufficiently 
taken up for some time, but the Neglect towards y^. Indians is 
of a long Standing, and as I cannot but attribute the present 
Hostilities in a great measure thereto, I am hopefull such meas- 
ures will for the future be taken, as may secure the fidelity of 
all the Freindly Nations. 

The Step you propose in the Conajoharey affair of a prose- 
cution from his Majesty is what I have been thinking of, but 
the distance & time wh must elapse before the receipt of an 
Answer, renders it extremely necessary, that any attempts to 
dispossess the Indians should be put a stop to, until his Majestys 
pleasure be known therein, without which precaution, the Divi- 
sions between the Whites, and Indians, as well as amongst the 
latter will encrease, not only to the great hazard of the Inhab- 
itants, but to the prejudice of his Majestys Service at this 
Juncture. 

With regard to the Militia Act of 1 755, w^. I should be glad 
to know if still subsisting, there are severall Matters thereby 
enacted which from the levelling Sentiments of the People & 
the equality in point of condition between Officers & Men are 
never put in full force altho highly necessary, and as the Militia 
of this County are from their Numbers of great consequence, 
& from their scituation must be always on a much more regulated 
establishment than that of the Countys below them, I think it 
would be highly expedient to have several Additions made to 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 
^See Collections of the Nevj YorJ^ Historical Society, i8'/6. Colden 
Papers, p. 221-22. 



, PosUWar Period, 1 763-1774 185 

the Act, and amongst others, that by reason of the time which 
will be lost, & the many difficulties w^. will arise at a Court 
Martial consisting of such Persons as are generally in Com- 
mission, especially till Articles of War are established, Persons 
takeing revenge for any thing done by their Officer, or affronting 
him in discharge of his Duty, should be liable to a severe fine, 
Feild officers & Capt"*. £ 100, Subalterns £ 50, Non commis- 
sioned Officers & Privates £ 25 to be levied by Warrant from 
the Co'', or conmianding officer of y^. Regim'/ this, and this 
only will induce the Officers to discharge their Dutys, as at 
present they are deterred therefrom, by reason of y^. great 
equahty amongst them, and the dread of being insulted. — Also 
that y^ Fines on the Co", for neglecting to fine as in the act 
mentioned, as well as on the Capt^ be augmented, £ 5 being 
too trifleing a Sum in my opinion for such neglect, and by a due 
observance of the sevr'. Fines they may be made to serve verry 
good purposes, such as Supplying the poor with Arms & Amu- 
nition, and several other Uses, the Fines generally falling on 
Persons easy in their Circumstances. — and also that the Co". 
or Officer Commanding the Regiment shall as Occasion may 
require be enabled & impowered to order such Scouts as he may 
Judge necessary for the safety of the Frontiers, and the pro- 
cureing Intelligence. 

For the more expeditious conpleating the 2 Companys of 
Grenadiers, and a Troop of Horse, I should be glad the Com- 
missions were transmitted Blank, in which case, busy as I am, 
I shall make a Tour to Albany, consult the Feild Officers, & 
make the strictest Enquiry possible into the Characters of Per- 
sons there, as well, as in & about Schenectady, & after I have 
made such a Choice of Officers as I think will prove agreable, 
& be fitted for y^. Service, I will fill up their Names, & transmit 
them to You, I shall also speedily recommend Officers to Supply 
the Vacancys thro'out the Regiment, of which there are a good 
many at ^sent. 



^See The Colonial Laws of Nerv York, 3:1056. 



186 Sir William Johnson Papers 

In some of the Southeren governments there is an Annual 
Salary allowed to an Adjutant, and I think it very reasonable 
& necessary, but least that should not be approved off Lieu'. 
Guy Johnson has offered to accept of that Commission, and his 
knowledge of, & being in the Regular Service will I am certain 
enable him to discharge it properly, I should therefore be glad 
to have his Commission accordingly, as Adjutant to \j^. RegmK 
of Militia of the County of Albany, with the Rank of Captain 
therein. 

So Soon as I am favoured with the Commissions, & have 
made the proper Choices, I shall imediately acquaint you there- 
with and you may rely on my best endeavours for y^. Publick 
Service, as well as on the Candour, and Sincerity with which 
I am 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 

W"^. Johnson 
The Honr^'^ 
LlEU"^. GOVR. COLDEN 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

Contemporary Copy^ 

New York. 14'^' August 1763. 
Sir. 

Last Night I had the Favor of your Letter of the 30'^. July: 
Major Gladwin has fully Informed me of the Loss of the Our 
Posts, which Seem all to have happened thro' the Treachery 
of the Savages : Major Gladwin, with his Garrison, by a Steady 
& Spirited Behavior, have however given the Barbarians a Check 
which perhaps they did not Expect: And the Reinforcements 
which must Arrived soon after the Date of this Letter to me. 
Will, I Trust, have Enabled him to pursue such Offensive Oper- 

^h Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63. London, England, 



■ Post-War Period, 1763-1774 187 

ations as will Revenge the Death of poor Captain Campbell, 
& the Rest of Our Unhappy Countrymen; So Basely Massacred 
by the Merciless Villains. 

Major Gladwin mentions Just what you have heard from Van 
Eps, in Regard to Some of the French Inhabitants being Con- 
cerned in Spiriting up the Indians against Us : I Cannot think but 
that it will turn out to be only some of the French Traders, who 
may have thrown out some Insinuations, to Ingratiate themselves 
with the Savages, so as to Engross the Trade to themselves, & 
that they never Could have Imagined Matters would have been 
Carried to so great a Length; I Have however Directed Major 
Gladwin to make Enquiry into the Affair, & if it should be proved 
that any of them have been Guilty of Encouraging the Indians 
in the Present Mischief, they may be Immediately Banished from 
the Detroit, Sending them to Montreal with Advice to Governor 
Gage, that they may never be permitted to Return again. 

My Last will have Informed you of the Corps I have sent 
under the Command of Captain L* : Gardiner : The ^6"". Regi- 
ment are likewise, by this time, on the Route to Niagara; And 
I Have Ordered all the Men of the 80^. from Fort William 
Augustus^ to proceed directly to Niagara; the Whole (Leaving 
a Sufficient Garrison for Niagara, & the Dependent posts under 
L*. Colonel Browning") to be at the Call of Major Gladwin, 
or Captain Dalyell: to be Employed Offensively in Reducing 
the Savages, & Re Establishing the Several Posts: The 42^ 
Regiment is to Advance from Fort Pitt to Presqu' Isle; from 
whence they will hereafter proceed to the Detroit to Garrison 
that & the Out Posts. 

From the above Measures I would Flatter Myself the Distant 
Nations will be far from having it in their power to put their 
threats in Execution against you. But as I should be Sorry you 
were put to any Inconveniency for want of a Sufficient Guard, 
& that I think it of the utmost Consequence you should not 



^Formerly Fort Levi, on Isle Royal, now Chimney Island, in the St. 
Lawrence river. 

"William Browning of the 46th regiment, 



188 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Remove at present from your House, as it would greatly Alarm 
the Country; If you will let me know the Number of Men you 
think Necessary upon this Occasion; they shall be sent you: in 
the Mean time I Write to L'. Colonel Campbell/ to furnish you, 
on your Application, with such a party as he can Spare from 
Fort Stanwix: And should you think proper to Demand this 
Assistance, I must Desire you will take particular Care, that 
the Men are Constantl)^ kept to their Duty, & not permitted 
to Stroll about the Place : The present Numbers at Fort Stanwix 
are but feW & of course, you will send back the party, when 
you Judge there is no further Occasion for them: I Cannot 
Say, I approve of Raising any of the Country People for that 
Service, for I Have a very poor Opinion of them in time of 
Danger, being persuaded they Seldom can be Depended on, 

I Have Ordered the Comptroller of the Ordnance to send 
Directions to the Storekeeper at Albany, to furnish you, or the 
person you shall appoint to Receive it, with one Barrel of 
Powder & Lead in proportion: But I must particularly desire 
you will have it Dealt with great Caution, & None given but 
to the Trusty Indians in whom you can Certainly Confide: And 
even then to give it in Small Quantitys: The Scarcity of this 
Article in the Country I look upon as an Advantage. And 
I Wish it was out of the Power of the Traders to procure a 
Single Pound. 

I Have Just now Received a Letter from M"^ Stuart in 
Carolina: Every thing is quiet among the Southern Indians: 
A Complaint Indeed had been made by the Catawbas against 
the Cherokees, on a Supposition of some Women belonging to 
the former Nation having been Carried off by the Cherokees; 
But M"" Stuart in a Postcript to his Letter, Says — "I Have the 
pleasure of Learning from good Authority that one of the 
Catawba Women, who were Carried off, has Escaped & 
Returned: And Says the Party which took them Consisted of 
Shawnese & one Mohawk but no Cherokees. 



^John Campbell, of the 1 7th regiment. 



. Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 189 

The Indians, in General, are so ready to throw the Blame of 
Every Mischief that Happens, from One Tribe to Another; 
that for my own part, I pay very Little Credit to the Storys they 
tell; And I am daily, more & more Convinced of the Necessity 
of Keeping them in Subjection, as the Surest, & Indeed the only 
Method, of preserving the Country, which by the Fate of War, 
has been Ceded to His Majesty. 

I Had Wrote this far, when Captain Baugh, who is Just 
Returned from the Hot Springs at the Back of Virginia, came 
in and happening to mention a piece of Intelligence which he 
Learnt there, & which Surprizes me, I have Desired him to Write 
down the Particulars, that I may transmit a Copy thereof to 
you; Which I shall Accordingly do, for your Information; And 
should there be any truth in the party of the Six Nations having 
Acted so treacherously it Adds Strength to the Caution I have 
given you of trusting the Indians with much Powder. — 

It is very probable that it may be Judged Necessary, some 
time hence, for your Visiting the Upper Country; I Know you 
are always Ready; And I shall not Fail to give you Notice, 
so soon as I think matters are in Such a State as to Require your 
presence there. 

I am, with great Regard 
Sir, 

&ca 
Jeff: Amherst 
Sir William Johnson Bar*. 
INDORSED : Copy. Letter from Sir Jeffery 
Amherst to Sir W™. Johnson. 
Dated New York, I4»K Aug^*. 1763 
In Answer to Sir W'n'^ of the 30^^. July. 
Acquaints Sir W"". of the Particulars 
he had Learnt of the Behavior of 
Major Gladwin & his Garrison, in Defeating 
all the Attempts of the Indians, That 
he should Order a Party to Guard his House, if 



190 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir W"*. thought One absolutely Necessalry ; 
And Encloses him a Copy of IntelHgence 
Just Received from an Officer that had 
been on the Frontiers of Virginia, of the 
Six Nations being Concerned in the 
Depredations Committed in those Parts, 
&ca — 

In Sir Jeff: Amherst's, of the 
3< Septr. 1763. 
N°. 16. 



INTELLIGENCE FROM VIRGINIA 

Contemporary Copyj 



Copy.' 



A^en; York, August N^K 1763— 
Information of Captain Thomas Baugh of His Majesty's 
55*^. Regiment of Foot. — 
That about the 20th of May Last, to the best of his Recollec- 
tion, Being at the Warm Springs, on the Frontiers of Virginia, 
for his health. About two days after, a Party of Indians, to 
the Number of Seventy Eight, Arrived in the Neighborhood; 
at places Called Green Briar, & Jackson s River, Part of them 
at One Settlement, Part at the Other, & Distributed themselves 
(from their Encampment about Green Briar) among the 
Inhabitants, by Six & Seven to a House, for the Convenient 
Collection of Refreshments That they were Received, by the 
Inhabitants, in a Very Friendly Manner, whom they Told, 
they were going to War, against the Cherokees; under John- 
son's Pass; (as the Inhabitants Exprest it) That after Being 
Five, or Six Weeks, at these places, abovementioned ; they 
Decamped & Moved Nearer the Cherokee Country, About 20 
Miles to a place Called Dunlap's Creek. Where they again 
Encamped. That they Continued there about a Fortnight; 
When Six Strange Indians, Came to Green Briar, as if En- 
^In the Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 191 

deavoring to Overtake the great Party; Where Hearing they 
had got no further than Dunlap's Creek, They Exprest great 
Surprise, Set out Immediately & that soon after, those Six Were 
Supposed to Joyn the Sevenl'^ Eight, Hostilities Commenced at 
Green Briar, Calve Creek, Round Oak, & New River, Which 
was Concluded to be Committed by those Indians, who had 
been so long in the Neighborhood part of Whom were Supposed 
& Believed by the People of the Country to be of the Six 
Nations Some of them advised the Inhabitants to Move off 
Else the Sharvnese would come & Destroy them. 

Tho Baugh Cap" 55*^ Reg*. 

INDORSED: Copy. Information of 

Captain Baugh of the 55'^. 

Reg', concerning the Indians 

on the Frontiers of Virginia, 

N. B. Enclosed to Sir W™. Johnson with 

Sir Jeffery Amherst's Letter of the 1 4'^. Aug^*. 

1763. 

In Sir Jeff : Amherst's, of the 

3d. Septr. 1 763. 

N°. 17. 



INDIAN AND OTHER AFFAIRS 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 76—77, are found these papers, which 
werte destroyed in the fire: a certificate under date of August 15th at 
Fort Chart of Lieutenant Edward Jenkins to the services of Constant View 
as interpreter (printed in Collections of Illinois State Historical Library, 
10:19. eJ. C. W. Alvord and C. E. Carter) ; a letter of the 15th from 
William Darlington, at New York, about oil sent in care of Harmanus 
Wendell, indentures and "price" of three servants, including a gardener 
and his daughter, "purchased' for Johnson, articles sent per Sam Pruym, 
and Madeira already sent; a letter of the 17th from Captain John Lott- 
ridge, at Montreal, describing character and purpose of four Caghnuwagey 
chiefs, who come to visit Johnson, mentioning letter carried by Petter the 
Mowhack, and expressing gratification at being retained in Johnson's em- 
ploy; a letter of the 17th from Captain Daniel Claus, at Montreal, 



192 Sir William Johnson Papers 

recommending Caghnavvageys who visit Johnson and bring this letter, 
describing favorable disposition of Caghnawagey warriors and message of 
Caghnawagey envoys to Missisages, and mentioning pressure of business 
with upper nations; a letter of the same date from Captain Daniel Claus, 
mentioning proceedings with Ottawas from Missilim'k sent in charge of 
Peter, also annoyances of Indian society, belt and message to be borne 
by Ottawas on their return to the West, expectation of these Indians to 
receive some communication from Johnson, return of Caghnawagey deputies 
from Missisagas about Lake Ontario, friendly communication from Missi- 
sagas on Lake Huron, cost of present, about £600, to Ottawas, money 
transaction with Mr Campbell in Schenectady, and with Messrs Wade 
and Welles, departure of Lassly and Corel for Albany and also of Mr 
Ogilvie ; a letter of the 1 9th from Jeremiah Hogeboom, at Claverack, 
complaining that young, inexperienced men have been commissioned over 
his head in new regiment, though he has served faithfully 21 years as 
captain, emd inquiring whether it be true that the Governor rejected list 
of recommendations for militia appointments offered by Johnson, in favor 
of Colonel Schuyler's list ; a letter of the 1 9th from Captain Jacob Klock, 
at Canajohary, regarding offer of old Brand to furnish Indian scouts 
and failure of scouts to appear on occasion of late march to Fort Herke- 
man; and a letter of the 20th from General Thomas Gage at Montreal 
to Captain Claus, authorizing a present to Indians; a letter of the 20th 
from Daniel Oughnovra and Aron, or Aregheghta (Mohawks), at 
Niagara, telling of Major Wilkins's anger because he was not allowed 
to open a letter for Captain Delyel at Detroit and their determination to 
go on to that post. 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

Contemporary Copy 
Copy/ 

New York, 20^K August 1763. 
Sir, 

I Had last Night the Favor of your Letter of the 4*. Instant: 
My Last Answers Yours of the 30''^. July : All that I can say 
in Regard to what you mention in your Letter of the 24^^. of that 
Month, concerning the Disputes about the Lands, is that I have 
already taken Every Measure in my Power for Preventing the 
Indians from getting Rum or Spirituous Liquors : The Punishing 

Tn Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 




JEFFERY LORD AMHERST 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 193 

of the Fellow, who is Chiefly Concerned in Debauching the 
Indians, as he is not Subject to the MiHtary, I Apprehend must 
Entirely Depend on the Civil Power. And I should hope 
your Application to the Governor and Council, would meet with 
the Desired Success. 

I Have a Letter from Niagara, of the 1*^ Instant: Nothing 
New from above; Nor have I any Accounts from Colonel 
Bouquet since he Left Fort Bedford. — 

When the Savages, who have been Concerned in the present 
Disturbances, are Sufficiently Punished for the Depredations & 
Barbarities, they have Committed, I shall then think of giving 
them Peace; But they must first be Brought to such a State as 
may give us Room to hope they will Remember the Engage- 
ments they make with Us : When that time is Ripe I shall Desire 
your Service, as I Hinted in my Last, as I well know, there is 
no One so fit as yourself, or can have Equal Weight, in Settling 
a Matter of so much Consequence as the Future Tranquillity of 
the Country where those Indians Reside. 

I am, with great Regard, 
Sir, 

&ca 



P:S: I Find Captain Baugh's Report 
which I transmitted you in my Last; 
agrees with what is generally Believed 
in Virginia; for I have this moment 
Received a Letter from L'. Governor 
Fauquier, wherein he particularly men- 
tions that the Indians who have Annoyed 
their Frontiers are Believed to be of 
the Northern Nations, Returning from 
Striking the Cherokees: I Enclose 
you the Paragraph of the L*. Governors 
Letter. — 

7 



Jeff: Amherst 



194 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Sir William Johnson Bar* 
Johnson Hall 

INDORSED : Copy. Letter trom Sir Jeffery 
Amherst to Sir W™. Johnson. 
Dated New York, 20*^. Aug^*. 1 763. 
In Answer to Sir William's of the 4^. Aug*'. 
Acquaints Sir W"". that when the Savages 
are Sufficiently Punished, he shall think oi 
giving them Peace ; but Not till then ; When he will 
Desire Sir W'" ^ Service, being 
Persuaded No One was so fit for Settling an 
Affair of that Kind as Himself: The 
General Encloses an Extract of L*. Governor 
Fauquier's Letter, accusing the Northern 
Indians of being Concerned in the 
Depredations Committed on the Frontiers 
of Virginia. — 

In Sir Jeff: Amherst's, of the 
3< Septr. 1763. 
N°. 19. 



TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:541-42, occurs a letter to Sir 
Jeffery Amherst, of August 20th, discussing a proposed military descent 
on the hostile Indians, mentioning an Indian meeting in the Seneca country 
and announcing a purpose to attend a meeting at the German Flats, where 
Johnson will bestow a present on the sachems. 



WAR NEWS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 177, the following papers are entered: 
letter of August 23d from^ Captain Jacob Klock, at Conajoharie, relat- 
ing story of abuse and violence inflicted on his four sergeants sent to 
enforce a fine against George Klock's son; a letter of the 24th from 
Gertruy Vander Heyden, at Albany, about goods forwarded to care of 
Mr Van Eps at Schenectady, indorsed — Letter & Invoice from David Van 
Derheyden ; intelligence dated the 24th from De Couagne, at Niagara, of 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 195 

arrival of Captain Duel (Dalyell) and his command at Detroit, an engage- 
ment outside the fort in which Duel was killed and Captain Gray and 
Lieutenant Brown were wounded, English loss being about 30, arrival of 
70 men from the 46th, and reported defection of the Senneckees; and a 
draft dated the 24th from Captain John Lottridge, at Montreal, in favor 
of Richard Dotie, indorsed by Dobie in favor of John Alexander & 
Company and by Alexander & Company in favor of Duncan & Phyn. 
Destroyed in the lire. 



TO AND FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:542-44, is a letter of August 
25th to Sir Jeffery Amherst, suggesting the agency of the Senecas in late 
hostilities on the Virginia frontier, mentioning the friendly behavior of the 
Canada Indians and favorable attitude of some in the West, necessity of 
punishing hostile tribes, Johnson's illness, his delay in meeting Indians, 
distribution of powder among Indians, and showing the advisability of 
confining trade to Oswego, Niagara, Pittsburg and Detroit. On pages 
545-46, is a letter of the 27th from Sir Jeffery Amherst, at New York, 
on reprisals against savage treachery. Colonel Bouquet's victory at Bushy 
Run, activity of the Virginia militia, the contrast between Virginia's 
conduct and Pennsylvania's and Captain Ecuyer's misplaced urbanity in 
treatment of Indians who came to his fort. 



FROM WILLIAM PRENTUP, ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 177, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by the fire: a letter of August 27th from William 
Prentup, at Fort Ontario, repeating friendly assurances of Indians at 
Conasadaga and Cochnewaga and of Messasagas, reporting loss of Cap- 
tain Delyall in battle, and coming treaty at Oswegotche, and asking to 
be called home, as there will be no Indians at Oswego this summer; a 
letter of same date from New York dealing with letters and articles sent 
or ordered; a petition, undated, of some members of Captain Jacob 
Klock's company, at Canajohary, to Lieutenant Governor Cadwallader 
Colden, alleging over-severity against that officer and Lieutenant Hanikel 
Herkeman, indorsed — Ury Klock's Petition, a receipt of the 31st of 
Adam Terrence and Barnabas Coner at [Fort Pitt] to Alexander McKee 
for their pay. 



196 5iV William Johnson Papers 

TO JEFFERY AMHERST^ 
Contemporary Cop}}. 

Copy 1. 

Johnson Hall, August, 3h^ 1763. 

Sir 

Yesterday I was Favored with your Excellency's Letter of 
the 20'^. Instant, with the therewith Enclosed paragraph from 
that of Lieut: Governor Fauquiers. It does not by any thing 
I have yet Seen or heard appear to me that the Six Nations were 
Certainly the People who have Committed Hostilities on the 
Frontiers of Virginia, as both the Northern & Western Indians 
are in general avowed Enemies to the Cherokees, &ca, & Sent 
Considerable partys against them in the Spring & Since, some 
of whom might have been Stirred up by Messages from the rest. 
There might have been some Six Nation Indians amongst them, 
or they might have been all Composed of the Chenussios, but I 
shall be Shortly Enabled to Inform Your Excellency farther 
on that head, when the Indians Arrive. 

As to the Fellow, who is so much Busied with the Indians, 
I can Expect Little done against him in the Civil way as he has 
been, and is Supported and Encouraged by a Powerfull Sett 
of People at New York, who from the most Fraudulent Title 
Claim all the Conajohare Indians possessions, & their very 
Dwelling place, for which purpose he is Employed to Seduce 
them to Sign Deeds, Acknowledging the Justice of the Claim 
and Consequence of which procedure I Evidently See, & wish 
prevented. 

Soon After the Receipt of your Excellency's favor I received 
a Letter from Detroit with an Account of an Action between 
His Majesty's Troops & the Enemy Indians, in which Captain 



^In Library of Congress, transcript of letter in Public Record Office, 
C. O. 5. 63, London, England. 



' Post-War Period, 1763-1774 197 

Dalyeir v/ith Several Men were killed, & some Officers &:ca. 
Wounded, with the particulars of which. Your Excellency will 
I presume, be Acquainted before this reaches You. I am heartily 
Sorry for the Loss of Captain Dalyell, whom I Looked upon 
as a good Officer; & am Equally concerned that the Engage- 
ment was not Attended with Success, which was probably owing 
to the Smallness of our Force, & the Advantagious Situation 
of the Enemy, who partly from the French Houses, Corn Fields, 
& other Concealments, had many advantages of a Body of Men 
Marching along that open Beach (which I am well Acquainted 
with) without Flanking Parties on their Left. 

I am Hopefull that the Losses which 'tis Said Colonel 
Bouquet has Sustained" are not so Considerable as reported, & 
I heartily wish he may be Arrived at Fort Pitt. The Indians 
are not yet Arrived, but I hear are on their way to the Number 
of 200, and Amongst them Six Senecas of the nearest Castles; 
as the coming of any of that Nation is Unexpected, I am at a 
Loss, how to Act with regard to them, being Coming under the 
protection of the Rest, & in Consequence of the Meeting held 
with them Lately in their Country, when I shall be made 
acquainted with the Cause of their coming I shall know better 
how to treat them; And so soon as the Congress is over, I shall 
Make your Excellency acquainted with the transactions thereat: 
I am Informed that part of what the Indians are to say will be 
Concerning the small Posts on the Communications to Ontario 
&ca., for the Demolition of which they have often applied, & 
to our breach of promise when these Posts were erected, they 
Attribute in a great measure the Defection of the Senecas &ca. 
On this Occasion I should be glad to have a Speech from your 
Excellency to Deliver them. 

As I mentioned in my last, whenever Matters are brought to 
a proper State for my Visiting the Indians I shall Chearfully 
receive Your Excellency's Commands, happy if my Negotia- 



^ Captain James Dalyell, killed in the fight at Bloody Bridge, v/hich 
occurred on July 3 1 st. 

"In the action of Bushy Run, on August 5th and 6th. 



198 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tions shall prove Agreable to your Excellency & Advantagious 
to His Majesty's Subjects. 

I Have the Honor to be with the greatest respect & Esteem, 

Sir 

Your Excellency's 
&ca. 

W"". Johnson 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst. 
INDORSED : Copy 

Letter from Sir William 
Johnson to Sir Jeffery Amherst 
Dated Johnson Hall, 3h\ Aug^». 1763 
That he was in daily Expectation 
of the Arrival of the Six Nations, 
who were to hold a Conference at 
his House: and Hints to the 
General that he Believed their 
great Complaint would be at 
our Keeping up so many Posts on 
the Communication to Oswego, &ca. 
In Sir JefFery Amherst's of the 
17'^Sept^ 1763. 
N«. 5. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall, 3UK Aug'K 1763 
Dear Sir 

M"^. John Hansen of Albany who will have the honour of 
delivering You this letter, has been recommended to me by some 
of the most considerable People in that City, to use my endeav- 
ours, for procuring him y^. office of Sherriff for the same. As 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



' Post-War Period, 1763-1774 199 

I look upon him to be a Gentleman verry well qualified for that 
employment, I have therefore taken the liberty of recommending 
him to your notice, and it will much oblidge me if you can secure 
him therein with any propriety. 

I wrote You concerning the Commissions &.ca and on other 
Subjects the 10'^. of this Ins'., which letter I hope you received, 
and You may be assured I shall be always happy in hearing of 
your Health & happiness, as I am 

with real sincerity 

Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient & 

Most Humble Servant 

W"^. Johnson 
The Honr^l^. 
Lieut. Gov^. Golden 



INDIAN AFFAIRS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 177-78, are found the following papers: 
a letter of September 1 st from David Franks and other venders of Indian 
goods, at Philadelphia, asking Johnson's support in an effort to obtain 
reparation for Indian depredations; a letter of the 2d to John Stewart, 
superintendent of southern Indian affairs, inquiring as to purpose of Tus- 
caroras in the South to come North, and willingness of southern tribes 
to cooperate against northern Indians, and mentioning English repulse and 
death of Captain Dalyell in forcing entrenchment near Detroit (action of 
Bloody Bridge) ; a letter of the 2nd from Colonel William Eyre, at New 
York, introducing Mr Gilliland, who wishes to buy land, and expressing 
hope that the expedition to Detroit may be as successful as the one led by 
Colonel Bouquet to Pittsburgh ; an account, dated the 6th at Schenectady, 
with Duncan & Phyn; a letter of the 6th from Captain John Lottridge, 
at Montrial, about sending Buffalo blanket and other things made by the 
Seues, expatiating on the power of that nation and their plans of ven- 
geance against the Chippeways, expressing anxiety for Captain Deale 
(Dalyell) in view of his contempt for Indian prowess, speaking of a 
contemplated trip with Colonel Holdiman to Lake Champlane and of a 
draft on Johnson for £ 1 00 ; a letter of the 6th from John Duncan, at 
Schenectady, about order for goods which he has filled; an account, 
under date of the 7th (at New York), £338, 6s, S^d, with William 



200 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Darlington; a letter of the 7th from Captain Daniel Claus, at Montreal, 
explaining lapse of correspondence by miscarriage of letters, and inform- 
ing that Indians will be on their winter hunt in a month, that General 
Gage proposes to give them ammunition, that eight friendly nations will 
be represented at a conference in June, suggesting that Montreal is not 
a suitable meeting place for western Indians because of French influence, 
Detroit being better, criticizing the policy adopted toward the savages in 
the ceded territory, expressing hope that western Indians will stop the 
rebellion through disgust at privations in their trade, mentioning threats of 
western nations against Six Nations, peace offers of Missisageys to Captain 
Dunbar at Fort William Augustus, present to Missilimack Indians and 
accounts of Daniel Campbell and Messrs Welles and Wade for dona- 
tions to Indians; and a letter of the 7th from William Darlington, at 
New York, about goods sent per Garret Marselis, scarcity of silver, most 
of which is shipped to Europe, also Muscovy ducks and other fowls. 
Destroyed by fire. 

AN INDIAN MEETING 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:553—59, are proceedings of 
Johnson, on September 7th, with the Six Nations and Indians of Cagh- 
nawaga, in which the evil conduct of some of the Seneca castles is dis- 
cussed, and the Caghnawagas make a plea for peace and censure the 
Indians who broke it. 



INDIAN AFFAIRS 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 78—79, are entered the following letters, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 8th from Major Alex- 
ander Duncan, at Fort Ontario, recommending a gardener, reporting the 
death of Captain Dalyell, the loss of a sloop 20 miles up Lake Erie, 
with provisions for Detroit, the departure of the 46th, the 80th and 
another corps in bateaux from Fort Ontario for Niagara, and advising 
of a visit which some Senecas will make to Johnson; a letter of the 8th 
from De Couagne, at Niagara, notifying of engagement on Lake Erie 
shore between Indians and men landed from the lost sloop, also good 
behavior of Daniel and other Indians; and a letter of the 9th from 
Collin Andrews, at Cat Fish Creeck, ("14 Mills in Leak Eria") writing 
at request of Daniel Oughnour (a Mohawk), who, in spite of shipwreck, 
will go on with belts to the western nations, mentioning action with party 
of Indians, believed to be Cenices (Senecas), and a schooner expected 
from Detroit. 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 201 

FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 

In Doc. Rel lo Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:546-48, is a letter of September 
9th, from Sir Jeffery Amherst, in which he quotes an instruction from the 
Earl of Egremont authorizing the expenditure of one thousand pounds as a 
present to Indians tribes, laments the death of Captain Dalyeil, mentions 
disposition of troops in winter garrisons and advises protection for John- 
son's house. 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST^ 

Contemporary Copy 
Copy 1. 

New York, lO'K September 1763. 
Sir, 

I am to own the Favor of your Letters of the 25^^. & 3/**. 
August, which are Just now come to my Hands. 

You will See by my Last that I thought it necessary you 
should have a Guard to your House; and I now Order L'. 
Colonel Campbell to Send you a Serjeant & Twelve Men from 
Fort Stanwix, on your AppHcation: Colonel Bradstreet will 
furnish you with a Sufficiency of Provisions for them. 

The Punishment of the Indians who have committed Hostili- 
ties & that Live most Contiguous to Us, ought Certainly to be 
the first thing thought of: I Have Wrote to Colonel Stephen 
who Commands a Body of Virginia Volunteers, & is now on 
the Frontiers of Pensylvania, to make an Attempt on the 
Shawnese Settlements on the Bank of the Ohio, which I Imagine 
might be Effected with Success, with the Help of the Boats 
from Fort Pitt, & what Men Colonel Bouquet can Spare; for 
which I have Sent him Directions; that he may Cooperate with 
Colonel Stephen in the Execution of this Blow, which, if it is 
attended with Success, would be a very great means of Securing 
Quiet to the Back Settlements of Virginia, & the Neighbouring 
Colonies hereafter. 



^In Library of Congress, transcript of letter in Public Record Office 
C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



202 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The Message sent by the Canada Indians is a very proper 
one; if they are Sincere, & really Intend to Send it to the West- 
ern Tribes, who are now Committing Depredations, without any 
other Secret message; for I own my Faith in what an Indian 
says is Easily Staggered. 

The Fixing the Trade hereafter at the Principal Posts on/i;, 
will no Doubt be thought Advisable: There has not been any 
Carried on, with permission, but at such places as you, when you 
was at the Detroit, Fixed upon : The Distant Indians, of Course, 
would have Complained, had they not been permitted to Trade 
at Michillimakinac & it was Considered for their own Advantage, 
that the Traders went there. 

You are certainly the best Judge how to Treat any of the 
Senecas, that may come to the Intended Conference. For my 
own part, I should think they ought not to be permitted to Come 
within your Doors; but that they should be totally Despised as 
Ungratefull Villains, who Deserve the Severest punishment, & 
have no Title whatever to be Received as Friends. 

Before the present Insurrection I Had some thoughts of 
Demohshing the small Posts But now I am Determined not to 
give up a Single Post, that I think may be of the least Service 
for keeping up the Communication, & for the Security of the 
Country: I See no Right the Indians have to make such a 
Demand, as those Posts have never been put to a Bad Use 
against them; but on the Contrary, are for their Security, as well 
as Ours: Such as have been Destroyed in the upper Country 
shall be Re Established, I hope, never to be Subject to the same 
Fate again, tho' if this Insurrection had not happened. I should 
have given some of them up. 

I am Sorry your former Disorder has Relapsed: and shall 
be Extreamly glad to Hear of your perfect Recovery. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, 
&ca. 

Jeff: Amherst. 



, Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 203 

Sir William Johnson Bar'. 
INDORSED: Copy 

Letter from Sir Jeffery 

Amherst to Sir W'". Johnson 

Dated New York, /O'K Sepf. 1763. 

In Answer Sir W'"*^ of the 25^^. & 

3/*' August. 

Leaves it Entirely to Sir W"*. 

as the Best Judge, how to Treat 

with the Indians at the Intended 

Meeting : But that the Present 

Insurrection had Determined him 

not to give up any One of the 

Posts that might be Judged Necessary 

to be Kept: Nor did he see any 

Reason the Indians had to make 

such a Demand, &ca. 

In Sir Jeffery Amherst's of the 1 7'^. 

Sep'-. 1763 

N°. 6 



FROM PETER SILVESTER ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 79, are found the following papers, which 
were destroyed by fire ; a letter of September 1 0th from Peter Silvester at 
Albany inquiring about causes for which the late Mr Corry was attorney, 
and asking remittance of £23, Is paid to Colonel Hoffman for William 
Printrup ; a letter of the 1 1 th from William Hunter, at Newport, com- 
mending Lieutenant Frazer of the 78th, who wishes to buy land ; a letter 
of the 1 3th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, about goods which will 
be sent in a bateau, and Johnson's difficult task of effecting a general 
pacification ; likewise an invoice of the 1 3th from Duncan & Phyn, at 
Schenectady, of goods bought by Sir William Johnson — £257, 5s, 8d. 



FROM THOMAS MONCRIEFFE 

In the autograph collection of the late John Boyd Thacher, of Albany, 
N. Y., sold by the Anderson Auction Company, in New York City, on 



204 Sir William Johnson Papers 

f 

March 13, 1914, was a two-page letter to Johnson, written on September 

1 3th, 1 763, at Fort Johnson, by James (Thomas) Moncrieffe,^ in which 
occurs the following passage: "I am oblig'd to leave Sir Jeffery's letter 
to you. The General Seem's Determined to Punish the Enemy at 
Detroit Before He will incline to any Pacifick Measures & as he also 
Chuses You shou'd continue the Object of their Affections, He wou'd 
not have you Concern'd in their Punishment, But when the Time Comes 
that he may think Proper to Treat with Them, He then Proposes you 
shou'd Make the Treaty." 



TO JEFFERY AMHERST 

On pages 550-52, vol. 7, Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y. is a letter 
of September 1 4th and 1 6th to Amherst, discussing the attitude of the 
Seneca villages, a dispute between the Caghnawagas and the Jesuits, and 
the dangers attending a parsimonious Indian management. 



FROM RICHARD SHUCKBURGH ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 79, are entered the following letters : 
a letter of September 14th from John Duncan at Schenectady about 
goods sent up in a bateau ; a letter of the 1 6th from James McCoard at 
Albany, pleading misfortune and asking indulgence and the favor of being 
near Johnson ; a letter of the I 6th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at Fort 
Stanwix, containing congratulations that the home government will pursue 
a more liberal Indian policy, with mention of Major Moncrief, Colonel 
Read, John Johnson, Colonel Campbell, Captains Montresor, Hope and 
Loring and Major John Small, who is soon to marry Colonel P. Schyler's 
daughter ; a letter of the 1 7th to David Franks, in regard to losses of the 
latter by Indian depredations, promising any help consistent with the 
nature of Johnson's office in obtaining compensation from the Indians ; 
a letter of the 1 8th from George Wray, at Albany, clerk of ordnance 
stores, informing that he is ready to furnish ammunition, as ordered 
by the comptroller, for supplying trusty Indians ; a letter of the 1 8th 
from. Oliver De Lancey, at New York, to the Honorable Grace Cosby, 
(copy) urging that she obtain a discharge of Lord Anson's share of the 



^Major Thomas (not James, as stated in the Sales catalogue) Mon- 
crieffe left New York on September 9th with orders for Major Gladwin 
at Detroit. Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:547. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 205 

mortgage against the property which he has bought of her and agreeing 
to pay the part due Sir Peter Warren's estate (printed in Doc. Hisl. N. 
Y., 2:804, Q, 2:466); a letter of the 19th from Thomas Flood, in 
New York, in which he laments misfortune and separation from Johnson, 
and mentions scarcity of meat and fish under the operation of a certain 
act; and a letter of the 20th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, about 
goods sent and articles desired. Destroyed by fire. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
L. S.' 

Johnson Hall Sept'. 20'K 1763 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of writing you the 1 0'^ of August last, and 
also since by M"". Hansen both which I hope you received; the 
former of which being concerning the appointments for the 
Militia &c I should be glad to hear from you on, as soon as 
convenient, The Militia being at present in some confusion thro' 
the want of the Officers and Regulations which I proposed, 
as well as from the many Vacancies now in the Regiments. 

The Bearer Hendrick Wamash a Wappinger with three other 
Indians now wait upon you concerning a land affair at the 
Fishl^ills, with which they tell me you are somewhat acquainted, 
and for part of which Lands they were never paid : the partners 
are several, but for your farther information I enclose you a 
Letter from M''^. Brett who is one of them to me last Year when 
at Easton, and I submit the affair to 5/our consideration. 

The Indians of the six Nations, as also Susquehannas and 
those of CaghnaTvaga in Canada have just left this having had 
several Conferences which gave me sufficient Employment for 
this fortnight past: they have renewed all their Engagements 
and behaved Extremely well, they inform me they have brought 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City, in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



206 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 

the two first Seneca Castles to reason as a proof of which they 
were accompanied by Six of that Nation, and are in hopes of 
bringing over the rest: The Caghnawaga's having intimated 
their desire to fall upon our Enemies, I have accordingly given 
them the Hatchet, and I flatter myself they will prove very 
usefull to us as will the 5 Nations & many others if we treat 
them well & give them Encouragement 

I hope to be enabled to write you more fully in my Next, and 
in the mean time remain. 

Dear Sir with the greatest 

Sincerity & regard 

Your most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson 
The Honr^'^ 
LiEU"^. Gov^. Golden 



FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL 

A. L. S. 

Sch^ the 2h^ September 1763 
Dear Sir 

I send by the Bearer Mr Gornelous Glen a Bill on you for 
£700 York Gurrency drawn by Gap' Glaus likewise a Gertifycate 
of Leu^ William Leslies for 795 lives 7 sous, which makes 
i£l 19 14 Gurrency. Should you approve of it please to add it 
to the amount of the Bill, if it is not Gonvenient for you to pay 
the Gash, Bills on New York will [an]swer just as well, as I 
am going down [im] mediately — the Bill is in partnership 
[ ] M"^. Vanschaak and my Self as [ ] 

see by the Inclosed letter, his part [ ] is £463: 

13:4 & my share is £233:6:8 which if not too much truble 
for you please to make out in two drafts — one in Mr Vanscaaks 
favour for that Sum and the other in my name for my share. 

if you have any Gommands to New York I shall be glad to 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 207 

have the Honour of doing any thing in my power to serve you 
who am Sir with much Respect & Esteem Your 

Verry hble Ser' 

Daniel Campbell 
[ ] William Johnson 

indorsed: 7k 21^'. 1763 

Daniel Campbels 
Letter concerning Drafts 

FROM DANIEL CLAUS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 180-81, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 21st from John 
Visger, at Schenectady, asking acceptance of a draft in his favor drawn 
by John Cangine (De Couagne) ; a letter of the 22d from Andrew 
Watson, at New York, recalling a campaign in Canada and introducing 
Lieutenant Hugh Fraser, who has some proposals to make, column of 
figures and list of nam.es on back of letter; a letter of the 22d from James 
McCoard, at Albany, announcing that he means to move to New Winsor, 
near Captain Jackson, but will be subject to Johnson's pleasure; a letter 
of the 23d from Henry Van Schaack, at Albany, informing that he 
draws on Johnson for £45, Is, 7d to close an account with the estate 
of the late Hitchen Holland; an account of the 23d with Duncan & 
Phyn at Schenectady; a letter of the 24th from Dr Peter Middleton, at 
New York, introducing Mr. Frazier, who comes on business; a letter 
of the 24th from Captain Daniel Claus, at Montreal, about a letter lost 
and correspondence entrusted to Indians and to Mr Cuyler, the real mis- 
sion of Carunghyachigoa to Canada, his answer to that Indian concerning 
the Delawares and Six Nations, causes of Indian hostility, the treatment 
deserved by the Delawares and Shawanese, loss of sloop on Lake Erie, 
mutinous disposition of British troops on account of reduction in pay, dis- 
comforts of his own position, and draft on Mr Darlington; a letter of the 
24th from David Van Der Heyden, at Albany, concerning an order for 
Indian goods which he has filled and the Indians' extravagant taste, 
accommodation furnished an Indian who sets out for New York, and the 
return of the Caghnawagas ; a letter of the 24th from James Stevenson, 
at Albany, giving the history of a piece of land that was claimed by Mr 
Brown, said to be deceased, and consenting to aid in defense of William 
Peese threatened with ejectment; a letter of the 25th from John Macomb 
dt Albany, about an account sent and an order for oil to be filled, and 
Mrs. Brant's complaint regarding a stove; a letter of the 25th from John 



208 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Duncan, at Schenectady, discussing order for blankets, shirts and brick ; an 
oath required of persons qualifying as commissioners: disavowing the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation and condemning the invocation or adoration of 
the Virgin Mary or any other saint; oath of allegiance to King George 3, 
abjuring the doctrine that excommunicated princes "may be Deposed or 
Murthered by their Subjects," and denying the claim of the Pretender; 
a letter of the 25th to the lords of trade, reporting conferences with Five 
Nations at the German Flatts and Johnson Hall, with Indians from the 
Susquehanna and with Caghnawagas at Johnson Hall, vindicating 
the ability and high spirit of the red men, and advising encouragement of 
those that are hearty in the English cause together with a policy of con- 
ciliation toward the hostile, also touching the wrongs of the Mohawks by 
the Kayaderosseras, Livingston and other grants, and adding in postscript 
the news of the disaster to the escort and reinforcement at the Niagara 
carrying place (ambuscade of the Devil's Hole), with the loss of Lieuten- 
ants Campbell, Frazer and Rosco of the Regulars, Captain Johnson and 
Lieutenant Deyton of the Provincials, and 60 privates (printed in Doc. 
Rel to Col Hist. N. Y., 7:559-62); and a letter of the 27th from 
George Croghan, at New York, to General Amherst, explaining some 
transactions, repelling an implied reflection, and resigning his post in 
the Indian Service. 



FROM ROBERT LIVINGSTON JR. 

A. L. 5/ 
Mannor Livingston \f. 28 Septemb: 1763 

Honoured Sir, 

Your favours of the 24^^. Current have just Rec^. but the one 
you mention to have wrote me some days agoe, is not yett come 
to hand, so that am at a loss to know how many backs you will 
want, I shall however order 4 of the Size you mention to be Cast 
the next week when we Shall go upon the Casting business in 
the mean time you'l be pleased to lett me know the Number you 
want and they Shall be Sent up I am Sincerely 

Hon. Sir 

Your most Humble & 
Obed*. Servant 

Rob Livingston Jun. 

^In New York Historical Society, New York City. 



- Post^War Period, 1763-1774 209 

P. S. y^ 3^^. OctC: I have just Re^. your favour of the 1 5'^. past. 
Shall observe your directions & give orders, agreable there to, I 
am as before R. L, 

S'*. William Johnson Baronet 
INDORSED: Mannor Livingston 

28'^ Sept^ 1763.— 

from M^ Livingston about 

Irons. — 



FROM THE LORDS OF TRADE ETC. 

In Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:567, is a letter of September 29th 
from the lords of trade, concurring in Johnson's opinion that the manage- 
ment of Indian concerns demands reconstruction. On pages 568—69 is 
a letter of the 30th from Sir Jeffery Amherst discountenancing the employ- 
ment at this time of Indians in war, declaring the need of economy and 
of measures to cut off ammunition from the Western Indians, and dis- 
approving a leave of absence to George Croghan. 



TO SIR JEFFERY AMHERST' 

Contemporary Copy 
Copy 1. 

Johnson Hall, 30^^. September 1763. 
Sir, 

Herewith I take the Liberty of transmitting Your Excellency 
the Account of my own & Officers Sallary &ca. in my Depart- 
ment to the 24''-. Instant, for the payment of which I beg Leave 
to request your Warrant. 

Captain Claus has drawn upon me from Montreal for £700, 
Currency, on Account of Presents given to the Indians of Arhre 
Croche &ca. who Escorted the Officers, their Garrisons, & 
Traders, by Virtue of an Order from General Gage, I shall 
therefore have to request your Excellency's Warrant for the 
same, together with the Several disbursements since my last 



^In Library of Congress, transcript of letter in Public Records Office 
C. O. 5. 63, London, England. 



210 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Acc"^, also that of the present, which I lately gave the Five 
Nations and others, so soon as I have got together some other 
Ace"*. Incurred in my Department. 

I am greatly Concerned at the Loss we have lately Sustained 
near Niagara, Especially as the Consequences may prove fatal 
for the Detroit should they be in want of Provisions at that place 
as I fear the Bullocks, Cattle &ca. cannot be replaced in Suffi- 
cient time this Season. 

I look upon the Indians who cutt off the Two Companys 
80^^. & others^ to be Chiefly of Chenussio, as the Same is but 60 
Miles from Niagara, the Success which they met with, may 
perhaps Encourage all the Senecas to Joyn them, and as that 
Nation consists in the Whole of near 1000 Fighting Men, I 
apprehend any Escorts which at present can be afforded for 
Crossing the Carrying Place will prove Insufficient. 

The Senecas & Delawares seem Closely connected together 
in Mischief, which arises from their vicinity; and also the 
Chipparvaes at the North side of the Lakes Ontario & Erie, but 
should His Majesty's Troops at Detroit Effect any thing Con- 
siderable, it might draw off the attention of the latter Nation and 
keep them in their own Country. 

So Soon as I received the Account of the affair near Niagara, 
I sent Belts Immediately thro' the Five Nations & Susquahanas, 
Recommending it to them to consider the Senecas for the future 
as an unworthy People past reclaim, and who Instead of being 
treated with, should be brought to Condign Punishment, and I 
doubt not they will be Considered in that Light, by the greatest 
part of our Friendly Indians, many of whom I believe, I can 
prevail on to Joyn a Body of His Majesty's Troops against the 
Enemy on timely Notice, which I believe might prove of great 
Service, and I am humbly of opinion that an opportunity offers 
of breaking that Chain of Affection Subsisting between them 
& the French, by Employing a few of the Latter with our 



^The ambuscade of the Devil's Flole near the Niagara cataract, occur- 
ring on September 14, 1763. 




SIR JEFFERY AMHERST 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 21 1 

Troops, this would most Effectually Convince the Indians, that 
they are now English Subjects, and ready to act against them. 
Contrary to which, I am well informed the French in General 
tell them, they have nothing to do with the English, as a proof 
of which none of them are Employed; this, the Indians are 
Induced to believe, & not only protect all the French they meet 
with, but their Goods also, and the former are greatly Encour- 
aged to Commit Hostilities from the opinion they have of the 
Friendship between them, & the private Satisfaction which these 
Disturbances afford the French. 

I have the Honour to be, with the Utmost Respect 

Sir, 

Your Excellency's 
&ca. 

W™. Johnson. 
His Excellency 
Sir Jeffery Amherst. 
INDORSED : Copy. 

Letter from Sir William 

Johnson to Sir Jeffery Amherst. 

Dated Johnson Hall, 30*^. Sep*. 1763. 

And Rec< the 73*^. Oct^. 

Enclosing an Accompt of the Pay 

due to himself, & the Other Officers 

in his Department; for which he 

Requests a Warrant; & Likewise 

Mentioning other Expences Incurred, 

the Accompts of which he was 

making Ready, &ca. 

In S^ Jeff: Amherst's of the 

13*^. Oct^ 1763 

N°.8. 

FROM ALEXANDER DUNCAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 181-82, are entered the following letters: 
one of October 1 st from Major Alexander Duncan, at Fort Ontario, 



212 Sir William Johnson Papers 

repeating intelligence received from Major Moncrieff, that an expedition 
will set out in bateaux on the 5 th or 6th for Detroit, reporting a repulse of 
the savages in an attack on the schooner going up the Detroit river, and 
informing that he has stopped several traders with Indian goods, ammuni- 
tion and passes from General Gage on their way to Detroit; a letter of 
the 1st from Captain Daniel Claus, at MoPxtreal, sending, by Major 
Abercrombie, an account of a conference with Missisageys living about 
Toronto, who came to ask that La Forge, the Swegachie interpreter, 
might be allowed to trade with their village; a letter of the 2d from 
Robert Adems, at Philadelphia, asking agreement to an arrangement 
which he seeks to make with creditors; a letter of the 2d from James 
Phyn, at Schenectady, transmitting the account of Duncan Sc Phyn for 
shirts, sent in a bateau with bricks; a letter of the 3d from William 
Darlington, at New York, apologizing for delay in sending an account — 
now inclosed — , mentioning his payment of a draft drawn by Daniel Claus 
and inquiring about servants whom he obtained for Johnson; a letter of 
the 3d from John Welles, at Montreal, asking patience in regard to the 
payment of a bond, describing the state of business and wishing that 
General Amherst might extirpate the Indian brethren, and mentioning Mr 
Wade's intention to leave for the Mohawk country; a letter of the 4th 
from George Croghan, at Philadelphia, stating that he has engaged a 
man to make a draft of the colonial frontiers, and has taken passage on 
a ship to sail December 1 , before which he hopes to visit Johnson Hall ; 
a letter of the 4th from Witham Marsh, at Albany, relating an incident 
in his lawsuit, repeating Colonel Bradstreet's criticisms on the conduct of 
the war, and announcing a trip to New York with subpoenas. Destroyed 
by fire. 



FROM THOMAS MONCRIEFFE 

A. L. S.i 

Camp at the Landing Place of Niagara. October 4^^ 1763. 
Dear S^ W" 

I had the Pleasure of your Letter of th 1 6'^. Ult. this Morn- 
ing. And am Very Much Beholden to you, for the Clear & 
useful] Instruction Containd therein. 

It Gives me Concern to think, how much S"" Jeffery is Dis- 
appointed in the Expected Operations this fall. The Loss of 
the sloop, with the Disaster on the Carrying Place the 14''^ Ult. 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City. 



. Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 213 

Has Greatly Retarded the Necessary Supplys being Sent to 
Detroit. And the Reinforcement the General thought was 
Long ago with Gladwyn, is Still here. Being Obligd to Carry 
with them, Provisions Sufficient for that Post for the Winter. 
For want of Sufficient Carriages, We are Obligd to Transport 
the Provisions Every Day on Men's Shoulders. By the Horses 
being carried off, I am apt to Suspect, the Late Stroke was from 
the Genesies, But you are the Best Judge of that. I hope to 
put off the 8'^, and as it will be the Latter End of November, 
Before I can Return to Niagara, If the Seneca's were to be 
Trusted, I would make a Snow Shoe Expedition with half a 
Dozen of them to your House. For I will not pass by you 
Coming Down. 

I am Dr S^ W-. 

Most Affectionately 
yours T MONCRIEFFE 

INDORSED: 8K 4'^. 1763 

Major Moncreifs letter 

from Niagra Falls in Camp. 



FROM ROBERT ROGERS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 182, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire; a letter of October 6th from John Glen, 
Junior, at Schonectady, concerning the desire of Mr Duncan's son to be 
a lieutenant in the troop and the difficulty, the appointment of officers 
being already settled; a letter of the 7th from Robert Rogers, at Detroit, 
saying that he leaves it to Major Gladwin to report affairs at the post, but 
will send private information promised by Aaron and two other Mohawks ; 
a letter of the 7th from Robert Rogers, at Detroit, giving information im- 
parted by Aaron the Mohawk, namely that the Five Nations, particularly 
the Senecas and Cahugees, are charged with inciting the western nations to 
war, that the Hurons declare themselves to have been coerced into hostility 
by the Taways, and the Indians are resolved to attack the forces from 
Niagara at the Point a Plee, on the back a memorandum of articles ordered 
of John Glen, May 29, 1 763 ; a letter of the 8th from Lieutenant 
Governor Cadwallader Colden, at Spring Hill, regarding a claim of 
Hendrick Wamash, that people at Fish Kill and Poughkipsy owe the 
Indians for land, saying that Governor Burnet disposed of this claim 40 



214 



Sir IVilUam Johnson Papers 



years before, but he will examine it, if Johnson so advises; a receipt, 
under date of the 1 0th at Fort Pitt, of Jacob Toob to Alexander McKee 
for £7, 9s, 8d; a letter of the 10th from William Darlington, at New 
York, about various orders, the effect of "the late act" on the oyster 
trade, two hounds from Francis Wade of Philadelphia, and the un- 
satisfactory tailor "purchased" of Mr Cunningham. 



LORDS OF TRADE TO INDIAN SUPERINTENDENTS 
L. S.^ 

Oct'. lO^K 1763 
To Sir William Johnson Bar*. Superintendant 

for Indian Affairs 
Sir 

We have received Fiis Majesty's Commands 
to send you the inclosed printed proclamations" 
and to desire you will cause the same to be 
forthwith made publick in the several parts of 
your Jurisdiction, taking especial care that 
you do exactly conform to the Orders & Regu- 
lations therein contained, in so far as depends 
upon yourself, and that you do strictly enjoyn 
all persons whatever whom it may concern to 
pay a due obedience thereto on their parts. 
We are 

Sir 

Your most obedient 
humble Servants 
Hillsborough 

SOAME JeNYNS 

Ed. Bacon 
John Yorke 
NB. a like Letter was sent to John Stewart Esq^ 
the other Superintendant for Indian Affairs. 



Letter to the 
Superintendants 
of Indian Af- 
fairs for the 
northern and 
southern Dis- 
tricts of Amer- 
ica, inclosing 
printed Copies 
pf the procla- 
mation declara- 
tory of the new 
Arrangements 
in America. 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 324.17. p. 305, London, England. 

-Printed in American Archives, 4th ser., 1 : 172-75, and Select Char- 
ters and Other Documents illustrative of American History, 1606-1775, 
ed. WilHam Macdonald, p. 267-72. 



Postwar Period, 1 763-/ 774 215 



CORRESPONDENCE WITH WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johncon Calendar, p. 1 82-83, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a bill, under date of October 11th at 
New York, of Francis Bassett against Mr. Darenton (Darlington) for 
several articles; a bill, under date of the 1 1th, of Sidney Breese against 
Wiliiarfi Darlington for one pair of sconces, £3 1 , and one pair of blankets, 
£1, 2s; a bill, under date of the 1 1th at New York, of Perry Hayes 
& Sherbrooke against William Darlington for carpets; a bill under date 
of the 1 1 th, at New York, of George Ball against Mr Darlington for 
glasses, decanters, etc; a letter of the I 1th from William Darlmgton, 
at New York, sending his account for articles and silver specie shipped 
with Garret Marselis to the care of Dr Stringer, and informing that the 
letter for the lords of trade will go on the Duke of Cumberland packet; 
a letter of the 1 2th from Thomas Brookman, a cabinetmaker, at New 
York, about eight cases of furniture put on board of Captain Marsealus' 
boat for Johnson; a letter of the 12th from Michael Byrne, at Oneida 
Lake, asking a letter to Mr Lake (Robert Leake) in behalf of his re- 
tention in the commissary service; a bill, under date of the 12th at New 
York, of William Ustick against WilKam Darlington for andirons; a 
letter of the 1 3th to Colonel Eyre, discussing the possibilities of an 
Indian descent on the settlements and mentioning the disaster at Niagara; 
a letter of the 1 3th from Colonel William Eyre, at Fort Johnson, speak- 
ing of the journe}'^ he is making to Niagara in order to provide for the 
secur.ly of the posts, and the dangers of such an excursion. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A.L.S.^ 

Johnson Hall Octb^. J 3^K 1763 
Dear Sir 

I have Just received an Ac", that a considerable Body of 
Indians from the Ohio, & the Senecas Country are Assembling 
on the Susquahana below Wioming, and that they are destined 
to fall either on Shamokin, Esopus or to Cut of the Mohawk 
River from Schenectady upwards, the first of these places is 
capable of making a Defence, but I can see little to prevent 



•^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



216 Sir William Johnson Papers 

their success against the two latter, particularly in these parts 
from the bad state of the Militia, and the great want of 
Amunition h""^. 

I have acquainted Co''. Hardenbergh of y^. Danger of the 
Settlement of Esopus, and as I have no doubt that one of these 
Designs will be put in imediate Execution must beg the favour 
of hearing from You thereon, as also of your Answer to mine 
of the lO''^. of August last concerning the Vacancies, & Addi- 
tions necessary for this Regiment. In the mean time I shall 
take everry effectual measure for the obtaining the necessary 
intelligence, on which the Safety of this important Frontier must 
cheifly depend, and on Warning of the Enemys Approach, 
Shall make the best Disposition the nature of the Country will 
admit of. 

The Many Successes of our Enemies together with their large 
Numbers may prove of dangerous consequence by influencing 
our Freinds to Join them thro fear of their power vicinity & 
resentment, especially as we are not able to afford them the 
Assistance which Allies should require, but I shall continue to 
use all my endeavours to prevent a Defection which as Matters 
now stand must prove y^. destruction of this Country, as well as 
cutt of so essential a Communication to the Lakes. — I hope to 
have the pleasure of your Answer and I am with great Sincerity 
& Esteem 

Dear Sir 
Your hearty Welwisher 
& most Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson 
The Honr'^'^ 
Lieut. Gov^. Colden — 



FROM MICHAEL FUREY ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 183, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroj^ed by fire: a letter of October 15th from Michael 
Furey, at New York, relating a visit to Philadelphia, asking a letter to 
Colonel John Hackett which may enlist his influence with a gentleman 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 217 

in London, mentioning General Amherst's kindness in the matter of a pas- 
sage to England, and the delay in his suit against one Wilson and others 
for outrageous treatment; Major General Jeffery Amherst's warrant, 
under date of the 1 6th at New York^ to Abraham Mortier directing pay- 
ment of £997, 3s, 6d sterling to Sir William Johnson, abstract annexed; 
a letter of the 1 7th from DeCouagne, at Niagara, informing of Indian 
annoyances to provision trains and the stealing of cattle; a letter of the 
1 8th from William Gilliland, at New York, acknowledging hospitality, 
discussing prospects of settlement on the shores of Lake Champlain, and 
introducing Mr Crump from Cork; a letter from Michael Furey at New 
York, recommending Mr Crump, lately from Ireland. 



ELIPHALET DYER TO JEDEDIAH ELDERKIN AND OTHERS 

A. L. S. 

London Octr 18'^ jy^S 

[ ] before wrote from Falmouth of my Arival [ ] 

from London of my arival At this place which hope you [ ] 

Received And Nothing New with respect to our affairs [ ] 

Since Occurr*^ as Mr Jackson^ in a few days after my Ari[val] 
here took a Jorney into the Country and is not Expected [ ] 

till about Ten days and as yet tho*. it not best to Communi[cate] 
our affair to any other person whatever. Indeed at present it is 
very difficult to know to whom to Apply as it is very uncertaen 
who will be in power &: So [ ] Till Sometime after 

the Setting of the Parhament which will not be till ye 15'^ of 
Novemb'". and after [ ] it may be Soon known 

which Party will Prevail; the one [ ] Some hopes 

a greater Moderation may be than for Some [ti]me past has 
been I am fully assur'^ Mr Jackson will afford me [a] 11 the 
Advice & assistance that his particular Connections with the 
Colony will Admitt and I believe it will not be thought [th]at 
any Intrest of y^ Colonys will in y^ least Interfere with any 
[rejasonable and prudent prosecution of this affair Mr Jackson 
is of Opinion that the present Hostility of the Indians and the 
pretended Aversion of the Indians to our Settlement of the 



Richard Jackson, agent for Connecticut in England. 



218 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Susq*^. & Delowere Cou[ntry] will be the greatest obstackle 
& the most Dificult to remove I hope when I Can be able to 
Set that matter even in y® light am now Able it may in Some 
measure be removd, but as that matter is of So great Conse- 
quence with respect to our Success hope you'' spare no pains 
to have that matter Sett in a still Clearer light, the Conference 
of those Indians att our May Assembly the Gov" Answer & 
their replye was at large in y^ London Magazines before my 
Arival here, if y^ Truth Could be made manifest as to their 
Comming, by whom Sent, that it was a Contrivance of S'' W"" 
Johnson, & not by the Six Nations, which I Verily beheve to be 
y* Truth would be of great Avail, you'' also remember that 
the Evidence taken by Mess Woodbridge & Smith was Never 
properly Authenticated Viz the Authority that took y^ Evid*^^ 
not ascertained, if it was it was Never Sent to me at Boston 
as was proposd, I doubtless Shall Need it, hope I may have 
as frequent Intelligence as possible as to the Temper of the 
Indians in y^ affair Especially anything New that may happen 
Since my [ 

] good Cause y^ Money I left in Brother [ 111 

be Transmitted as Soon as may be or in goo[d exch]ange 

tho I fear Bills Cannot be had of our [ ] Cannot 

find our Agent is like to receve the [ ] Some time, 

but of this Shall Soon let you know further [/ believe there is 
a mistaJ^e in the [ ] with respect to the valuation, 

like to he made when the dividend to ^'^ Colon}; of Connecticutt, 
as to y^ Sum.] but it Seems there is Such Demands for publick 
Monies that the payment to y^ Northern Colonies will be post 
pon,d for Some time. Neither will it be Safe to purchase y^ 
Massachusetts Bills as I See no prospect of payment Neither 
are Gen'" So fond of them here as was [ ] a Gen*" 

att Boston when I purchasd a Bill of [ ] my proper 

regards to all Enquiring Fri[ends] beheve me Gen'" with 
Utmost respect Your Very 

Humle Serv'. 

Elipht Dyer 



' Posl-lVar Period, 1 763-1 774 219 

To Mess'^ Jed" Elderkin Sam^l Gray Esqr & ye rest of the 
Susqh Comtee 

P. S. Since y^ above have. seen Mr Ma[ucluit] 
Agent for the Province who Informs he 
Expects to recieve the Province Monies 
within a few days if So ours will be recievd 
likewise 
INDORSED: Col Dyers Letter 
Oct ]&^^ 1763 



FROM DAVID VAN DER HEYDEN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 84, are entered the following letters, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of October 19th from Lieutenant 
Colonel David Van Der Heyden, communicating a rumor that about 60 
families along the Delaware have been destroyed, and the report, con- 
veyed by Captain Stephen Schuyler's negro, of a threat made by one of 
the Indians who went with Samuel Pruyn to New York; a letter of the 
I 9th from John Glen Junior, at Schenectady, asking permission to raise a 
company of light horse; a letter of the 20th from William Weyman, at 
New York, to the Rev. Dr Barclay, sending a proof for revision and point- 
ing out difficulties in the printing of a prayer book in an Indian language 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 4:334-35; Q. 4:213-14) ; a letter of the 
20th from Thomas Harris, at New York, giving an account of an interview 
with General Amherst touching Indian affairs, and offering to supply, from 
London, goods required for a present to the Indians; a letter of the 22d 
from De Couagne, at Niagara, repeating the general opinion of the 
character of Daniel, and that of Aron (Mohawks), mentioning Major 
Wilkins' excursion and craving advice as to a trip among the Wapagamats 
in quest of intelligence; a letter of the 24th from Witham Marsh, at New 
York, imparting details of his lawsuit and mentioning the execrations and 
complaints leveled at "the actions of a certain Person" (General Am- 
herst?). 



FROM PETER SILVESTER 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 84, is entered a letter of October 24th 
from Peter Silvester, at Albany, to Johnson, showing the state of an 
ejectment suit brought by the late Eva VanDriesen against William Pease, 



220 Sir William Johnson Papers 

mentioning the case of Printrup against HofFman, and asking to be in- 
formed what causes Johnson wishes him to conduct in the place of the 
late Mr Corry. Partially destroyed by nre. Addressed: "To the 
Hon"= Sir Will [ ] Albany". Indorsed: "Alb^. 24th. 

Octb'-. 1 763 M'-. P. Silvesters letter." 



FROM JOHN CAMPBELL 
A. L. S.2 

Fort Stamvix Oct'. 25'K J 763 
Sir 

The following intellegence got from an Indian named Nickas 
an Oneida Chief, which I thought proper to acquaint You with 
viz — that all the Senecas declare war against the English which 
report prevails among all the Oneidas; that he heard about Six 
days ago a Party of Indians on the Ohio, had Tomahawked, a 
great Number of inhabitants that were removing from their 
Plantations: that their was a Congress of Indians at the Onon- 
dago Castle, Consisting of Oneidas, Cayuga's, Senecas, & Onon- 
dagos, to consult about an agreement made by them & General 
Shirley (which was) that all the Forts built on their Ground 
should be demolished after the war with the French was over, 
but they finding the agreement not complyed with Mett, in Order 
to determine on a Method to redress their Grevance, and the 
result of the Meetting was, that three of the Onondago Chiefs 
should go down to You, & Obtain leave to go to England, & 
make their redress to the King concerning said agreement, but 
if You did not comply with their request, all the Nations Would 
declare war against the English, & take their Forts by Force, 
He farther says that a great Number of Indians are assembling 
at an Indian place called Otaranie, that he is informed they are 
to come this way soon, & to distroy all the Indians who will not 
join them against the English, and that he imagines, they will 
be joined by all the Indians, as he sees no probability of the 



^Lieutenant Colonel of the 1 7th regiment. 

^In the New York Public Library. New York City. 



Posi-War Period, J763-J774 221 

English putting a Stop to their progress. He says that the three 
Indians who went to you, were to be back in eight days time 
at furthest, that Six of the days were expired, the Indians imagine 
You wont grant their Request, but if You Should, they will 
desist ail Hostility till their Sachems return from the King. He 
says he would have gone himself and acquainted You with those 
proceedings, only was afraid it might be taken notice of by the 
rest of the Indians & might hurt him. 
I am with great truth, sincerely 

Sir Your Most Obedient 

& Most humble Serv' 

John Campbell 



FROM JAMES STEVENSON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 84, are found the following papers, which 
vere destroyed by fire: a letter of October 25th from James Stevenson 
at Albany, mentioning a bill drawn by Captain Clause, inclosing letters 
from the late Mr Alexander and describing the boundary of a patent; a 
letter of the 26th from Cornelius Glen, at Schenectady, asking that two 
vouchers may be signed and returned; a letter of the 26th from John 
De Peyster, at Albany, inclosing a small account; an undated list of 
officers and men from Captain Soverinus Deyger, who did not turn oul 
when his company was ordered to the Flatts; a letter of the 28th to 
Sergeants William Laux and John Sootes, an order to levy on the goods 
of Lieutenant Wilhelmus Dillenback, or in default of property to imprison 
him in the Albany jail to recover a fine of £300 for avoidance of mili- 
tary service; and Major General Jeffery Amherst's warrant, dated the 
29th at New York, to Abraham Mortier for paying £2064, Id sterling 
to Sir William Johnson, account annexed. 



JEFFERY AMHERST TO WILLIAM BROWNING 

In a letter from Gen. Amherst to Lt. Col. Browning [elsewhere 
Brown] or Officer commanding at Niagara, dated New York 
29 Ocf. 1 763, is the following paragraph:^ 



^In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21678, fo. 35, London, 
England. 



222 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I Communicated to Sir William Johnson, with whom I had 
a Meeting at Albany, that Part of your Letter, touching the 
Mississagos ; but he is Strongly of Opinion that, that Tribe have 
,not the least hand in the present Disturbances: However it is 
your Business to be Watchfull, & on your Guard against the 
Whole Race of Savages; for, in truth, there are None of them 
to be Trusted. 
INDORSED : Oct 29^1^. 1 763 

Relative to Drafts &c: 

FROM HENRY VAN SCHAACK ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 184—85, are found the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of the 30th from Henry Van 
Schaack, at Albany, sending reports that the Earl of Egremont was dead, 
the Empress of Russia dethroned and Mr Pitt again in the ministry, ako 
alluding to a melancholy occurrence at Esopus ; a letter of the 3 1 st from 
Witham Marsh, at New York, describing a delay in the progress of his 
suit, hinting that "a certain person" (General Amherst) no longer has 
authority in Indian affairs and will soon go home, repeating public criti- 
cism on the conduct of military affairs and introducing Wilkes's North 
Briton, matters of business, political gossip, etc; John Meanner's re- 
ceipt, under date of the 31st, at Fort Pitt(?), to Alexander McKee for 
£40, 3s, 7d Pennsylvania currency (equal to £25 sterling), pay for 
six months' service as interpreters; Alexander McKee's receipt, under date 
of the 3 1 st, to Sir William Johnson for six months' pay ; Alexander Mc- 
Kee's receipt, under date of the 31st, at Fort Pitt, to George Croghan 
for pay as assistant deputy agent ; a letter of November 1 st from William 
Edgar, at Detroit, to?, touching the effect on the hostile tribes of the news 
of the peace between England and France. 

A MONTREAL LETTER 

Contemporary Cop]^'^ 

<iMontreal /^' Novr. I763.y 
<SlR> 

<<The>> Length of time I have been Silent will Scarce 
<^ admit of any Excuse, therefore I will make none, but^ 

^Inclosed in a letter of John Welles to Johnson, February 27, 1764. 







i""r 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 223 

proceed writing to you, as tho. we had Kept up a continual 
<^ Correspondence, and as I am in a Country^ where I have 
but little matter for amusement, you will perhaps find it <^scarce 
worth your^ attention, nevertheless I flatter myself, your good 
Nature will forgive my errors and <^your good Sense will> 
Correct them. Relying on that Supposition, & hoping you will 
without any Restraint, <^let me know^ how I may amend my 
Faults, I shall write to you the Dictates of my mind, & speak 
my <^Senti]>ments without reserve, I am so long since 
abstracted from my Literature, & my mind has <^been^ so 
Steadily bent upon learning a Method how to Live, you must 
not expect to have me disputing <^on any^ point whatever that 
is intricate, but pure simple facts as they arise in my mind will 
<^be the^ whole of my Narration, & I am Certain that your 
Knowledge of things in general, will be able <^to^ Conform 
itself to my Capacity, & reprove my Errors with Judgem^ For 
the Commencem' I shall let you know the Greavances of this 
Place in General, & the Universal murmers of the Country, on 
account of being so long neglected by our friends in England, 
& left to the will of a People to govern us, whose Sentiments 
in Religion entitle them to a Reward, for doing us an Injury 
& who, from a resentment for a loss of their Country, study 
every method they Can possibly invent, to distress us in our 
Circumstances — yet these are our Judges, these determine our 
Property, and from these we must receive our Sentence, nay so 
Compliasant are our People in Authy that we are, altho English 
Subjects & born under the benign Influence of a British Con- 
stitution, from which we have received, and still have a Desire 
to retain, the libertys & priviledge's of that Happy Isle, yet still 
I say, we are obliged to receive our summons even from the 
Court in French, & many of us get Interpreteres to make us 
understand them, and have been told if we do not understand it 
ourselves, we have not Business in the Country — was it not 
for our property that lies in a Country from whence we cannot 
imediately withdraw it, I believe His Majesty would in a very 



224 Sir William Johnson Papers 

little time have Scarce an English Subject, who would stay in 
his new Conquerd Canada, & where would be the advantage 
to the sons of Britain, whose Familys many of them have loss'd 
Fathers, Brothers, Sons, & whose property have always been 
ready to Support their King, & defend their Country, if they 
cannot receive the same advantages, as their Conquered Enemys? 
— We have made a petition to have the Soldiers put in Barraks, 
as knowing it would not only ease us of a very heavy Tax, but 
would be likewise better for the Troops, & would prevent many 
Irregularitys that are now Committed, which was the desire of 
every Frenchman Likewise, except the Cap*, of Militia (who 
are Exempted from having any Soldiers on them,) besides we 
are in a Country Surrounded by our Enemys, the Indians, it 
would have been a Method of hav§. all our Soldiers in a Garri- 
son so weakly furnishd as this is, ready to have musterd imedi- 
ately on the word of Command, which No doubt they saw and 
endeavour to prevent, For the Soldiers are now quarterd about 
in Different parts of the town, and during the time of Rest, 
their Arms lie exposed to any Frenchman who shall want to 
make use of them — and their Hearts publickly declare are 
still Tending toward France & the first occasion they have, they 
say, they will retake the Country — but we have such Confi- 
dence in our Troops, that from our late many & Glorious Con- 
quests, we think them invincible & expose them to danger to let 
the World see, how dextrous they are in extricating themselves 
out of it. Like a Commander in Chief who after this Country 
was Conquerd had sent to Garrison the out posts, and as persons 
may judge from his sending so small a Number of troops, either 
thought them of little Importence, or thought a handfull of 
Englishmen, was a Bulwark sufficient to stand the Assault of 
thousands. 

At <^one particular post which is just in^ the centre of the 
Indians, & where they <^can Muster at the least in a Months 
time from 20 to 30 Thousand^ Warriors, a Garrison was 
plac'd with a Lieu^ <^a Corporal & 16 men having positive 



, Post-War Period, 1763-1774 225 

orders^ to make no presents to the Indians, for whatever he 
gave <^away should be at his own expence, &^ if the Indians 
were any ways troublesome he should put himself <^under Arms 
& oppose them Forced by Force, 'tis true our brave Country- 
men have behaved with Such <^a Spirit as have^ distinguished 
themselves for the present time, to all People that have heard 
their <^ Names, and I^ doubt not but Posterity will read their 
History with Wonder, & Admiration, but <^for a man to^ 
think that so small a number as 18, should be able to oppose 
so great a Body, is impossible, <^and^ future ages will think, 
that no such Orders cou'd be given, from a Man of Under- 
standing, <^and one^ who had all our Troops under his 
Command. 

Notwithstanding all the <] Lenity^ that has been shewn the 
Inhabitants of this Country it is impossible to Change their Senti- 
ments <C&^ they return every good natured Action with 
Ingratitude, and tell us that it is our fear which obliges us to 
behave to them with that Complaisance, & our Certainty that 
France with themselves shall retake this Country, which occa- 
sions the Lenity we shew them, but these are trifles scarce worth 
regarding, because we are Certain, they are temporary, & only 
for a Short duration, therefore futurity will have but little 
Concern therein, and it is only the present Sufferers who have 
a right of Complaint: We who are at present under the Severe 
Rod of a Military Government & are first under the Necessity 
of being judged by our Enemies: who are sure for every Cause 
we have with them, to be condemn'd: whose Property is Con- 
tinually made Sacrifice to some Caprice or other, of a Captain 
of Militia; Who have only a Right of appeal where we must 
be treated w'^. Contempt, & can only apply to some officer or 
other under a Governor^ who has given them Liberty to use 
us even with Scurility. Whose Substance has been wasted with 



^General Ralph Burton was Governor of Montreal at this period. 

8 



226 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Impositions, & who, thro' Losses from one Side, and thro' 
Brybry on the other, have been Scarce able to support them- 
selves, tis we, I say, who have a right of Complaint, not with 
hopes, or expectation, of meeting with a redress for our Griev- 
ances past, but only with an Endeavour to have it avoided for 
the future. It is to all a matter of Surprise, & Astonishm*., that 
a Country w'^^. might under propper Regulations have been 
made so benificial to the Publick, should be so long Neglected, 
a Country where Trade & Commerce might be extended, and 
whose remittances, if propperly Managed, would be superior to 
Cash itself. 

The Lords of Trade undoubtedly know the advantages that 
our American Colonys are to the Kingdom of G. Britain, and 
how much their Trade & Commerce have been lately extended 
is visible to all ; their Consumption of our English manufactures, 
will in Time encrease the wealth of our Nation, & from them 
we may expect to Strengthen our Kingdom, but then they must 
always be obliged to some of our Islands in the West Indias, 
& their returns are not so Valuable, but here in Canada, when 
Monopolies shall cease, when oppression shall be Kept under, 
when Brybery shall be Contemn'd & the Usurper shall meet 
with his Deserts, that is to say when our Legislator shall think 
proper to send us persons to execute our Laws, whose Hearts 
are above Corruption & whose Salaries, will Genteely support 
them, who have Known how to sett a just Value on Mankind, 
and will give to all their due, then we shall see our Fish & Purr 
Trade daily Encreasing, & the Country will soon become flour- 
ishing & Serviceable, but whilst we labour under the GalHng 
Yoke of oppression, & are obliged to submitt to the partiall 
justice of French administration, our Kingdom cannot expect to 
receive any advantages from their new Conquest and a Country 
under such Circumstances cannot Shew its Value. 

During <^the Time I have been in this town I have made 
some Estimate of its Trade and am sure that if tis properly^ 
conducted, in one Single Branch it will return <^to England 



' Post^War Period, 1763-1774 111 

every year at the least 85,000 pounds >> Sterling, but at present 
the most that have been sent <^has not amounted to more than 
27,000 £ Sterb.^ and as long as the War Continues with the 
Indians, in all probability <;w^e shall be in a Deplorable^ 
Situation, for our Commerce is Stop'd, & the produce which is 
Equal to the Current <<Coin of any other place, > we can have 
no more of — therefore we are in hopes our people in the Admin- 
istration <^will think^ of some speedy Methods to put an End 
to the Indian Wars & Relieve us out of our Distress. <^If they 
were^ to Consider the advantages England may gain, by an 
open Trade with the Indians, <^from the Con^sumption of our 
Manufactures & the summs of Money that might be amassed 
to G. Britain <^from our^ Commerce being open in this 
Country, Im sure no Sinister Views would retard them in their 
<^prose^cution, but they would follow after it with Dilligence, 
& Attention, for besides the imediate sum <^that^ comes from 
this, it has a double advantage, as the produce of this Country 
is not for the Imediate Consumption of G. Britain, but answers 
the purpose of Cash which is usually sent out of the Nation 
<^for^ the importation of what is necessary for its Inhabitants, 
and long since it has been proved that any <^Tr^ade, which 
either saves, or brings money, that is specie into the Kingdom, 
tho' not at So great an advance, <Cis^ the most advantageous 
to the publick — were the Gent". Merchants who have vast 
summs of monie <^in> this Country, but to Consider their 
Interest (and as many of them no doubt have Friends who Could 
properly Represent it) but to make aplication for us, & them- 
selves to bring the Indian war to a final Issue, to represent the 
Grievances of this Town in regard to the French administration, 
and to have the Laws of our Happy, Happy Isle established, 
to take care that we have a person sent to Execute them, whose 
Honor <Cis^ to be depended on, and whose Education has 
taught him, that a true Patriot Spirit is preferable, to wealth 
accumulated by Usurpation, they would not only receive the 
Greatfull Acknowledgments of the People, who Labour under 



228 Sir William Johnson Papers 

these most Grevious oppressions, but would likewise promote 
their own Interest, <C&^ would be Instrumental to the Publick 
Good & advantage. Those representations I could almost 
answer, for it would warm the Heart of a Britain to be moved 
for the benifit of his suffering Brethren, & from the Honesty of 
an English heart, I could almost promise myself that we shou'd 
meet with one to speak in our Behalf, for altho^. the Hearts 
of men in General are so corrupted, and their Views are so short- 
sighted, that they only look for the present. Yet there are others, 
whose minds are not bent on any Sordid Avarice, & whose 
Actions, when they come to be Scrutinized, will stand the judge- 
ment of an [English] British Senate, who have Convinced 
Mankind, that true Honor, consists not in illgotten Wealth, & 
that the Love of his Country, is not to be Acquired but by 
Honesty & Justice. 

INDORSED: Copy of a 

Letter from a Gentlem". at Montreal 

to His Friend at New York 

Dated Montreal b* November 1763. 



FROM VOLCKERT P. DOUW ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 185, are entered several papers, which 
were destroyed by the fire: a letter of November 3d to Justices Frank 
and Harkemer, containing instructions to apprehend any Chenussio Indians 
who may come to the German Flatts; a letter of the 3d from Volckert P. 
Douw, at Albany, asking directions for his course in regard to three 
Jennesie Indians who have come with beaver skins; a letter of the 3d, 
by Captain and Adjutant G. Johnson, to Colonel Van Slyke, orders for a 
guard to be mounted in Schenectady; a letter of the 4th from 
Anne De Visme, at New York, containing congratulations on the 
return of Indian affairs to their old channel and an offer to supply goods 
for Indian trade; and an oath of a privy councilor, pledging fidelity, 
secrecy, honesty and diligence. 



Postwar Period, 1 763-1 774 229 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A.L.S.^ 

Johnson Hall Nov^^^ 4'^\ 1763 
Dear Sir 

I have had the pleasure of Your Letters of the 8*^ and 24*. 
Ulto,^ and shall on any farther application from Hendric^ 
IVamash give you notice thereof in writing, nor would I by any 
means chuse that you should incurr any expense with Indians. — 
I recollect that one Margery West was formerly given up to me 
by some Delawares & probably some of these Indians might 
have been concerned in making her Prisoner, but I apprehend 
that is immaterial, as the Delawares had been concerned ag*'. 
Us, and since made Peace, w^. some few of them strictly 
adhere to. 

I shall not fail to inform You from time to time of any Intelli- 
gence worth communicating, and I shall as occasion may require, 
give Notice to the other Colonels for the Public Safety, for wK 
Service Expresses Should be allowed. 

Yesterday I received a letter by Express from the Mayor of 
Albany acquainting me that 3 Chenussio Indians were arrived 
there (as they Said) to trade, and he therefore desired my 
advice what was best to be done with them, I have given him 
my opinion that the getting some of our Enemies Prisoners 
may probably tye up the rest of y*. Nation from acting ag^'. us. 
but I apprehend that three are too few to effect that End, and 
may only draw their resentment on this River hitherto unattacked. 

I have received Capt". Johnsons & three Blank Commissions, 
the latter shall be imediately filled with those best qualified for 
the Service, & their Names transmitted to be entered in the 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. A draft 
in the State Library was destroyed by fire. 

-See Collections of the New YorJ^ Historical Society, i8/6. Golden 
Papers, p. 247-48 and 249-50. 



230 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Secretarys Office, two of these Commissions I intend for Capt*. 
of Grenadiers One to each Battallion, & the other for a Troop 
of hght Horse for the Second BattalHon. 

As to that Troop it can be imediately formed from the Inhab- 
itants in and about Schenectady and will easily be filled by 
Volunteers to the amount of 60 Men which I apprehend will be 
Sufficient with a Cap*. 2 Lieut^ a Comet, & Quarter Master, 
and that they Should be considered as Light Horse or Dragoons 
which are a much more Serviceable Corps in this Country than 
Horse who never dismount, I shall in a Day or two go to 
Schenectady & Albany & shall then fill up the Captaincy for 
the Troop, the Regulation for which will I hope meet with 
your approbation, and as the Companies are now much larger 
than formerly, I can easily without distressing or reducing them 
too low, form the Troop, & two Companies of Grenadiers from 
Volunteers out of each BattalHon, and I hope that the additional 
Companies, and Troop, as they will cause an emulation in the Men 
belonging to each will prove a ready & Serviceable Body. 

As the Setting of the Assembly is now shortly to take place, 
I beheve you will be of opinion as I mentioned in my letter of 
August last, that there may be several explanations & additions 
necessary to render the Service of the Militia more effectual, 
particularly In this County, which is so extensive & important a 
Frontier. 

In the first place it may be necessary that the 2 Companys of 
Grenadiers, Troop of Horse their Accoutrements Regimentals 
&^*. and the Adjutancy be confirmed by a Clause in the Act 
but this I must Submit to Your Judgment. Also as You well 
know the levelling footing on which the People are here, and 
the fears the Officers are under of executeing their trust in a 
becoming manner, least they should afterwards incurr the resent- 
ment of their inferiors in office, that until Articles of War be 
made & established, Such offenders be punishable by Fines to 
be levied by Warrant as for other offences, and that these fines 
be made Sufficient to deter any Persons from offerring any abuse 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 231 

or affront to their Superiors, for their discharging their duty, this 
is in my opinion the only effectual way to encourage the Officers 
to act in a becomeing manner in this County. 

The Articles of War should certainly be settled as soon as 
possible for the holding General Courts Martial, and also a 
power given to hold Regimental Courts Martial, to consist of 
a President & 4 Members, the President not under the Degree 
of a Captain Sc"^^., and the Sentence to be transmitted to the 
Co", or Officer commanding the Regiment who should be em- 
powered to put the same into execution, — that the Regiment be 
at least annually exercised by the adjutant by Order of the 
Colonel, or so often as the Commander in Chief Shall direct, 
the Exercise for the Militia may consist of a few Motions, and 
the Manner of forming, releiveing Marching &'^^. for which it 
would be necessary they had also a Drill Serjant or Corporal 
to Each Battallion with an Allowance as is made for the Drums 
&*^*. by the former Act, and that this be continued at least for 
sometime, as I believe there will be always occasion for having 
a good Body of disciplined Men on these Frontiers, — these few 
Additions, or any others which may occur to You will tend much 
to the honour of the Province, and prove a means of estab- 
lishing a respectable body of Men for the protection thereof, 
as also create a better opinion of Us in the Minds of the 
Indians than they have hitherto entertained. I take the liberty 
therefore of Submitting them to your consideration, and I hope 
they may coincide with Your Sentiments on that important 
Subject. 

I had a short Meeting with Sir Jeffery Amherst a few days 
ago at Albany, when he was pleased to agree in many Senti- 
ments with me on the present Hostilities, I also recommended to 
him y^. raising of three Ranging Companys, w^. I undertook to 
raise imediately for the Security of these Frontiers, but it was 
not thought adviseable, as He informed me he expected some 
Troops from HalHfax & Pensicola imediately, however they 
must be a meer handfull, neither can they be so well calculated 



232 Sir Willmm Johnson Papers 

for so necessary a Service, as the Woodsmen of this Country 
Joined by trusty Indians whom I should readily provide, perhaps 
the Assembly might approve of Such a proposal. 

By a Letter I have Just received from the Lords of Trade, 
they express his Majestys inclinations to have Indian Affairs 
transacted on the most regular & extensive Plan, and the 
friendly Indians redressed in any Matters of Greiviance, of w^. 
there are many, and I am hopefull that the Alarm which these 
cruel Hostilities cause, will occasion Such Steps as may in a 
great measure prevent the like for the future. 

On my recommending it, the Inhabitants of this River &*=*. 
have erected several Stockadoed Forts round their Houses, w^. 
may serve as a Check to an Enemy, and a Security for the 
Women. Children. & those unable to March on an Alarm, & 
on my return from Albany, I shall review the Second Battallion 
at Conajohare, w'^. will be of Service at this Juncture, after 
which I shall do myself the pleasure of writeing to You further, 
& transmitting the Officers Names. 

I am with perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient and 
Most Humble Servant 

W'«. Johnson 
The Hon^^^ 
LlEU'^. GOVR. COLDEN 



FROM GAVIN COCHRANE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 86, are entered the following letters : a 
letter of November 5 th from Captain Gavin Cochrane, at Fort Johnson, 
commending the behavior of Captain Daniel and Jacob, Mohawks, re- 
porting an engagement in which they took part, and repeating an account 
of an action, October 20, near the Niagara rapids between Major Wil- 
kins' detachment and the savages, and a story of losses suffered by Onej'das 
in the Cherokee country; and a letter of the 5th from Volckert P. Douw, 
at Albany, informing that he sends three Chenussos (Genesee Senecas) 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 233 

under guard, and sending news, brought by Captain Wilhilmus Van 
Antwerpen, of the arrival at New York of a man-of-war on which Gen- 
eral Amherst will go home. Destroyed by fire. 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN 

Copiji 
Schenectady, Sund. Eve. 6'^ Nov. 1763. 

Am now to inform you, that after your departure, my affair 
became very tedious, as my friend Kloc1( did not come till near 
sun-set that evening, nor did he send the compass, which pre- 
vented my fixing the Hne that night. 

Next morning I attended also as did almost all the Indians, 
squaws as well as men, & found great difficulty to get them to 
consent^ the course to run the same with the beginning & ends 
of the map of the patent. 

At last with a deal to do, got Nickus & the rest to consent, 
& when we had run two or three chains, a few Indians of young 
Klock's party joined by Joseph Brant & some other young ones 
ran & prevented these proceedings, & I expected nothing but 
chain & compass both would have gone to wreck; however, the 
storm blew over, not without great abuse to Jerry — some of 
his own party called him all the rogues & villains imaginable, 
& said he charged 70 dollars to be paid to some one of them, & 
they never received more than three. In short, after all I could 
do, even assuring them that it was understood by you at the 
Congress or meeting. I must either come away, or take the 
courses fixed by a parcel of young ones, which was south 30 
degrees west, when it should have been 50 west — this makes 
a confounded difference, but dare say it will be made very easy 
when the dollars are paid, which I will collect as soon as pos- 



^In the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Draper Manuscripts, 
15F85-86. This is an incomplete copy of a letter (Johnson Calendar, p. 
186) that was destroyed by fire. 

^"To" supplied in the copy. 



234 Sir William Johnson Papers 

sible, & come with or send up ; but at or before payment thereof 
your good offices will be much wanting in the course of the affair. 

I am now more than ever fully convinced of Klock's rascality. 
All that I could say or do, never could get the amount of what 
he paid the Indians. I believe he thinks to pass this account at 
York, but have, I think put a stop to that. I wish to God he 
had nothing to say in the affair. I declare upon my word, that 
I w*^. give possession of all again to the Indians for two years 
if I sh'^. tire him out. — he took on him, with his son and a 
number of Indians to survey the land, contrary to what I could 
say — & what I could learn hinted he had power from below, 
which I am sure is not so. . . .^ 

Should any of the Indians call respecting the money must 
beg you will make them easy until the dollars can be collected; 
also to mention what you think right about the forementioned 
course to be parallel to the beginning & ending of the Patent 
lines. 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 186, are entered these papers: a letter of 
November 7th from William Darlington, at New York, with regard 
to letters to be forwarded and articles to be procured for Johnson; 
a letter of the 8th from John Welles, at Montreal, apprising of 
the disappearance of Captain Lx)ttridge and expressing a sense of the 
public loss, and censuring General Amherst for the present posture of 
Indian affairs; a letter of the 10th from Captain Garret Langson (Gerret 
A. Lansing), of the 2d battalion, at Schenectady, declaring his unwilling- 
ness to charge himself with the execution of orders intended for his superi- 
ors, who are absent; Adam Terrence and Barnabas Cowner's receipt, 
dated the 1 0th at Harris' Ferry, to Alexander McKee for pay as gun- 
smiths at Fort Pitt. Destroyed by fire. 



^In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 86, where this letter is listed, mention 
is made of a fusee and pistols sent and a draft inclosed. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 235 

MEMORANDA CONCERNING INDIANS' 

November 10, 1763 

<^ Three Companys of Rangers necessary with some trusty 
Ind"*. to cover the Inhabits, of y^ Mohawk River this Winter, 
otherwise I am of opinion they will be destroyed, in w*^*^. case y* 
Communication to Ontario will be stopped up. 

Such Indians as are yet our Friends to be kindly used and 
make it their Interest to continue so, untill we are better able to 
do without^ them, -^ otherwise they may turn our Enemies 
before Spring; if so> the Quarrell <^will become General & 
more fatal to us that can be^ imagined. <^On the other Hand 
they are Capable of be]>ing of the greatest Service by Joining 
<^our Troops this Winter,^ or next Spring if such Steps are 
intended. 

The Canada Indians, & some Brisk Can<^adians to be 
emp^loyed Early in the Spring ag*'. the Dela wares <^Chenus- 
sios or Shawanese^, tho I should think, that the Pensilvania 
<CJersey People^ could if they exert themselves Crush the 
former, <^this Province with a^ Number of Indians to fall 
upon the Chenussios, <^Virginia &^ Maryland to attack the^ 
or Shawanese, by Cu<!tting off a^ Number of the before men- 
tioned Nations, I am certain <Ithe We^steren Nations would 
be easily brought to terms, the Southeren Colonies might readily 
get a Number of <^the^ Cherokees, Catawba's, Chicasaws 
&". to Join them ag®'. <Cany of the^ Northeren Ind*. who are, 
& have long been their Invet<^erate Ene^mies, but their Num- 
bers should never be above a <^ thirds of ours, until they are 
heartily entered in the Quarrel. 

Indians Joining our Troops will not only pre<^vent^ our 
being Surprised, but will enable us to find out y^ <^Enemys^ 
Haunts, & places of retreat, their Magazines &ca. and certainly 
intimidate the Enemy as much as it will animate our Troops, 



^In Johnson's handwriting. 
^Word omitted in the original. 



236 Sir Willhm Johnson Papers 

who from y* frequent losses Sustained by them, begin to despair 
of Success ag*'. Such an Enemy in the Woods, w^. Should 
by all means be removed. 

Some among the French from a mistaken zeal & Bigotry to 
their Religion &ca., are I am convinced & have been Sometime 
endeavouring all in their power to spirit up the Ind*. in everry 
quarter to a War with us, and will continue so to do (thinking 
it meritoreous) unless they are brought to act with us against 
them; w^. I have great reason to think, they could readily be led 
to do. — by makeing it worth while for some of their Cheif 
partizans to Serve. 
INDORSED: <Novbr. 10th 1763.> 

Minutes for my own use. 

Minutes made by 

Sir W". Johnson B*: 

Nov^ 1 76 [3?] for his Private 

use. 



FROM GERRET A. LANSING ETC, 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 186-87, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by the fire : a letter of November 1 1 th from Captain 
Gerret A. Lansing, at Schenectady, reporting on the condition of the fort, 
blockhouses and stockades of the town; a letter of the 11th from De 
Couagne, at Niagara, sending intelligence of a disaster which befell a 
woodcutting party that went out from the Lower Landing, and mentioning 
the presence of Silver Heels' two sisters ; a receipt, dated the 1 2th at New 
York, of Gerrit Merselis for pork, oysters, feathers, spades etc., shipped 
with him by William Darlington for Sir William Johnson; a letter of 
November 1 2th from Lieutenant Colonel David Van Der Heyden, sug- 
gesting a division of Captain Dubois' company, to the south of the Catskill, 
and recommending John Jacob Ten Broeck, Dirk Van Dyck, Wessel 
Ten Broeck and Peter Becker for officers ; a letter of the 1 3th from 
Peter Silvester, at Albany, proposing to obtain a stay of execution in 
behalf of Peese, the tenant, and inclosing a receipt for the debt and costs 
in the case of Hofman against Printrup ; a letter of the 1 4th from Colonel 
John Bradstreet, at Schenectady, asking that the carpenters who are to 
build the boats for "the intended enterprise" may be excused from going 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 237 

up the Mohawk; a letter of the 14th from William Darlington, at New 
York, about a draft brought by Achilles Preston, a steward wanted by 
Johnson, and sundry matters of business, inclosing an account; a letter 
of the 1 4th from Dr Richard Shuckburgh, at Fort Stanwix, sending 
thanks for a favor and explaining that he is deterred by the state of the 
highways as well as the demands of the sick and the hurt from making a 
visit ; a letter of the 1 4th from Anne De Visme, at New York, inquiring 
whether Johnson has in his hands any money of Farrell Wade's, also copy 
of her letter dated the 4th, here dated the 7th; a letter of the 15th from 
Captain A. C. Cuyler, at Albany, asking that Jacob Cuyler may be a 
lieutenant of the grenadiers, agreeable to an arrangement between the writer 
and Colonel Van der Heyden; a letter of the 15th from Cornelius Cuyler, 
at Albany, thanking Johnson for a commission given to his son Abraham, 
and asking a captain's or a lieutenant's commission in the Schonechtady 
company for his nephew, John Cuyler Jr ; a letter of the 1 7th from John 
Glen Junior, at Schonectady, asking information as to proper clothing, arms 
and accoutrement, as nearly 40 young men, about to enlist in the troop, 
wish to supply themselves at their own expense ; a letter of the 1 7th from 
Francis Wade, at Philadelphia, about a box directed to his care, hounds 
sent to Johnson Hall, servants desired there and persons who would like 
to settle on Johnson's lands ; a letter of the 1 7th to Colonel John Brad- 
street, consenting to excuse from militia service persons employed in build- 
ing bateaux, on back descriptions of uniforms for troops and grenadiers; 
a letter of the 1 7th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, inclosing a memo- 
randum with regard to the formation of grenadier companies; and the 
memorandum of Captain John Duncan, inclosed in preceding letter, of 
suggestions for establishing grenadier companies, recommending Richard 
Duncan and Samuel Tymes for appointment as lieutenants. 



FROM JEFFERY AMHERST 
Copy^ 

A^en; York Z^"". Novetrf. 1763.— 
Sir 

Having Obtained His Majestys Gracious Permission to 
Return to England, with Orders to Leave the Command of 
the Troops in this Country with Major General Gage; I am 
to Desire You will Correspond with him in the Same manner 
as you have Done with me, Acquainting him, from time to time, 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.63, London, England. 



238 Sir William Johnson Papers 

of Every thing Remarkable that may happen in your Depart- 
ment, that he may be Enabled to give such Orders regarding 
the King's Service under your Direction as may appear most 
Necessary & Requisite. — 

I Cannot take my Leave of you without Assuring you that 
if I can be of any Service to you in England, you may freely 
Command me, as I shall always be glad of giving you proofs 
of the Sincere Esteem & Regard, with which 

I am 

Sir 
Sir W". Johnson, Bar*: 
Northern Agent — 

Johnson Hall 
INDORSED: To Sir William Johnson, Bar'. 
Johnson Hall, 
New York, 1 7'^ Nov^ 1 763. 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson — Hall Novr. /7'K 1763. 
Dear Sir 

I know not as yet whether I may congratulate you on being 
possessed of the sole Command of the Army, but M"" Gage' 
who is the bearer of this being sent down the Country by 
Comodore Loring I would not omit the opportunity of writing 
altho' my present hurry will not allow me to offer my Senti- 
ments on the Subject you require. 

Comodore Loring writes me that he has referred M"^ Gage 
to the General in order that he might be employed for the 
collecting stores Artificers, Seamen &ca against the Spring as 
the General alone could nominate the time of his conmiencement 
on pay. 

^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 

^Ensign John Lewis Gage, of the 31st regiment. 




RT. HON. JEFFERY LORD AMHERST 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 239 

As I have no doubt of M"" Gage's merit, & Reformation 
from the Indiscretion to which Youth are often subject, I am 
hopefull his appomtment in that Service may prove agreable 
to you, which may enable him to rise to a very reputable Station. 

There are now with me many Indians, some of them from our 
hitherto friendly tribes on the Susquehanna who inform me that 
they are in great uneasiness by reason of a Number of Dela- 
wares situate below them, who are encreasing their numbers with 
design to prosecute the War with the utmost Vigour. Several 
Onondagas are also here & repeat their assurances of their 
Nations unvariable attachment to us notwithstanding their great 
apprehensions concerning the resentment of our Enemies. 

Within a few Days I hope to be able to write you more fully 
on Indian affairs &ca agreable to what I had the pleasure of 
conversing with you upon. 

I am with great Sincerity 

Dear Sir 
His Excellency, The Honble 

Major General Gage 



TO THE LORDS OF TRADE 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 88, is found the following letter, which 
was destroyed by the fire: a letter of November 18 to the lords of 
trade, calling attention to the opinions on Indian affairs conveyed in 
report of August 20th, 1762, also adverting to later reports of July 1st, 
and September 25 th, describing the territory once held by the Five Nations, 
the depression of English influence with the savages at the time when his 
superintendency began, and also in 1 754, the imprudence of the colonies 
and the wisdom of the French, representing the efforts he made to com- 
mend a liberal Indian policy to General Amherst, charging French in- 
fluence in the present troubles, and showing how the French will profit by 
their continuance, urging attention to the grievances of the Six Nations, 
giving the history of the Kayaderosseres, or Queensboro' patent, and, 
briefly of one at Mohock Flatts claimed by the corporation of Albany 
showing the necessity of purchasing the Indians' consent to the maintenance 



240 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



of army posts in their country, and the advisability of employing them 
in the ensuing campaign, advocating the estabHshment of a strict boundary 
line between settlers and Indians, submitting a plan for the government of 
his three departments — the Ohio, Canada and the Six Nations, showing the 
need of interpreters and disinterested resident missionaries, and advising a 
policy marked by liberality and military vigor (printed in Doc. rel. to Col. 
Hist. N. Y. 7:572-81). 



MEMORANDUM ON SIX NATIONS AND OTHER CONFEDERACIES 

[November 18, 1763] 
I ] Northern [ 

State of the [Sev^ Indian Nations] [ 
Ottawa Confederacies [& with those of] [ 
containing [ ] Scituation [ 

Remarks] of each Nation first [ ] [Claims 

as proprietaries, or in right of Conquest] [ ] 

referred to in the Letter herewith transmitted by Sir W" Johnson 
Bart [to the] honb'^ the L'^^ of Trade &c. 

Six Nation Confederacy 

Number 

Habitations &c Fighting [ ] 

Two Villages on the 

Mohock River & a few 

Emigrants at Scohare 

lb*", distant 



N 



ames 



Mohocks, 



60 



Oneid 



as, 



Two Villages, one 25™. 
from the Head of the 
Mohockk, the other 12 
West of Oneida lake 
with Emigrants in sev^ 
places towards the Sus- 
quehanna River &c. . . . 



250 



Printed in Doc. Rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:582-84, with considerable 
variations. 



Posl-War Period^ 1763-1774 



24 



Freindly 
Nations 



T 



uscaroras, 



Onondagas, 



r 



Origly A Southern peo- 
ple incorporated many 
years ago with the 6 
Nat* have one Village, 6 
miles from the first Onei- 
das, & sev'. others about 
the Susquehanna 140 

One large Village near 
the Lake of their name, 
which is the place of Con- 
gress for the Confeder- 
ates, & a smaller a few 
miles distant 1 50 



Cayugas ^ 



One large Village near 
the Lake of their Name, 



wi 



th 

thence 

hanna 



sev'. 
to 



others from 
the Susque- 



200 



{Seneca proper^^ have 2 
Villages, the fort about 
50 miles West of Cayuga 
with others thence to 
Senecas^ Chenussio their largest 
Settlement, 70 miles from 
Niagara, & a few Vil- 
lages from thence to the 
l^Ohio 



1050 



Total , 



1950 



242 



Sir WilUam Johnson Papers 



Freinds 
Oswegatchys, 



Emigrants chiefly from 
the Onondagas settled 
at LaGallette on the 

River St Lawrence 



Freinds 



A people removed 
from the South- 
ward now settled 



Nanticokes Conoys, Tuteloes & ^ on & about the 



Saponeys &c 



Freinds 
Caghnawagas, 



Susquehanna by 
appointment o f 
the 6 Nations. . . 



Indians of Canada In al- 
liance with the 6 Nations 

Emigrants from the Mo- 
hocks settled at Sault St 
Louis near Montreal in a 
large Village with a few 
at Aghquissasne below 
LaGallette 

Total 



80 



2030 



200 



300 



2320 



[Canasad]agas Near the mouth of the 

Ott[awa] at Lac de du Montagnes [ J 

3 Villages 
Arundacks, Algonkins, 
Iroquois, or 6 Nations 

called Canasadagas [ ] 

Abenaquis Lived at S' Francis which 

having been cut off, they have 

since scattered 

originally from N England [ ] 



Postwar Period, 1763-/774 



243 



Wanats or Hurons — live near Quebec & 

are a very Civilized 40 

Indians of Tete de Poule 

called 
Korkagoghroonok Wandering Indians 

N°. uncer[tain] 
Skoghquanoghroonas At the three 

Rivers .... 40 



Del 



aw^ares. 



Indians of Ohio. & its Dependences 

Subdued by the 6 Nations & residing on 
land alloted by them for their use — From 
the River Delaware, Westward & North- 
ward to Lake Erie in sev'. Villages on the 
Susquehanna, & the Muskingam & other 
branches of Ohio, as also the Waters 
emptying into L. Erie 

f Subdued also by the 6 Nations — Removed 
Shawanese, i from their former residence on the Ohio, to 

the River Sioto, & other branches 

Have 4 Villages in the Neigh- 
borhood, of the Fort at San- 
dosky Lake which emptys into 
Lake Erie 



Wiandots & Mohiccons 



Western Nations [ 

Composed of several Nations [ 

is about the peninsula between Lakes [ 

& the Country North of Lakes Erie and Ontario [ 

River 

Names of each 

Situation of these near the 
Posts — 



630 



600 



300 



200 



[ ] 



244 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



Wiandots, or Hurons 



Powtewatamis, 



r opposite to Detroit & the Seat 
I of a Jesuit Mission, their lan- 
I guage bears affinity with that 
] of the Mohock, they have 
much influence over the rest of 
the Confederacy 

have a Village about a Mile 
below the Detroit which on 
the commencement of hostili- 
ties they abandoned, as did 
several others 

r Reside near a River which 

r-i • . 1 emptys above the Detroit — 

Uhipeweighs '^i 

they are part of a numerous 

^ Nation of that Name 

Ottawas Residing near Lake StClaire . . 

In the Neighborhood of Michilimachinac 
Ottawas These reside in different 

Villages 

Chipeweighs In different Villages 

There are also sev'. other 

Scattered Villages in that 

Neighborhood 

In the Neighborhood of Fort S' Joseph 

Powtewatamis A little below the Fort 

Ottawas At a Small distance 

In the Neighborhood of LaBaye on Lake Michigan 

Menomeneys 

Folsavoins 

Puans 

Sakis 

Foxes 



250 



150 



320 
300 



250 
400 



In alliance with the 
" Ottawas but out of 
the Six Nation claims 



200 
150 



no 
no 

360 
300 
320 



3220 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 



245 



The Miamis .... or 
Twigtwees once a 
powerfull Nation. . 



[ 

[ ] are the 

[Kicka]pous 

Mascoutens 

Piankashaws 

Wawiaghtono's 



Near the Miamis Fort of the 
Miamis or Twigtwees Con- 
federacy 
]ghta near the [ 



230 



All these are of the Miamis [180] 
or Twigtwee Confederacy 
residing on Lands allotted [90] 
by the 6 Nations & have been 
used to attend Conferences at 10[0] 
F* Pitt with the Shawanese & 
Delawares 200 



Total 
The Sioux the most powerfull Nation of the North 
live to the Westward of LaBaye, Extend to, & over 
the Mississipi, we have had little or no Correspondence! 
with them as Yet, & they are variously computed, but 

by the best accounts they Exceed 1 0000 Men 

The Illinois have not [^een] as yet had any inter-' 
course with us, & their posts in that Country are not 
as yet taken possession of, they may be 2000 
Beside the forgoing Numbers of the Western, or 
Ottawa Confederacy there are a number of Villages 
principally of Ottawas [Mohocks] & Chipeweighs 
settled About the Lake Huron, & Erie & Ontario, 
who have no fixed residence but employ themselves^ 
chiefly in hunting and [b;/io] at the most reasonable 
Computation must make 



77[ ] 



4000 



246 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Strength of each Confederacy 

Names [ ] 

Six Nations including Oswegatchy [ ] 

Nanticokes &c [DelaTvares of Susquehanna imediatel})] 

Dependant on the 6 Nations [ ] 

Canada confederacy [ ] 

Ohio 9[ ] 

Wiandott & Mohiccons 20[ ] 

Western or Ottawa Confederacy 

residing in the Neighbourhood of the outposts 3620 

Twightwee Confederacy in alhance with the former. 770 



8150 



Six Nat". Oswegatchys, Ind*. of Canada, of Ohio, 

Mohiccons &c near Sandosky 3960 

Ottawa, & Twightwee confederacys including 4000: 
Rambling Ind* 8020 



980 



EDWARD COLE TO HENRY VANSCHAACK 
A. L. S. 

Detroit Nov I9^K 1763 
I receiv"^. thy letter [ ] and the 

Eighteenth day, Vulgarly called Sat[ ] with that inclosed 

to thy better part [ ] whitch thou knowest must give 

pleasure, [ ] at a Distance will raise Desires, thou well 

know [ ] that nothing but a Close embrace will Satisfie 

My friend I would advise the, to leave for a while thy Domestick 
pushes in the Spring, as Dou [ ] then thou wilt be week 

and feable, as the Saying is between hay and grass, and push 
thy goods up to me that I may be enabled to make the strong, 
but by my Zeu[s] I hate Quaquevisme, So no more. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 247 

The dam'd Indians at the Carrying place have prevented my 
Geting up what I had at Niagara so Nicolas has Returned 
without bringing me a copper So good wholsme water is the 
plan for this winter but no matter, how we live here if we can 
but get Something that will make us Drink wine when We get 
down below, I wrote you a few days ago by the way of Fort 
Pitt, wherein I Desired if you could not come up youself in the 
Spring, to Send a person to Ontario to Bring our goods to 
Niagara, as Early as Possible, and press it upon M*^. Hill not 
to miss the first Vessel, for I can think of no other way to get 
them here then by Sending frenchmen from this to come up 
with the Army in the Spring, it would be best if you can 
come as far as Niagara, as it will [ ] a very Extra 

[ ] should you have a mem° of [ ] 

And I do assure you If you get everything [ ] Niagara 

timely, I am sure I can get them to make Remittences next 
Summer, from [ ] my own debts, I have enough 

in my hands at [ ] to pay Fundy & Douw, and 

enough and more [ ] to pay Campble and I shall be 

able to Collect a [ ] many more of my Debts between 

this and [ ] I cannot leave this to go to Niagra, as 

Spring is [ ] time of payment and I am prety sure I shall 

then Co [ ] the whol of my Debts, with Regard to Soles 

affairs Something ought to be done with them they would now 
Sell Well, its a pitty Somebody was not impow[erd] to do it, 
with Regard to De Quoney he has impowerd M^ Collen 
Andrews, So if you purpose to have the handling of them Debts, 
you must Quallifie me to Receive them and I will do the best 
I can to Serve you. the Indians here are very peasible, and I 
belive affairs will be Settled in the Spring a( Great Push must 
be made to get the powder along, and I belive that whenever 



248 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Trade opens Rum will be Sold again, but that you will 
know, and Govern Yourself accordingly, but be cautious not to 

[ 'I 

Best Com[pl]iments to you [ F] rends and 

accept the Same. 

Scincear Friend & humb'. 
Serv*. 

Edw^. Cole 
P.S. Whoever you Send must apply 
to M^ John Serling or Stedman at Niagara 
with whome he will find Instructions 
how to proceed from me. 

ADDRESSED : To 

M'. Henry VanSchaack 
INDORSED: Detroit 19 Nov'. 1763 
M' Edward Cole 



TO THE EARL OF HALIFAX 

Johnson Hall NoV. 19^\ 1763 
My Lord 

M^ Croghan my Depy Agent for the Ohio &c going to 
England on his own private affairs, vsdll have the honour of 
delivering you this Letter. 

I have the rather committed it to his Care from my knowl- 
edge of your Lordships Zeal and attention to the welfare of the 
American Colonies now labouring under the calamitous Cir- 
cumstances of an Indian War, with the particulars of which, 
together with the present state of Indian affairs in my Depart- 
ment, M"^. Croghans Experience & long residence in this Country 
will enable him fully to inform your Lordship. 



^Line missing. 

'From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., made 
by C. E. Carter before the fire; original destroyed. 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 249 

M'. Croghan is likewise entrusted with a State of Ind". affairs, 
& a plan for the better regulation of my Department in con- 
formity to His Majesty's Instructions transmitted to me by the 
Rt honb'*. the Lords of Trade. 

I am hopefull that what I have reported therein will on in- 
spection prove satisfactory, as well as that the System which 
I have humbly offered, will be considered in the Essential light, 
in which it hath appeared to me I therefore take the liberty 
to recommend it to your Lordships Patronage whenever it may 
come before you as a plan I conceive the most adviseable for 
surmounting the present difficulties and securing the future peace 
Welfare & Trade of the Northern Colonies, well satisfied that 
if it appears worthy your Lordships it cannot fail of meeting 
with a general approbation. 

The Cultivating of His Majestys Indian Interest, considered 
for some time there of little importance to which the present 
defection is in a great measure owing, will under your Lordships 
Auspices become the public attention of those in power, and 
thereby secure the fidelity of the Friendly Tribes, calm the 
Disquietudes of the Malecontents, & diffuse the happy Effects 
of your Lordships wisdom throughout our Distressed Frontiers 
for the interests of His Majesty, and the restoration of the in- 
valuable blessings of peace, with its whole train of Salutary 
consequences. 

With a View to this happy Period I have offered my Senti- 
ments, and in this view they will meet with your Lordships 
Notice If I am still happy enough to deserve a place in y"". favour. 

Had some measures corresponding w*^. those I have taken the 
liberty to propose to the Lords of Trade been put in practise on 
the reduction of Canada, the Ind"®. would not have had reason 
to repent the Change now so much to their disadvantage in 
point of treatment favors, & interest, nor I been reduced to the 
disagreable necessity of pointing out the causes & consequences 
of their present Defection, a Defection which may prove general 
unless timely prevented by a redress of Grievances & a Proper 



250 Sir WilltaTn Johnson Papers 

distribution of favors to those who have incurred and dread the 
resentment of the rest for their fidelity to us, who have hitherto 
been unable to afford them any promising hopes of security altho' 
their Zeal has induced them to make repeated offers of their 
services to accompany our Troops Whenever called upon, 
which favorable disposition should not be let slip but improved, 
and their affections conciliated to the utmost, as their presence 
with a body of Troops will animate them, and effectually pre- 
vent the surprises & Losses to which they will always be liable 
from the nature of this Country if unaccompanied by Indians. 

The security of the well affected Indians to his Majesty's 
interest engages my sole attention, convinced that your Lord- 
ship will support measures calculated for such important pur- 
poses, and as the government of my conduct & Success of my 
Endeavors must greatly depend upon my Instructions & Assist- 
ance from the Crown I may hope that your Lordship will 
Honour me with such directions, as may enable me to answer 
His Majestys Expectations, and entitle me to your good opinion 
which I shall ever think myself happy in meritting. 
I have the Honour to be 

with, the greatest deference & respect. 
My Lord 
&c 
The Rt honb'^ the EaRL OF HALIFAX 
INDORSED: Johnson Hall 

Nov^ I9'h. 1763 
To the Rt honble the 
Earl of Halifax 
^ M>- Croghan 



TO JOHN POWNALL ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 88-89, are entered the following letters, 
which were destroyed by the fire : a letter of November 1 9th to John 
Pownal, at London, recalling a letter (April 1 8th) in which he main- 
tained his right to a tract given by the Mohocks, renewing the argument. 



- Postwar Period, 1763-1774 251 

mentioning the report to the lords of trade of November 18th, which with 
this letter is carried by Mr Croghan, and giving a summary of his views 
touching the present situation and the true policy; a letter of the 19th 
from Henry Van Schaack, at Albany, saying that he has paid John 
Moffat and Joseph Irwin and incloses receipts ; a letter of the 1 9th from 
John Duncan, at Schenectady, asking advice in regard to becoming a 
candidate for a seat in the Asembly; a letter of the 20th from Abraham 
Mortier, at New York, acknowledging the receipt of a warrant for 
£2064, Id, and protesting that he has always endeavored to oblige 
Sir William in the manner of paying warrants; a letter to Mons. Fleuri- 
mant about conflicting engagements of le sieur Perthuis, the interpreter, 
(in French); a letter of the 21st from Colonel John Bradstreet, at 
Schenectady, about carpenters engaged in his Majesty's work and about 
repairing bridges at Fort Stanwix ; a letter of the 22d from Captain John 
Glen Junior, at Schenectady, inquiring about the appointment of officers 
and the obtaining of uniform and equipment for a troop of light horse. 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson — Hall Nov'. 23^ 1763 
Dear Sir, 

I had the pleasure of writing you a few days ago by M"^. 
Gage wherein I acquainted you that I should speedily transmit 
you my thoughts on the Subject of our late discourse in Albany 
— on which head I now write hoping you will consider them 
as my real Sentiments, & what appear to me best calculated 
for the public Service. 

The plan on which I have for sometime acted, & think most 
necessary at present to be continued is that of preserving the 
fidelity of the Nations hitherto our Friends, as the most effectual 
measure for ensuring success to the operations of a Campaign, 
& for enabling us to send up all necessarys to the posts during 
the Winter. The Mohocks, Oneidas, Onondagas & Cayugas 
with some of the Senecas are still attached to us, as are several 
of the Tribes down the Susquehanna so far as Owegy with the 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



252 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians of Canada, the latter I am of opinion may be well 
depended upon, & I have little doubt of the fidelity of the others 
if properly managed, but as they have great apprehensions con- 
cerning the resentment of our Ememies, It will be very necessary 
to remove their fears by promises of assistance and protection, 
and to keep up their Spirit by favors & notice, by which we 
may preserve this important communication as well as get up 
all the necessary Supplys for the service of the next year, when 
if a body of Troops are destined this way I have no doubt 1 
shall be able to assist therin with many Indians, particularly in 
any Expedit" to ye Country of the Western Indians Delawares or 
Shawanese ag* whom they will proceed with much more alacrity 
than against the Senecas who are of their own Confederacy and 
this assistance of Indians will effectually secure our Troops from 
surprizes obtain proper intelligence and enable them to pursue 
their destination with small hazard, on which acct our friendly 
Tribes have been greatly disgusted at their offers of assistce 
hav8 been hitherto rejected. If an Expedition be carried on 
against the Senecas I must beg leave to observe that by dividing 
the force, (if sufficient) & proceeding in Two bodys from 
Arundiquat, Niagara or otherwise will if well timed greatly 
disconcert & divide the Enemy, & enable us to march with a 
better prospect of succeeding altho' I am of opinion we can 
never be able to surprize them. The Delawares & Shawanese 
who have the late War, & during the present shewn them- 
selves to be our most inveterate Enemies (& who lye most con- 
venient for distressing Pensilvania &c) greatly deserve oui 
resentment, the Number of the former is pretty considerable, not 
less than 700 men, and may I believe best be proceeded against 
by the Way of Ohio, but having removed lately to places of a 
more difficult access than those of their former residence it will 
require Men well used to the Woods accompanied by good 
Guides & Ind^^ to go against them, — The Western, & indeed 
the beforementd Indians will probably retire before a consider- 
able force in which case we shall be able to distress them very 



' Post-War Period, 1763-1774 253 

little, as the burning their huts can be but of small consequence 
but the more effectually to break the friendship subsisting between 
the Western Ind^ & the French, I am of opinion nothing can 
appear more necessary than the Troops for that Service being 
accompanied by some Canadians, which at any rate will have 
the good effect of Lessening their interest, with the Ind*. and 
prevent their being regarded for the future, in the light of Friends 
as they are now considered. 

In order to prepare the Indians for Service, the ensueing 
Spring as well as to prevent any farther defection from our 
interest I shall do every thing in my power for preserving them 
in a good humour during the Winter, and as I am just now 
informed by 4 Onondagaes that a Number of Sachims & Cheif 
Warriors from the Six Nations are on their way hither to have 
a Conference with me, with the occasion of which I am yet 
ignorant I shall use every effort on their arrival to settle their 
minds & remove their apprehensions — as well as make them 
some present as a Token of our Esteem for the fidelity they have 
hitherto shewn which will doubtless prove of the highest import- 
ance towards encouraging them to a perseverance in their friend- 
ship & satisfying them that such behavior will meet with proper 
rewards, & notice, the necessity of which will I flatter myself 
make it meet with your approbation. 

I have lately wrote pretty fully to the Lords of Trade & sent 
them a State of Ind". affairs, & of necessary additions in my 
departm*. in obedience to their Lordships orders lately signified 
to me, by conmiand of his Majesty, but as in the mean time 
some necessary officers & other persons will be wanting as well 
as a proper present prepared, & other timely measures taken for 
holding the distant or scattered Tribes in readiness in case ciny 
Indians are to be employed I must beg to be favored with your 
Sentiments on that head, h whether you approve thereof that 
I may take my measures without loss of time and as I have no 
provisions for the use of the Indians now on their way, or who 
may from time to time resort hither I must request your orders 
to Coll Bradstreet for some necessary supplys for that Service. 



254 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I shall as soon as possible acquaint you with the result of my 
Conferences with the Indians who are coming down as well as 
with anything else which may occur worthy your knowledge 

I am with perfect Esteem 
His Excell^y Major Gen^ Gage 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 89-90, are found the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of November 24th from George 
Croghan, at Albany, mentioning General Amherst's recent departure, the 
expected arrival of General Monckton in New York and General Gage's 
meditated return to England, a visit with Captain Campble and Captain 
Duncon and Duncon's disposition toward the Dutch, Campble's desire to be 
a major, Colonel Bradstreet's coming expedition, a rumor of disaster to 1 00 
men between Bedford and Fort Pitt and a draft on York given by Mr A. 
Doue (Abraham Douw) ; a letter of the 26th from Michael Furey, at 
New York, telling of the progress of his suit against Willson, the kind- 
ness of James Rivington, stationer, a disappointment touching assurances 
given by Mr Darlington, and his intention to sail on board the Grace, 
Captain Chambers, bound for Bristol; an account of John Duncan, under 
date of the 26th, amounting to £1067, 12s, 6d, against Sir William 
Johnson; Duncan & Phyn's bill, under date of the 26th at Schenectady, 
for sundries bought by Sir William Johnson — £293, 17s, 7d; a letter 
of the 26th to Mrs. De Visme, replying that Johnson's late instructions 
from England do not relate to disbursements for the Indian service, inti- 
mating that future purchases for that service will probably be made in 
England and saying that no money due to (Ferrall) Wade is in his hands; 
a letter of the 27th from William Darlington, at New York, on letters 
forwarded to John Johnson and Warren Johnson by the brig Polly, 
Christopher Winn master, business matters, and Mr Martin, regarding 
whom he asks an opinion, as Mr Martin is a suitor for the hand of a 
young lady much esteemed by the writer; a letter of the 27th from Dr 
Samuel Stringer, at Albany, about a Servant sent to him for treatment, 
a letter, goods in his care and a draft on Abram Douw; a letter of the 
27th from Cornelius Glen, at Schnectady, about an order for provisions, 
which he will send in two bateaux to D. Fonda; a letter of the 27th 
from Henry Van Schaack, at Albany, saying that General Amherst, 
accompanied by Colonel Amherst, Major Abercrombie, Major Skeene 
and Mr Mair, has gone to England on the sloop-of-war Wesel, speculat- 
ing on the succession to the command and asking payment for money lent 



. Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 255 

and orders paid; orders under date of the 27th for the garrison at Johnson 
Hall; a letter of the 27th from DeCouagne, at Niagara, on the return 
of the expedition that set out for Detroit, under Major Wilkins, and 
the loss of 1 00 men on Lake Erie, Major Browning's orders against firing 
on small parties of Indians passing the fort, the power of Voiseagamigate, 
and some wampum taken by Wilkins on his expedition; a letter of the 
28th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, about General Amherst's sail- 
ing for home, persons recommended for officers in the grenadiers or the 
troop, Klock's roguery and Captain Rutherfurd's gratitude for good 
offices; a letter of the 29th from Lieutenant T. Francis, at Albany, re- 
turning thanks for favorable words to Mr Kelly of New York, mentioning 
resignations from his regiment and indicating a desire for employment 
under Johnson; a letter of the 29th from Dr Samuel Stringer, at Albany, 
prescribing for patients, and mentioning a draft on Abram Douw left by 
George Croghan and other business ; a letter of the 30th from John Welles, 
at Montreal, speaking of the loss of Captain Lotteridge, supposed to be 
drowned, and the sale of his effects by order of the town major, discussing 
a way of settling Lotteridge's affairs, offering at low terms a cargo of 
Indian goods at Niagara, of which a list is inclosed, and mentioning perse- 
cutions inflicted by the French on English residents; an undated letter to 
Thomas Pownall, England, bespeaking favor to Mr Croghan in his efforts 
to obtain compensation for losses incurred in the service and a patent for 
lamds bought in 1 749, explaining the rupture with the Indians and advocat- 
ing liberal treatment of tribes still friendly; an undated memorandum from 
Sir Jeffery Amherst to Major General Gage, extract, touching fiscal affairs 
in Sir William Johnson's department, particularly deputy Croghan's divi- 
sion; a letter of December 1st from Aaron, the Mohawk, at Fort Pitt, 
sending intelligence of a council of Shany and Delawar Indians, which he 
attended and at which he was told that the Senecas began the war, also in- 
forming that he has been robbed of arms and "4000 of Wampum" by the 
Delawars, Shanees and the Five Nations. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
L. S.i 

New York Dec' UK 1763. 
Dear Sir, 

By the October Mail which arrived last Night, I received 
Several printed Copys of His Majesty's Proclamation to make 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



256 Sir William Johnson Papers 

known the Arrangements which His Majesty had thought proper 
to make in Consequence of the Cessions Made to the Crown of 
Great Britain in America, by the late Treaty of Peace with 
France. I think it right to inclose you one of those Copys of the 
Said Proclamation, for your Information of the Regulations 
which have been made, & particularly as they are So very favor- 
able to all the Indian Tribes, a proper Explanation of the 
Articles which concern them, I imagine Must have great Influ- 
ence over their Minds, and induce them to a Conviction that His 
Majesty is well disposed to favor & protect Them. I am certain 
you will make the best Use of every particular which relates 
to the Indians, & that it's needless to say more to you on that 
Head. 

The Sep*. Packet ran ashore near Cape Hatteras but we 
expect her Dispatches, by the first Post from Philadelphia. I 
am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

& most humble Servant 

Tho^ Gage 
S^. W^. Johnson Bar*. 
INDORSED: New York Dec^ 1**, 1763 
From Gen' Gage 



TO ALEXANDER MCKEE 
D. S. 

U' Deer. 1763 
Instructions <;for Alex^ McKee, Gentle*.^ & Assistant 
Deputy. 
You will in all your Negotiations with the Indians, use your 
best Endeavours to conciliate and fix to the Brit<^ish> Interest, 
all the several Nations and Tribes <^of> Indians, who may 
fall within the Reach of <:^your]> Influence, & Deputation, as 
also to bring over all those who may <^at^ present be wavering 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 257 

in their sentiments thro' the artifices of our Enemy Ind*. <^as]> 
also to remove any mistaken Prejudices conceived by them. You 
will so conduct your proceedings, as to have an Eye only to the 
Good of His Majestys Service in general, and avoid entring into 
the Views of any particular Government, Person or party. 

You will from time to time write me an account of your Pro- 
ceedings, and communicate to me without Delay all such Intel- 
ligence as may any ways affect the Service and you will also 
commit to Writing all your Proceedings for my further 
Inspection. 

You will not Treat or hold Conferences with any Nation of 
Ind"* now in arms against us without the Consent of the 
Command^, officer at Fort Pitt; but whenever so authorized to 
use your best Endeavours in obtaining a proper Satisfaction for 
the Injuries they have committed And lastly You are to the 
utmost of your Power to prevent their being supplied with Arms, 
amunition or any Necessaries whatsoever <^untill matters are 
properly accommodated between^ us & them. 

Given under my Hand at Johnson Hall this 1*' day of Dec^ 
<1763.> 

W. J. 

FROM JOHN GLEN JUNIOR ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 191, are entered the following: a letter 
of December 2d from John Glen Junior, at Schenectady, mentioning that 
John Cuyler Junior has refused the first lieutenancy in the troop and 
recommending Jacob Schermerhorn, Henry Glen, John Visger Junior 
and Jacobus Teller for first and second lieutenant, cornet and quarter- 
master; a letter of the 2d from Captain Daniel Campbell, at Schenectady, 
asking Sir William's acceptance of a fine beaver coat and craving the 
appointment of Cornelius Glen as a lieutenant in the troop of which the 
young patroon, Stephen Van Rensselaer, is captain; a letter of the 3d 
from William Darlington, at New York, advising that he sends to the 
care of Dr Stringer, at Albany, a negro received from Francis Wade, of 



258 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Philadelphia, and two barrels of codfish, and acquainting Captain John 
Johnson that his ticket has drawn £20; Joseph Conkling's receipt, under 
date of the 3d, at New York, for a negro named Nick and two barrels of 
fish received of William Darlington, to be delivered at Albany. Destroyed 
by fire. 



LORDS OF TRADE TO LORD HALIFAX 

Whitehall Deer: 3. 1763 
My Lord 

Having received a Letter from Sir William Johnson His 
Majesty's Agent for Indian Affairs, dated the 1 5^^: of September 
last," containing among other things some observations which 
appear to us worthy your Lordship's attention, with regard to 
the best mode of carrying on war against the Indians and sug- 
gesting such conciliating rules of conduct as he is of opinion will 
conduce to procure and preserve peace with them, we think 
proper to communicate a copy of the said letter to your Lordship, 
and have the honor to be 
My Lord 

Your Lordships 

most obedient and 

most humble Servants 

Hillsborough 



Bamber Gascoyne 



The EARL OF HALIFAX, One of His 
Maj'y^: Prind. Secrys of State. 



Ed: Eliot 
E°. Bacon 
Geo: Rice 



^In Public Record Office, C. O. 5.65, p. 667, London, England. 
-Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:559-62; dated September 25. 



Posi'War Period, 1763-1774 259 



INDORSED: Whitehall — 3 Dec^ 1763 
Lds of Trade to the 
Earl of Halifax 

with 
S^ W"". Johnson's 
Observations 
Incloses 

A Letter from S^ W™ Johnson 
dated Johnson Hall Sept. 25 
1 763 informing of ye friendly 
Dispositions of the live 
Nations. He advises cultivating 
the friendship of the Indians 
The Mohawks complain 
of Encroachments on their 
Lands. 

Bundle A 
No. 2. 



FROM JOHN LEWIS GAGE 
A. L. S.^ 

Nerp York Dec': 4^^: 1763 
D«. Sir 

I have the Pleasure to inform you that I have waited on Gen^*. 
Gage who has been pleased to Appoint me to Command one 
of the Vessels on the Lakes by Virtue of a Commission which 
I beleive is the first of the Kind ever Granted. I have likewise 
a promise of future favours from him all this and many Other 
favours I stand in Debted to your Generosity for pardon me 
sir for not returning you sutable thenks for words are insuficient 
to Express what my hart means. I can Only say that when I 
forget the Obligation may I be Detested for a Monster of 
ingratitude I propose to wait On my friend on the Mohawks 



^In collection of Willis T. Hanson, Jr., of Schenectady, N, Y. 



260 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to spend a part of this Winter at which time I shall do Myself 
the Honour of Assuring you that 
I am D^ Sir 

Your Greatly Obliged 

Hum'^'*: Serv' 

Jn°: Lewis Gage 
ADDRESSED: [On His] Majestys Service 
To 
The Hon^'"^: Sir William Johnson Bart, 
at Johnson Hall in the County 
of 

Albany 
INDORSED : New York 1 Ob^ 4^^^. 1 763 
M^ Gage's letter 

FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 191-92, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by the fire: a letter of December 4th from John 
Macomb, at Albany, about bedsteads at last completed and sent to Mr Van 
Eps, to be sent up by him ; a list of articles, including bedsteads ; a letter 
of the 4th from Captain Daniel Campbell, at Schenectady, begging ac- 
ceptance of a beaver coat, brought to Sir William by Mr Glen, and ex- 
pressing sorrow for the death of Captain Lottridge; a letter of the 4tli 
from Henry Van Schaack, at Albany, asking the temporary loan of 
£150, as no money is to be had for orders on New York; a letter of 
the 5th from DeCouagne, at Niagara, announcing the return of Major 
Roger from Detroit with the Mohacs Daniel and Jacob, the mission of 
Ouaxacamigatte, the Mississague, the poor success of scalping parties, 
and mentioning Silverel (Silverheels), the Seneca (in French); a letter 
of the 5th from Witham Marsh, at New York, about his illness, his suit, 
troubles of Johnson's position, the general satisfaction at Sir Jeffery's 
going. General Gage, the completion of Johnson Hall, a coming parlia- 
mentary inquiry into the expenses of a certain office, the action of the 
Assembly for public defense, and the negro sent by Mr Frank Wade; a 
letter of the 5th to Major General Gage, explaining why he gives passes 
to Indian parties to go south, giving the account, furnished by the Tusca- 
roras, of two skirmishes on the Virginia border, stating that the Five 
Nations seem to have relinquished their intention to send deputies to 
England, that he encourages the friendly professions and offers of the 



' Post'War Period, / 763-1 774 261 

Tuscaroras, and asking approval of such expenses as the maintenance of 
good relations with the tribes not yet hostile will involve; a return of 
officers appointed for the troop and companies of grenadiers, inclosed in 
Johnson's letter of the 5th to Colden (most of the names canceled) ; a 
letter of the 5th from Francis Wade, at Philadelphia, informing of the 
purchase of a "Negroman" for Johnson, and of his inability to learn any- 
thing about Captain Brown, and mentioning the birth of a son and heir; 
and a letter of the 5th from Mary Stevens, at Schonectady, asking ac- 
ceptance of a picture "drawn for Sir Isaac Newton". 

TO CADWALLADER COLDEN 
A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall, Deck'. S^K 1763 
Dear Sir. 

I herewith enclose you a list of Officers I beg leave to recom- 
mend for supplying the Vacancies in my Regiment, at the foot 
of which, are the Names of the Horse & Grenadier Officers 
with the dates of their Commissions. 

In my choice of Officers I have been particularly carefull, 
and cheifly consulted the Feild Officers of the Regiment and 
pitched upon none, but such as are judged best qualified for the 
discharge of Such Duty, and the public Service. 

I hope by this time some measures may be taken for rendering 
the Militia of this County as respectable as their Scituation and 
importance to this Province requires, as well as that some pro- 
vision is made for supplying those with Amunition whose cir- 
cumstances cannot afford to purchase it. 

Some alterations correspondent w*^. those I took the liberty 
to point out in a former letter concerning the better enforceing 
some of the Clauses in the Militia Act, particularly for the better 
security of the Officers from the insults & resentment of their 
Men, are highly necessary, especially in a Country where officers 
are generally verry backward and afraid to make those under 
them do their Duty, w^^. is chiefly owing to the want of punish- 
ment for Offenders who may abuse their Superiors, and who are 

^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft 
destroyed by fire. 



262 Sir William Johnson Papers 

at present referred to a Court Martial which cannot sit with 
propriety till Articles of War are established. Severall Justices 
of the Peace in these parts being greatly at a loss how to demain 
themselves concerning the £ 5 Act/ and whether they are 
restrained thereby from interfereing in Matters concerning Lands 
whereby disputes & Riots are occasioned, and often carried to 
verry dangerous lengths, I should be glad to be favoured with 
your opinion thereon. 

there are now here upwards of 120 of the Five Nations, and 
mciny more hourly expected, those present have made the most 
Solemn Assurances of their unalterable Attachment to the Eng- 
lish, their intention to communicate from time to time all intel- 
ligence of the Enemys Designs & Motions, as well as their reso- 
lution to accompany his Majestys Troops the ensueing Campaign, 
whenever their presence may be required ; the Advantages result- 
ing from such assistance are clear to me, and must appear so, to 
all acquainted with their abilities, and usefullness in the Woods. 
I therefore spare no pains to cultivate this good understanding 
by good Treatment & favours, w^. are highly essential at a time 
when they are not without the Strongest inducements to partake 
of the plunder of our Frontiers, and the greatest apprehensions 
of Sufferring for their Attachment to Us. 

I have the honour to be with all due respect 

Sir 
Your Sincere Welwisher 

& most Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson 
P S. Sir I have taken 
the liberty to point out to You in y*. 
enclosed paper, some things w^. might 
escape You, and which are indispensably 
necessary for y^. forming and keeping 
compleat these two Troops of light Horse 



^An Act to impower Justices of the Peace, Mayors, Recorders and 
Aldermen to try Causes to the value of Five pounds and under, The 
Colonial Laws of New York, 4:372-77. 



, Post-lVar Period, 1 763-/ 774 263 

and two Companys of Grenadiers, w''. if kept in compleat order 
will be found a verry useful! Body of Men on any occasion, 
wherefore I flatter myself. You will enable me to compleat 
them as Soon as possible, Indeed y^. Troop & Grenadier Comp^. 
in Schenectady are already in great forwardness by Volunteers 
of the best Sort of People entering mto them. — but least that 
Spirit should at any time Slacken I beleive you will Judge it 
best to have y^ proper Regulations concern'g them & y''. rest 
of y®. regm*. enforced by a Law of the Province. 

I am S^ Y". 

W. J. 

FROM JOHN MACOMB ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 192, are found the following letters, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 6th from John 
Macomb, at Albany, confirming the report of Captain Lotteridge's drown- 
ing, mentioning the departure of General Amherst, November 1 8, and the 
loss of the August packet on the Virginey coast, and saying that he 
would rather raise a volunteer company than to be captain of a company 
near Claverack; a letter of the 6th from John Hansen, on board the brig 
Policy at Sandy Hook, promising to send information about English politics 
and to represent Johnson's services in a true light in London, and express- 
ing a hope to eat his New Year's dinner in Bristol; a letter of the 7th 
from James Rivington, at New York, about a delay in sending English 
magazines, a few literary productions now sent, popular dissatisfaction in 
England with maladministration, and the prospects of Mr Pitt's recovery 
of power ; a letter of the 7th from Lieutenant Governor Cadwallader Col- 
den, at New York, sending blank warrants and commissions for officers 
to command two companies for the defense of Schohary and Cherry Valy, 
with directions regarding muster rolls and the protection of those places, 
and referring to Johnson a complaint by the people of Canejohary against 
their captain; and a letter of the 7th, from Tim O'Connor, at Albany, 
asking a line or two to the Governor in support of his proposal to raise 
a company for the protection of the frontier. 



264 Sir William Johnson Papers 

PROCEEDINGS OF A MEETING OF TRADERS 
D. 

<:Philadelphia Dec\ 7 1763.^ 

<^At a Meeting^ of several Merchants <^and Traders At 
the^ Indian Queen Tavern, present David <^ Franks, Jeremiah 
Warder, > Samuel Burge, George Croghan, John Coxe, Abr. 
<^ Mitchell, William^ Trent, Robert Callender, Joseph Spear, 
Thomas McGee, <^ Philip Boyle, > anjd Samuel Wharton; 
Who taking into their Consideration <^The^ Losses which 
they and others have suffered, in the present <^and^ late Indian 
War, have come to the following Resolutions <^Viz'.^ 

I *'. That as George Croghan will shortly embark for London, 
It is resolved to request Him and Moses Franks of the City of 
London To lay before the Lords of Trade, or the King in 
Council, The Memorial of the Merchants and Traders, relative 
to the Losses in the late and former Indian Trade, Occasioned 
by the Depredations and War of the said Indians. 

2^'y, It is concluded, By the said persons present, That they 
will advance unto the said Moses Franks and George Croghan 
in London, The sum of Two Hundred and Ten pounds Sterling, 
Each in proportion to the Sum, Which He has suffered by the 
said Indian Trade, which said proportion, Each person will 
immediately pay unto David Franks, To enable Him, To pur- 
chase a Bill of Exchange to the amount of the said £210 Stg, 
as aforesaid. 

It was then proposed That the Sum of Ten Pounds '^ Centuir* 
be allowed unto Mess". Moses Franks and George Croghan 
on all the Neat Sum or Sums of Money, -which the Crown of^. 
Great Britain shall allow unto the sufferers in the present and 
late Indian Trade;^ As a Compensation, or Retaliation for their 
Services and Trouble in Negotiating the Application of those 
Merchants and Traders, Unto the said Crown of Great Britain, for 
redress, as aforesaid. When the same was unanimously agreed ; 



^Underlined in the original. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 265 

<^ Except by Jeremiah Warder, who desired a farther Time to 
consider of the proposition^ aforesaid. 

<^It was then^ proposed, That a Memorial be immediately 
<^ drawn and sent> by the said Crogan, To be deHvered by 
Him and <^the aforesaid Moses> Franks, Unto the Lords of 
Trade, expressive of the <^ Losses > aforesaid & praying for 
relief. 

Whereupon William Trent & Samuel Wharton <^were^ 
named. To make an Essay, of a Memorial, for that purpose 
and <Cto^ bring it to a Meeting of this Company, To Morrow 
Evening at <^Six^ o'Clock. 

It was also Concluded, That an Address be likewise signed 
<^by^ the said Merchants and Traders and sent Unto the said 
Thomas & Richard Penn Esq"., the Prop*, of this Province, 
requesting their <^ assistance^ and Interest in the prosecution 
of this Appeal, to the Court of Gre<^at^ Britain & that all 
the said Merchants and Traders now in this City, concerned in 
the late and former Indian Trade, shall wait <^upon]> the 
Governor and desire his earnest solicitation, with the said 
Proprietaries, To Countenance the Application aforesaid. 

It was likewise resolved, That a Letter be wrote to General 
Am<^herst> thanking Him for his kind offer of Assistance, 
with the King's Ministers & imploring a Continuance of his 
Interest and good Offices in their Behalf, & to Gen'. Monckton, 
praying his Intere<^st> also. 

It was in like Manner determined, That a Letter should be 
also <^wrote^ and sent to the Earl of HaHfax, praying his 
Interposition in <^our> Behalf with the King and apologising 
from the Trouble, By intima<^ting^ the great Regard and 
Knowledge, which his Lordship has evinc<^ed> for the King's 
North American Subjects. And it was likewis<^e> agreed 
to transmit to General Gage, a Copy of the Memorial g<^iven^ 
to General Amhurst and to request his favourable Repre- 
sent<[ation of its Contents unto the Kings Ministers. 

For the^ services aforesaid, David Franks, <^Jeremiah 
Warder, Samuel Burge^ and Samuel Wharton were appointed. 



266 Sir William Johnson Papers 

It was in like Manner concluded That Instructions <^be 
drawn^ by the said Traders & sent Unto Moses Franks and 
Geo: Croghan; and Abraham Mitchel and Samuel Wharton 
are appointed for this service & to bring in, a Draft of the same. 
To Morrow Evening. 

Employ Council to Speak to the Matter &c &c. 
INDORSED: [ , 

] Who met 
[ ]at the Indian 

Queen respecting an Application 
by George Croghan Esquire, To the 
Lords of Trade, for a Redress of 
the Losses, They have suffered 
in the Indian Trade. 
Copy. Number 1 — 
1763 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 93-94, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 8th from Captain 
John Duncan, at Corrysbush, mentioning a road to Schohary which he is 
running, discussing a misunderstanding with Captain Glen about an ap- 
pointment of Richard Duncan to a lieutenancy and expressing his sense 
of the honor of serving under Sir WilHam and his satisfaction with any ap- 
pointments which the latter may make; a letter of the 8th from Captain 
John Glen Junior, at Schonectady, explaining his difference with Mr 
Duncan over appointing Duncan's son to be an officer in the troop, and 
reminding that he awaits Johnson's consent before ordering accouterments 
for the troop in London; a letter of the 8th from Dr Samuel Stringer, at 
Albany, about medicines which Mr Van Eps has forgotten to forward, 
a draft which Mr. Douw has not paid, a servant sent back to Mr Darling- 
ton, and a man suffering from an overdose of medicine; a letter of the 
9th from Michael Byrne, eastward of Oneida Lake, declaring his thank- 
fulness for many marks of bounty and a hope to merit continued ap- 
probation ; a letter of the 1 0th from John Stuart, at Charles Town, about 
efforts to enlist the cooperation of the Cherokees against northern 
Indians and the readiness of the provincial Independent companies for 
such service, the jealousy felt by the Creeks on account of the cession of 



Posi-War Period. 1763-1774 Itl 

Louisiana and Florida to the English, his intention to sound the Chactaws, 
the friendly disposition but military weakness of the Chickasaws and 
Catawbas, the character of the late conference with Indian nations, the 
numbers and condition of the North Carolina Tuscaroras, who wish to 
emigrate to the north, the requirements of the lords of trade as to regular 
reports, and the desirability of cooperation between the northern and tht 
southern department to perfect a plan of free and well regulated trade 
with the Indians; a letter of the I 1th from Witham Marsh, at New York, 
about his gout, the papering of Sir William's rooms, an insinuation by 
Johnson's enemies that his patent of Kingsborough included 12,000 acres 
of the Kyaderossara grant, Captain Gage and double pay and Captain 
Croghan's habit of early rising; a letter of the 12th from Henry Van 
Schaack, at Albany, informing that he has credited Johnson with £461, 
8s, 9d, apologizing for delay in paying draft on Abram Douw, drawn 
by William Bayard in favor of Colonel Croghan, mentioning scarcity of 
money for bills on New York and a royal proclamation which secures 
the Indians in the possession of their hunting grounds and reserves for them 
all lands not within the new governments of Quebec and East and West 
Florida or the grant of the Hudson's Bay company, also "all the Lands 
lying to the Westward of the Sources of the Rivers which fall into the 
Sea from West and Northwest;" a letter of the 12th from William 
Darlington, at New York, about an account inclosed, commodities ordered, 
delay in forwarding from Albany, a draft for £ 1 000 received from John- 
son for collection, Mr Brown's engagement by Beverly Robinson to keep 
a school, and the tailor who was "bought" of Mr Cunningham; a letter 
of the 1 2th from Ferrall Wade, at Philadelphia, seeking payment of 
Captain Montour's draft on Johnson for £38 and inclosing Matthew 
Wade's draft for money due from Captain Clause; an account, under 
date of the 12th, at New York, with William Darlington; and an account 
under the same date with the same. 



MERCHANTS TO MOSES FRANKS AND GEORGE CROGHAN 
Contemporary Copy 

<^Philadelphia December 12, I763.y 
<Mess'*s Moses Franks 

& George Croghan. > 
Gentlemen 

As we Noia> think it a very favour<^able opportunity^ to 
make Our Application to his Majesty, for a Redress <^ioT 



268 Sir William Johnson Papers 

our]> Losses in the late and former Indian Trade, We have 
<^nominated> you Our Agents to transact Our Negotiations 
On this <^most> important and interesting Affair; Not in the 
least Doubting <^But> That you will ChearfuUy exert your 
utmost Interest, Influence and Address, for that Purpose, With 
those Whom you may ap<^pre^hend, will most favour it. 

To make our Application with a probability of Success, We 
have requested M"^ David Franks to remit you, by M' Croghan, 
A<^Bill]>of Exchange for Two Hundred Pounds Sterl?, which 
we recommend to you. To dispose of, in such Manner, As will 
be most likely to facilitate and confirm it. 

The Lords of Trade, having the immediate Superintendance 
of Ameri<^can^ Affairs, We apprehended, They should be 
the Medium, Thro' whom We should represent Our Misfortunes 
to the Crown; Therefore, We inclose you. Our Memorial to 
Them for that purpose, &: That, We might corroborate it, with 
the Interest of every Person, who might possibly serve Us, We 
also inclose you. Our Memorials, To the Earl of Hahfax, & 
General Mockton, — A Letter to General Amhurst & a Letter 
to William Allen Esq' & a Remonstrance to the Proprietaries 
of this Province, with a Letter from a Committee of the Assem- 
bly, To the Provincial Agent; On all which Gentlemen, We 
desire you will wait and deliver to Them, The said Several 
Memorials & Letters; who We flatter Ourselves, When you 
resolve to press Our Memorial, To the Lords of Trade, will 
chearfully extend their utmost Influence, To support it. 

That <^you may be encouraged to prosecute our application 
with that assiduity &> Earnestness, Which <^are necessary to 
procure Success We do here ^ by promise, contract & agree to 
allow <^or pay unto each^ of you, or Each of your Heirs 
Executors Adminis<^trators or Assigns^ At and after the Rate 
of Five Pounds ^ Cent<!um on^ all such, Neat Sum, or Sums 
of Mone}), which shall be granted to Us, or to Our Heirs 
Executors Admin<;istrators> or Assigns, by his Majesty or 
the Parliament of Great Britain, for and in Consideration of the 
Losses, Which We or the Traders who dealt with us, have sus- 



Post'War Period. 1763-1774 269 

tained, or suffered by the Hostilitys of the French and Indians 
both in the present & the former Indian War. 

As it is impossible, To furnish you, with Accounts formed 
with that precision, necessary to estabhsh Authenticity, occa- 
sioned by too many of the Traders, bemg either massacred, or 
in Captivity, We now Only transmit to you. An Estimation ot 
the Losses, arising from the laiier Defection, formed. We realy 
conceive. Within the Limits of what, we shall be able, in future 
to explain. 

A Traffick with the Savages, being entirely in the way of 
Barter without the Use of Books, renders it very difficult. To 
furnish Accounts with that regularity, which may be expected 
by the Lords of Trade, We would therefore recommend to you. 
To prevail <^upon^ their Lordships, if they should induce his 
Majesty to grant us Redress, To appoint Commissioners in this 
Government, To exam<^ine^ and liquidate the respective 
Traders Accounts. — perhaps, They may be influenced, to name 
Gentlemen in this City ; If they can, M"^ Croghan will recollect such, 
As will be proper. It will be necessary for you. In transmitting 
Our Remonstrance to the Lords of Trade, to employ some 
Sollicitors, To conduct <^it. We would therefore desire of 
you to employ Richard Jackson Esq^ the Provincill Agent as 
one of them; for we are assured^ He has a considerable 
In<^terest at Court which added to the^ Consideration, That 
the Duty of Agent, Unit<^ed with that of^ Sollicitor, will be 
most likely to secure to Us, The m<^ost Effectual^ Exertions 
of his Abilities and Influence. 

Many of the Accounts of the former Losses, attended with 
<^Vouchers^ were sometime Ago forwarded to M^ Franks, — 
Several others <^have^ since appeared, But as it is impossible 
to furnish them, exactly We think it best. To decline sending 
any More; As We presume Commissioners will be appointed 
to adjust those Accounts, Should We be so very fortunate; As 
to have a Compensation made to Us, from the French Prises. 

The Indian Trade, consisting chiefly of Goods of the Mane- 
factory of Great Britain; principaly Shiped by the Merchants 
of the City of London, We beg leave to request, That you will 



270 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with all Dispatch After M^ Croghans arrival, converse with as 
great a Number of Merchants, trading to this city & New York, 
As possible, and explain to Them How essentialy their Trade 
is interested, in supporting Our Memorial to the Lords of Trade 
& what Advantages will result to Them, By having it favourably 
received. — A procedure of this kind, will certainly have a very 
happy Effect; If you can but fervently interest Them in it; 
Therefore suffer Us most warmly to press this Matter upon 
you, if you think it necessary. As each of Us, have very 
cordialy Solicited Our Corrispondents Interest and Assiduity, 
On the Occasion. 

We are Gentlemen with Respect 

Your most obed^ hble Ser^^ 

David Franks 
Copy Baynton & Wharton 

Abraham Mitchel 
John Coxe 
<WiLLiAM Trent > 
RoB"^. <Callender> 
Joseph Spear 
Thqs. M^Kee 
Philip Boyle 
John Ormsby 
INDORSED: Philada. Decem^ 12 1763 
Instructions to M^ Moses 
Franks and George Croghan Esq^ 
Copy. Number 2 — 



A MEMORIAL OF MERCHANTS 
Contemporary Copxi 

Philadelphia Ded. 12 1763 
To the right Honorable The Lords << Commissioners > for 
Trade and Plantations. 

The Memorial of the Merchants of the < Province of> 
Pennsylvania concerned in the late Trade with the <^ Indians,^ 
most respectfully sheweth. 



Post-War Period., 1763-/774 271 

That in Consequence of repeated Solicitations from the 
•<] Natives,^ & countenanced and encouraged by the several 
Generals and offi<^cers,> Who from Time to Time have had 
the immediate Command of <^his^ Majesty's Forces in the 
Southern Department of North America, Your Memoriahsts 
credited a large Number of Indian Trad<^ers^ with Goods 
and Merchandize, of the Manufactory of Great Britain, to a 
very large Amount, for the supplying the said Natives, v^ith the 
Conveniences and Necessarys of Life. That these Goods were 
at a very great Expence transported into the Indian Country 
and sold to the said Indians, By Means whereof. They were in 
a great Degree concihated to <^the^ British Interest and the 
late Peace and Friendship established with Them. That con- 
trary to all Faith and in manifest Violation of the several late 
Treaties of Friendship and their several Engagements to protect 
and afford safe Conduct unto the said Traders. The natives have 
most barbarously murdered many of the said Traders and seized 
and robbed Them of their Effects and expelled The Remainder 
from their Country. Whereby the said Traders are become in- 
solvent. Their Families involved in the deepest Distress and 
your Memorialists very great Sufferers — Wherefore your Memo- 
rialists most humbly beg leave to request <^your^ Lordships, 
To take the Traders very unhappy Case <^into^ your Con- 
sideration and if it may be consistent <^with^ your Lordships 
Wisdom and Justice That you will be pleased to represent it 
to his most gracious Majesty or take such other Measures for 
their Relief, as to your Lordships, in your Wisdom, shall seem 
most Meet and convenient. 

Baynton & Wharton 

Franks Simons Trent & C^. 

Abraham Mitchel 

Philip Boyle 
Copy Robert Callender 

Joseph Spear 

John Ormsby 

Dennis Crohorn 



272 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, P. 194-95, are found the following papers, 
vsrhich were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 14th from Thomas 
Mcllworth, at Schenectady, mentioning an injury by which he is laid up, 
and asking permission to name a son William Johnson; a letter of the 15th 
from George Croghan, at Philadelphia, on Mr McKee's character, 
accounts and journal of transactions at Fort Pitt, Andrew Montour's 
distressing circumstances and his integrity and faithfulness, the mission 
intrusted to Moses Franks and himself by Philadelphia and New York 
merchants, under dates of December 7th and 1 2th, a proclamation men- 
tioned by the lords of trade, December 1 2th, the reported murder of 
Gunestoga Indians by the people of Lancaster and some favorable news 
from Detroit; a letter of the 15th from William Darlington, at New York, 
informing that he transmits by Jacob H. Ten Eyck, one of the Albany 
Asemblymen, £1000 received of Abraham Mortier; a letter of the 16th 
from John Duncan, at Schenectady, regretting a delay by reason of snows 
making the river impassable, and promising to impart some news of the 
western nations; a letter from Thomas McKee, at Philadelphia, inform- 
ing that his son will wait on Johnson for instructions, and that the Indians 
there have sent messages to those near Wielaosing to come in; a letter 
of the 18th from George Croghan, at Philadelphia, offering a stock of 
Indian goods which he has taken of Beyanton & Wharton in exchange 
for border land; Duncan & Phyn's bill, under date of the 19th at 
Schenectady, against Sir William Johnson; a letter of the 20th from 
James Phyn, at Schenectady, to John Duncan, describing the difficulty 
of obtaining transportation for goods, most of the sledges in town being 
pressed to carry officers to Albany, explaining the high price of linen and 
reciting some misfortunes of Thomas the Indian through drunkenness; a 
letter of the 22d to Thomas Mcllworth, consenting to the bestowTnent 
of the name Willieim Johnson on Mcllworth's young son, in reply to 
Mcllworth's letter of the 14th, and acknowledging the compliment; a 
letter of the 23d to Major General Gage, suggesting that the royal proc- 
lamation of (Oct. 7th) needs to be supplemented with more definite pro- 
visions for the redress of Indian wrongs, mentioning a conference with 
230 Indians and the desire of the Five Nations that the Senecas shall 
be pardoned and the Six Nations be employed to crush the Shawanese 
and Delawares, who, with the Ottawas under Pondiac, are represented 
as the principals in the war, declaring that the Delawares who still live 
on the Susquehanna, particularly toward Owegy, are friendly, vindicat- 
ing the Mohocks against an ignorant charge in a New York newspaper. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 273 

characterizing the Assembly's measures for the defense of Schohare and 
Cherry Valley and reporting an expected visit from the Chipeweigh 
chief, Wabbicommicot ; a letter of the 23d from John Brown, at Frederick- 
burgh, Dutchess County, stating that an engagement with Beverly Robin- 
son, of New York, to teach a school precludes a like engagement with 
Sir William, but intimating that he will ask advice of Elias Desbrosses, 
of New York, in the matter of asking a release of Mr. Robinson ; a letter 
of the 24th from Matthew Wade, at Philadelphia, inclosing Captain 
Claus's account, protesting against a measure taken by Johnson to secure 
himself as bondsman for Welles & Wade to Mr Sanders of Albany and 
asking indulgence till his return. 



TO CADWALLADER COLDEN 

A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall lOh^. 24^K 1763 
Dear Sir 

I am Just favoured with your letter of the 7*^. Inst.^ encloseing 
me two Capt"». Warrants & 2 Commissions as also three Lieu'*. 
Warrants & 4 Commissions from which I conclude that 'twas 
a Lieu'*. Warrant which was given to M^ Ten Eyk^, the rest 
of the warrants shall be given to Such Persons as I Judge will 
answer the Public expectations in the most expeditious & most 
effectual manner. 

The Companies when raised shall be mustered agreable to 
Your directions, but the small pay of the Officers in a Country 
where People are accustomed to high Wages, and where Men 
are now raising by Co''. Bradstreet at much higher rates as 1 
am told, will I fear greatly retard their compleating, and I am 
a good deal Surprised how y. letter & Inclosures could have 
been so long by the way. 

The Indians who have been with me from all the 6 Nations 
for several days are Just departing for their respective Countrys, 
they amounted to 230 and were accompanied by several of the 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 
^See Collections of the New York Historical Society, i8/6, Colden 
Papers, p. 256-57. 



274 Sir William Johnson Papers 

yet freindly Seneca's from Kanadassegey, as also by 3 Deputys 
sent from Chenussio requesting to be informed of our present 
resolutions, & to know whether offers of peace on behalf of 
their People will be accepted of or not, in this, they were 
seconded by the rest of the Nations, who after representing the 
manner in w*^. the Enem}) Senecas had been drawn into the War, 
intimated that should they now be received into our freindship, 
the whole Six Nations would heartily Join us against the 
Shankinese & Delatvares, whom they represented as the prin- 
cipal Authors of all the late trouble, or ag*'. any other of our 
Enemies. And I know the disposition of these People so well, 
as to foresee that any attempt ag**. the Senecas must naturally 
create uneasiness amongst the rest of the Confederacy, more 
particularly y^. Cayugaes & Onondagaes who are more con- 
nected w^. them than any of the rest. After giveing them a 
verry Severe reprimand for their Villainous 6c unnatural 
behaviour in y*^. presence of the rest, I answered them that I 
could do nothing therein, but would lay it before the Kings 
General. 

I have Just received two letters from the Lords of Trade 
(One dated in Septb"" y^. other in Octb''. last) enclosing me the 
Kings Proclamation, & expressing the approbation of his 
Majesty & his Ministers, & that of their Lordships on my late 
representations, and his Royal Orders that I should cause the 
proclamation therewith transmitted to be published & Strictly 
complied with throughout my Jurisdiction, and I am hopefull 
that within a small Period of time things may be settled on a 
still more Satisfactory Plan. 

I am a Stranger to what cause the Assembly Attribute the 
unhappy Rupture w^. is not a generall defection of the 6 Nations 
as is asserted, nor indeed of any other Nations, except the 
Shawanese, Some of y'^. Ottawaes & Chippawaes, also Dela- 
wares & Chenussios. I shall not take upon me to point out the 
Originall Parsimony &". to w*^. the first defection of the Indians 
can with Justice & certainty be attributed, but only observe as 




GEORGE III 



' Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 275 

I did in a former letter that the Indians (whose freindship was 
never cultivated by the English with that attention expence & 
Assiduity with w^. y^. French obtained their favour) were for 
many Years Jealous of our growing power, were repeatedly 
assured by the French (who were at y*. pains of haveing many 
proper Emissaries amongst them) that so soon as we became 
Masters of this Country, we should imediately treat them with 
neglect, hem them in with Posts & Forts, encroach upon their 
Lands & finally destroy them. All w^. after the reduction of 
Canada seemed to appear too clearly to the Indians, who thereby 
lost the great advantages resulting from the possession w*^. the 
French formerly had of Posts & Trade in their Country, neither 
of which they could have ever enjoyed but for the notice they 
took of the Indians, & the presents they bestowed so bountifully 
upon them, w^. however expensive they wisely foresaw was 
infinitely cheaper, and much more effectual than the keeping a 
large body of Regular Troops in their several Countrys, w^. 
however considerable could not protect Trade, or cover Settle- 
ments, but must remain cooped up in their Garrisons or else be 
exposed to the Ambuscades & surprises of an Enemy over whom 
(from the nature & scituation of their Country) no important 
Advantage can be gained. — from a Sense of these truths the 
French chose the most reasonable & most promiseing Plan, a 
Plan which has endeared their Memory to most of the Indian 
Nations, who would I fear generally go over to them in case 
they ever got footing again in this Country, & who were repeat- 
edly exhorted & encouraged by the French (from motives o\. 
Interest & dislike w^. they will always possess) to fall upon us 
by representing that their liberties & Country were in y^. utmost 
danger, and that a Fleet & army was arrived at Quebec, and 
another Army coming by the way of Mississipi to their Assist- 
ance, all which the Ind*. were persuaded to Credit; until their 
Messingers sent to the Illinois returned & contradicted the report 
so industriously propagated by the French, which imediately 
struck at our Trade, gave them some distant hopes of a reestab- 
lishment by embroiling our Affairs, and drew down the valuable 



276 Sir William Johnson Papers 

furr Trade by the way of the Ojoues^ & Mississipi, and the 
Indians once embarked in the quarrel, were easily induced by 
their success & advantages of Plunder to continue their Ravages. 
— in the midst of which however I have y*'. Satisfaction to find 
that my unwearied labours hath hitherto preserved the whole 
Confederacy (Chenussios excepted) with many other Nations & 
thereby secured this verry important communication to the Lakes 
also that by the River S'. Lawrence, together with these 
Westeren Frontiers from the Fate w^. hath attended the neigh- 
bouring Colonies, to effect these important Ends, as I have 
sacraficed all my Tranquility & Domestic concerns, so I have 
the pleasure to find myself rewarded in the favourable Senti- 
ments with which his Majesty & the Ministry have been lately 
pleased to express themselves concerning my labours for the 
public. 

The present unhappy rupture was long foreseen, & frequently 
represented by me, but I had the mortification to find that it 
did not meet w*^. sufficient credit, which neglect at length 
brought on the Calamities in which we are involved, and from 
which I apprehend we can never be any time free, unless we 
remove the Jealousies wK the Indians entertain of us, and pur- 
chase their freindship with favours and notice, which freind- 
ship once obtained, & established will enable us to withdraw 
our hands, & shorten y*. expences by imperceptible Degrees. — ■ 
these are my sentiments on the present state of Indian Affairs, 
and the causes to which the Hostilities are certainly to be 
attributed, & I hope they may tend to y^. farther information 
of any who may be desireous to enquire into the Subject. 

The Petition which you sent me, I was informed of Some 
time ago, and that George Klock a Person of an infamous 
Character at Canajohare had made it his business to procure 
the Signing of it by Several persons, the greater part of whom I 
know to be his Relations & creatures, his own Name is erased 
at the head of Men whom he persuaded thereto, (as I am 

^The Ohio. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 111 

Informed) on promises of reward, & getting them Commissions, 
w**. the Ignorant People readily beleived, I have however sent 
for the two officers complained of, and shall transmit You my 
further enquirys therein. 

I am with all due respect 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 

W**. Johnson 
The Honb'^. 
Lieut. Gov*. Colden 
INDORSED: 24^^ Dec. 1763 

Sir W™. Johnson's Letter 



FROM SAMUEL DUNLOP ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 96, are found the following letters, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 25th from Samuel 
Dunlop, at Cherry Valley, appealing for the protection of a community 
which seems to be left to destruction by the heathen; a letter of the 25th 
from John Duncan, at Schenectady, about orders for goods, a misunder- 
standing between Mr Mortier and Captain Barnsley, which has caused 
a failure to pay Captains Schlosser's and Etherington's drafts, and the 
christening of Sir William's namesake; a letter of the 26th from WilHam 
Darlington, at New York, in regard to the condition and delivery of 
articles sent, the negro sent up on Pemberton's sloop and the tailor, who 
has run away to escape work. 



278 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. S.' 

New York Dec^. 26^^ — 1763 
Sir. 

I was lately favored with your Letter of the 5^: Ins*; and 
have transmitted that part of it which related to the Information 
desired by the Council of Virginia, to M"". President Blair.^ 

In my last of the 1 2*^. Ins*. I took the Liberty to relate to you 
my general Ideas concerning our Commerce with the Indian 
Nations; and could not but approve of what you proposed, as 
to the Manner of treating Them during this Winter, in your 
Letter of the 3^. Ins*. I therefore need not trouble you farther, 
on that Subject. 

Lieu*. Montresor will no Doubt have given you Informa- 
tion, of the overtures made by the Indians of the Detroit to 
Major Gladwin, That Hostilities had ceased thereupon; many 
of the Indians having dispersed to their Hunting Grounds. The 
Major tells me, they have lost about ninety of their best War- 
riors Since the Commencement of this Affair, that the Fear of 
the Detachment under Major Wilkins joining Him, and their 
Ammimition growing low, first induced them to take this step; 
And They seemed more pressing after the Letter came to them 
from the French Commander of the Ilinois, exhorting them to 
Peace. Upon the whole. He suspects their Sincerity ; and thinks 
these Pacifick Dispositions will continue, or change, according 
to the Condition they shall be in, to pursue the War, in the 
Spring. Unless they shall determine to leave the Detroit, & 
retire to the Mississipi, they must make Peace: This they are 
Sensible of, And as I don't imagine they would chuse to leave 
their present Habitations, and as they perceive no Succour can 
come to them from the French; I am of Opinion, unless Some- 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 
^John Blair, president of the council of Virginia. 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 279 

thing happens which we can't foresee, That they will be glad 
to conclude a Peace in good Earnest. 

I don't Suppose you would think it adviseable in us to make 
any Overtures whatever either to them or any other of the 
Savages who have waged War with Us ; It's most likely that the 
Shawnese, Delaware & Senecas, when acquainted with the 
Proceedings of the Savages of the Detroit, may likewise Send 
in their Proposals for Peace. I think these last should submit 
to give us a proper Satisfaction for What they have done; This 
was before demanded of the Senecas for the Murder committed 
by some of their Tribe. 

As I think it likely Peace May be concluded with some of 
the Nations next year; I would submit to your Consideration 
the best Manner of Making Peace with Indians. Whether by 
Assembling the Several Nations together; or treating as much 
as possible with each of Them Separately; By the first Method, 
it appears to me, that we should Strengthen their Confederacys, 
and cement their Alliances. By the last That we should raise 
up Jealousies of each other and kindle those Suspicions So 
natural to every Indian, and which it's now our Business to 
encourage, and foment as much as possible. In former Days 
when the French were endeavouring to Seduce as Many as pos- 
sible of the Six Nations from the English Interest, The assem- 
bling Those Nations in one general Congress was undoubtedly 
a right Measure. They were already confederated; and the 
Majority of the Confederacy, was always inclined for the Eng- 
lish: And by those general Assemblys of the Whole Confed- 
eracy, we brought back often to our Interest, Those few who 
had been poisoned by the Machinations of the French. But I 
could never comprehend that these general Assemblys of the 
other Indian Nations was consistent with the Principles of Sound 
Policy. They have however followed the old Plan lately at 
Augusta and have taken great Pains to make Peace between 
Nations at War with each other, & to prevent them knocking 
each other in the Head at the Congress. And all, which I can 



280 Sir William Johnson Papers 

foresee must arise from this System is, that if they are Friends, 
they will all join to cut our Throats, whenever we are so unfor- 
tunate as to disagree with anyone of them. In short we have 
been forming Alliances between Nations at Variance in order 
to unite them against ourselves. 

I have given you My Sentiments, perhaps too freely, on 
Affairs in which you are so much the better Judge, and I should 
be glad of your thoughts on this Subject as freely. I am with 
great Regard 

Sir, 
Your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 
PS 

You will observe that 
the Detroit Indians have 
offered to make Peace without 
bringing in their Allies, or acquainting 
them with their Designs 
S«. W". Johnson Bar'. 

INDORSED : New York Dec^ 26'*^ 1 763 
From Major Gen' Gage 



FROM THOMAS SHIPBOY ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 196-97, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of December 27th from Thomas 
Shipboy, at Albany, inquiring about a draft on Johnson drawn by De 
Couagne in favor of John Knox, a copy of the draft given, drawn at 
Niagara October 27th; a letter of the 27th from Jacob H. Ten Eyck, 
at Albany, apprising that he has brought from Mr Darlington in New 
York £ 1 000, to be delivered on Johnson's written order, and surrender- 
ing a military warrant intended for his son, because "his mother will 
by no means suffer him to go"; a letter of the 29th from Mrs. Eghye 
Pickerd, at Conajoharry, refusing to remove from land which she says 
she occupies with the Indians' consent, and declaring confidence that 
Johnson will do her justice; a letter of the 29th from Rev. John Casper 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 281 

Lappius, at Conajoharie, describing his poverty and illness and asking 
for brandy and raisins and credit for clothing, mentioning the wickedness 
of Dry Klock, and wishing Sir William temporal and eternal blessings, 
(printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 4:335-36; Q, 4:214); a letter of the 
29th from Hendrick Frey, at Canajoharre describing the mad and evil 
behavior of Abell (John Abeel), who has driven his wife away and 
filled his house Vkath Sinneca Indians, also defiance of the sergeants by 
Tillbag (Martinus Dillenbag jun'r) ; a letter of the 30th from James 
Phyn, at Schenectady, saying that he has put to Johnson's credit the 
amount of his draft on Mr Mortier, £1067, 12s, 6d, and he incloses 
an invoice of goods ordered; a petition of the 30th from Joseph Howard 
and seven other Canada traders to Thomas Gage, commander in chief 
of his Majesty's forces in America, that the western nations may be 
asked, when terms of peace are proposed, to indemnify the traders for 
the goods of which they have been robbed; a letter of the 30th to Major 
General Gage on the eagerness of the Five Nations to act against the 
Shawanese and Delawares, their value to troops, to the frontier and to 
preservation of a road to Ontario, also the services of Daniel and other 
Mohocks who were sent to Detroit; and an account, under date of the 
30th at Schenectady, with Duncan and Phyn, £114, 7s, 5d. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A. L. S.i 

Johnson Hall Decb^. 30^K 1763 
Dear Sir 

Yesterday I was favoured with your letter of the 19'^. Ins*/ 
in answer to mine of the 5*. 

I have received particular information of all the late trans- 
actions at the Detroit as well from the officers, as from one of 
the Mohawks (whom with others I sent there to be of any service 
in their power) who is Just returned from thence charged with 
several Belts &*^*. to me. 

As the cheif Cause of the Hostilities committed by the Indians 
was intended to procure themselves redress of some wrongs, and 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft 
was destroyed by fire. 

'See Collections of the New York Historical Society, i8y6, Colden 
Papers, p. 267-68. 



282 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to obtain a better treatment, together with occasional gifts or 
rewards for the admitting Posts in their Country, I am of opinion 
their offers of a Peace arise principally from an expectation that 
they will for the future obtain their desired Ends, which they 
could not get by any other means than by having recourse to 
Arms, for this reason I conclude they have made their late 
offers, and I likewise beleive they would abide by their promises, 
if we for the future gratify their expectations; but I am fully 
convinced they will never preserve peace long, on any other 
terms, they know their own Strength & Scituation too well to 
be as yet apprehensive of our resentment, & they will never want 
Amunition whilst the French can supply them by the variety of 
communications open to y*. Wester en Indians, h beyond our 
power to shut. 

The Five Nations have had no occasion to alter their behav- 
iour w^. as it has saved y*=. Communication & the Frontiers of 
this part of the Province Justly entitled them to all necessary 
Supplys for themselves more they did not require, nor are they 
so well affected to these Nations who have made War upon us, 
as to give them Amunition even tho they had it. Indeed the 
Indians are verry chary of powder. & altho they often waste 
it whenever they have plenty (w^. has not been since Canada 
Surrendered) yet they are not so weak as to part with it to 
others, besides they have never had more from us than a verry 
bare Sufficiency, often expended before their hunt^. Season was 
near over. — If therefore they should be denied Amunition, it 
would imediately confirm them in the Sentiments w^. greatly 
contributed to produce the defection of the rest, & would counter- 
act all my endeavours to remove that too generall opinion, for 
the Suspecting their sincerity would make them become danger- 
ous Enemies, & of this, I have had repeated experience. 

I wrote You pritty fully in mine of the 24*^. by which You 
will see the difficulties which may arise in punishing y*. 
Chenussios and the advantages which will attend our turning 
our Arms against the rest of our Enemies, w*^. will equally 



, Postwar Period, 1763-1774 283 

answer the important purpose of giving them a just Idea of our 
Abilities & Resentment. 

As I am well acquainted with the Inclinations of the freindly 
Indians, I know the lengths they are to be trusted on the Article 
of Amunition, of which I am certain they will make no bad use, 
it is an Article so hard to be procured here, that I have not had 
it in my power to give them what I knew they Stood in the 
greatest need of, and the Trade being now over they can have 
little, if any, from that Quarter, altho I must confess the danger 
they run from the attachment to w^. we have hitherto own the 
Safety of these parts, sufficiently merits such a return from Us 
as will shew them that they are not loosers by their fidehty. 

From what I have heard from the Senecas, as well as from 
the good disposition of the rest, I should be induced to hope that 
these Frontiers might enjoy a State of Tranquility, at least for 
a time, but as this must be verry uncertain (especially if the 
Peace offered by the Senecas is not accepted of) I apprehend 
the two Companys for these Frontiers may be not amiss, but I 
fear they cannot easily be raised at this time, as I have offered the 
Warrants to Several who declined accepting of them, by reason 
of the lowness of the Officers Pay, and the Bounty now offered 
in Albany &<=*. for raising Men for other Service. M^ Ten 
Eycks Son has sent me the Warrant You gave him as his Mother, 
he says, would not agree to his Serveing. Be assured Sir I shall 
give You imediate Notice in case there appears a prospect for 
compleating them, as well as give You any further intelligence 
w^. may come to my knowledge worthy your information. — and 
I have a particular pleasure in assureing You how much. I am 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 

In the Catalogue of John Heise, Syracuse, N. Y., was advertised a 
few years ago a signed autograph letter, filling three pages, written by 



284 Sir William Johnson Papers 

General Gage at New York December 31st, 1763. He announces 
to Johnson his succession to the American high command, following Sir 
Jeffery Amherst, outlines the British policy toward America, deals at 
length with the Delawares, Shawanese and the Six Nations, orders an 
Indian meeting to be held at Detroit, Pontiac to be distinguished by a 
special invitation and offer of alliance with the British arms, and mentions 
Spanish occupation of Louisiana. Since the sale of the letter by Heise 
we have been unable to trace it. 



FROM JOHN PENN 
A. L. S. 
Philadelphia [31 Dech'. 1763] 

I think it necessary to inform You that on the [ 1 4th ] 

Number of the Inhabitants on the Western frontier [ ] 

without any Authority, assembled in Arms, and pro[ ] 

Party of between fifty & Sixty Men to the Indian Town 
[ ] Conestogo Manor in Lancaster County, & there 

without the [ ] cruelly put to Death six of the 

friendly Indians, who had [peaceably] & inoffensively resided 
there for many Years past, by Permiss[ion] from this Govern- 
ment; and, after burning & destroying their [ ] & 
Effects, precipitately retired. Upon receiving Information of 
this barbarous Outrage, I immediately dispatched Orders to the 
Magistrates of the back Counties to use their utmost Endeavours 
to apprehend & confine the Offenders, that they might be brought 
to Justice; and Hkewise issued the inclosed Proclamation. 

Notwithstanding which, these daring Rioters on the 27'^. 
Instant again assembled in Arms, and came down in a large 
Body to the Town of Lancaster; broke open the Work House 
and Murdered fourteen of the Conestogo Indians, who had 
before escaped their Fury, & were confined there, by the Magis- 
trates, for their Security. 

As this Affair may be misrepresented to the Six Nation 
Indians, and give them an unfavourable Idea of the Faith of 
this Government, & may moreover be attended with other bad 



, Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 285 

Consequences, I must beg you will take the properest Method of 
acquainting them with the Truth of this Transaction, and of 
removing any disadvantageous Impressions they may have 
received from an imperfect Account of the Matter. Every good 
Man must look upon the Conduct of the perpetrators of these 
unparalleled Villanies with Abhorrence & Destestation, who, 
at the same time that they have imbrued their Hands in innocent 
Blood, have set themselves above, and violated, those very Laws, 
under which they themselves derive the Rights of Security and 
protection. I am preparing a Proclamation [ 

] of the party [ 
] nothing in my power shall be [ 
] a punishment justly due to their Crimes. 
I am 
Sir 

Your very obedient 

hble Servant 

John Penn 
S"*. William Johnson Bar*: 
INDORSED: Philadelphia 31 Decb". 1763 
Lieu'. Gov^ Penns letter 

w'^. a Proclamation 
Recorded 



FROM PIERRE JOSEPH ANTOINE ROUBAUD ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 197-98, are entered the following undated 
papers, presumably of 1763, which were destroyed by the fire; a list 
of persons named for officers in 1st and 2d (Albany and Schenectady) 
battalions of the militia regiment; a list of militia officers; recommenda- 
tions for officers of I st and 2d battalions of Albany county militia ; a 
letter (translation) from Pere Roubaud. declaring his esteem for John- 
son and admiration for the English, giving his idea of the true British 
Policy as to Canada, and describing papers left by M de Moncalm, 
including a code of civil law for Canada, of which Roubaud has lost a 
part and now "must supply what is wanting," (written before the peace 
was known in Canada) (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 4:336-39; Q. 



286 Sir William Johnson Papers 

4:215-16); and a memorandum of a request by the inhabitants of 
Schachkock for the formation, in their district, of a new company with 
John Permer for captain, and of a proposal for the formation of a new 
company, to be commanded by Teunis Corn. SHngerland, by a division 
of Adam Vroman's company (memorandum made by Johnson, and 
erased) . 



FROM JEAN BAPTISTE DE COUAGNE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 1 98, are listed the following manuscripts 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of January 4th, 1764, Niagara, 
from De Couagne, reporting his return from the Seneke castles, the daily 
visits of Seneke Indians with beaver and venison and the good behavior 
of the Senekes and the Missasagoes; a letter of unknown date from 
Valentin Dorn to his "Honourable Excellence," begging a license "to 
keep a small Tavern for Christian and sober People and not for any 
Indians whosoever;" Governor Ralph Burton's proclamation (copy) of 
the 5th, at Montreal, requiring all gunpowder in private keeping to 
be conveyed to the King's magazine, for the greater safety of residents, 
restricting the sale and the transportation of powder and attaching heavy 
penalties to violations of these orders; a letter of the 10th from WilHam 
Darlington, at New York, mentioning money sent in care of Jacob 
Henry Ten Eyck, a tierce of ham and tongues, the good character 
of Skipper Garret Marselis, a groom, the negro sent on Pemberton's 
sloop, the tailor who ran away, etc. ; a letter of the 1 0th from John 
R. Hansen, at Albany, informing the Right Worshipfull Sir Wm. John- 
son Bart, that, after the resignation of Barent Fisher, a warrant to raise 
a company of volunteers had been offered to himself, and accepted, and 
he had already enrolled 40 men; also that Dirck Van Alen and John 
Hunn had accepted lieutenant's warrants; a recognizance of Martinus 
Dillenbag jun'r of Stoneraby, before Justice Hendrick Frey, to answer 
a charge of assault and battery committed before the house of Wilhelmus 
Dillenbag on William Laux, a sergeant of militia (Copy), dated Albany, 
the 10th; Sir William Johnson's account with Duncan & Phyn, dated 
Schenectady, the 1 1 th ; a letter of the I 1 th from John Duncan at 
Schenectady, inclosing account and wishing Sir William recovery from ill- 
ness and strength to overcome the fatigue of public cares; a letter of the 
12th from William Smith Jr. at New York, to Witham Marsh, relative 
to the expenses of a cause intrusted to him by the late Mr Corry, acting 
for Sir William Johnson. 



' PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 287 

TO CADWALLADER COLDEN 
L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall Jan'K 12^. 1764. 
Dear Sir 

A great Indisposition under which I have laboured for some 
Days, and from which I am not yet recovered, prevented my 
answering your Favour of the 28*'^. Ult°". sooner. 

In my Letter of the 30*^. Uh°. I gave you my Sentiments on 
the Reasons which induced the Indians to propose an Accom- 
odation, as also concerning the Article of Amunition, repre- 
senting that none received any but those on whose Confidence 
I might perfectly rely, and to whom a Refusal might prove of 
dangerous Consequence, and that even the Trifle of Amunition 
which these received was too little and too much valued by them 
to part with. 

In my Letter of the 24*^,. Ult°. I acquainted you with the 
Occasion of my having been visited by the 5. Nations, accom- 
panied by some Seneca Deputies 

Last Week arrived here several of the Senecas on the same 
Errand as before, whom I acquainted that I was not as yet 
authorized to treat with them on Terms of Peace, they were 
followed by the five Nations amounting to near 300. who came 
to repeat their Offers of taking such Steps against our Enemies 
as I should direct, to which I have answered them in the best 
Manner I could. But these Senecas having come contrary to 
my Desire, and not being desirous to give any Satisfaction 
farther than a Promise of assisting us against the Rest I have 
accordingly dismissed them untill I hear from General Gage, 
I however apprehended a White Man now amongst them. 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City, in Guy John- 
son's handwriting. The draft destroyed by fire. 

*See Collections of Nerv YorJ( Historical Societyi, i8^6, Colden Papers, 
p. 276-77. 



288 Sir William Johnson Papers 

and who was formerly delivered up, but went back to the 
Indians, and has had the Treachery as I am informed to act 
against Us in the late Operations of our Enemies, particularly 
at Niagara Carrying Place, I shall therefore commit him to jail. 

The Generality of People have certainly great Reason to be 
irritated against the Indians and I am glad to find such a Spirit 
of Alertness as you express amongst them, tho' I fear they will 
not find it an easy Matter to punish those Who realy deserve it, 
and the falling upon those yet our friends, and who are conse- 
quently not aware of any such Design would I apprehend be 
very imprudent as well as disagreeable to you, since it must 
inevitably involve us in a general Quarrel; the general Thirst 
for Revenge, so justly raised amongst our People may without 
proper Instructions direct itself to a wrong Quarter, as was lately 
the Case in Pensylvania to prevent which as well as to promote 
the Success of all the hearty Voluntiers, I must observe that the 
greatest Part of our Enemies are removed a great Way up the 
Cayouga or Tohiccon Branch^ of Susquehanna; Those of 
Wawiloosin (our friends) are gone chiefly to Philadelphia, and 
the Rest are removed to Chughnot on the Susquehanna, so that 
our Enemies chiefly reside, from Tohiccon up that Branch viz*. 
Singsink," Passiquaghgung^ &«=*. the Meeting with these our 
Enemies is very uncertain as they have not made any long Resi- 
dence at any Place since the Commencement of Hostilities, but 
the Indians of Kanestio, a Village between Chenussio and Fort 
Augusta* who are chiefly Renegadoes of profligate Fellows from 
several Nations, and who murdered the two Traders in Nov'. 
1 762. are very proper Objects of our Resentment and have been 
Principals in carrying on Hostilities. 

I heartily wish that whatever party goes out may be able to 



^The Chemung river. 

-A Delaware village on Sing Sing creek in Chemung county, N. Y., 
W. M. Beauchamp, Aboriginal Place Names of New York, P- 41-42. 
'A Delaware town in Allegany county, N. Y., Idem., p. 26. 
*At Sunbury. Pa. 



, Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 289 

strike such a Blow, as will give the Indians in general a good 
Opinion of our Abilities, but to give any hopes of Success in 
my Opinion it will be necessary that they should at least consist 
of 400 Men and those expert and well qualified for the Service 
acquainted with the Woods, and furnished with Snow Shoes, 
and all other necessary Articles. The distressing and annoying 
the Enemy during the Winter if well conducted must prove very 
usefull, I am now preparing some parties of trusty Indians for 
that purpose of which I hope the General will approve. 

As the Trade by Reason of the War hath been at an End 
for some time, I apprehend it will not be thought advisable to 
grant any Passes till Matters are better settled, whenever that 
may happen I am humbly of Opinion that you will judge neces- 
sary, the Traders should give Security for their fair Dealings, 
and also be permitted to trade at the principal Outposts only, 
as Fort Stanwix Ontario, Niagara &^^, At these Posts they 
will be in the most Security, and their Conduct can be best 
enquired into, which if justly blameable, and so represented by 
the Commanding Officer, they may forfeit their Recognizance, 
for the indulging them in a Liberty of trading in the Indians 
Country or at their Castles, will allways produce Complaints 
from the latter of Frauds and Extortion, as well as render the 
Traders liable to be murdered and their Effects seized on any 
future Quarrel which may happen. 

With some Difficulty I have got Persons to accept of the 
Warrants for raising the 2 Companies for the Security of this 
Frontier, and I am just now informed they are allmost com- 
pleated with good Men I shall accordingly have them mustered 
and report to you thereon. 

As Lieu*. Johnson who by His Majestys Proclamation is 
entitled to a Grant of Land is desirous to know the Limits within 
which you consider the same may be granted, I must request the 
Favour of your informing me on that head, also your directions 
concerning the Steps he is to take therein, and whether he is 
10 



290 Sir William Johnson Papers 

entitled to his Share as a Captain of Provincials in 1 756 or is 
to abide by his Title as Lieu', of the Independent Companies 
I am with very perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W". Johnson 
P. S. 

I have great Reason to 
apprehend that many mercenary 
Persons inhabiting along this 
River sell Amunition and other 
Articles to the Senecas. 

I could heartily wish you would 
interpose your Authority to prevent 
the like for the future. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

L. 5.1 

New York Jan^K 12^K 176314] 
Dear Sir 

I am to acknowlidge both your favours of 23^. and 30'^. 
Dec"" and hope what you have sett forth to the Board of trade 
will enable their Lordships to make such Regulations, as will 
satisfy the Indians in all their just pretensions. The proclama- 
tion will prevent many future Quarrells concerning lands, par- 
ticularly in our new Acquisitions to the Southward, where its 
probable many considerable tracts would have been granted, 
far beyond the Boundaries prescribed. His Majesty has also 
forbidden all private purchases of Indians, reserving that privi- 
ledge to the Crown only. This is certainly a salutary measure 
and if fallen upon some years ago would have prevented the 
Grievances you make mention of. The Indians never knew the 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



- Post-War Period, 1763-1774 291 

Value of Lands, 'till we taught it them by our purchases : & the 
difference betwixt the French conduct and ours in respect of 
Lands is worthy Observation; In these provinces The people 
hold from Indian Grants. In Canada the only Titles the Indians 
pretend to have to their Lands are by Holdings from the French 
Kings. 

The manner in which the Chenussio Indians have been led 
into the War, seems very plain, however they may endeavour 
to excuse it all those who have waged War against Us, have 
acted upon the same principles the One and the Other. Their 
Inveteracy and Hatred animated those nations who have risen 
in Arms to believe the reports propagated and even beleived by 
the common Canadians of a French Armament coming up to 
Quebec; and they thought it time to strike the Blow, which I 
have reason to believe, was concocted very soon before or after 
the reduction of Canada. Those Nations whose Councils were 
more calm and deliberate waited to know the truth of these 
reports; they found them false and therefore did not rise; but 
had a fleet actually come up the River S^ Lawrence, I fear, 
there are few Nations who would not have taken Arms against 
Us. This is the cause of the present Indian War, and not the 
idle Reason the Indians have given who, from a principle of 
low Cunning, never have, or will give, the real cause of their 
Actions. The difference of the Indian Nations before, and 
since the reduction of Canada must be so apparent to You as to 
make it needless for Me to make any Animadversions upon it: 
and they have acted upon principles of policy which would have 
excited more enlightened Nations, to have taken Measures, tho 
perhaps better concocted of the same nature. The Shawnese, 
Delawares & Chenussios, have appeared the most forward in 
action these are our nearest Neighbours, and their Murders and 
Outrages should not be suffered with Impunity ; It would be such 
an example to pass over what has happened with them, that 
every puny Tribe would insult Us, and We should have ctinual 
Broils with Indians. We should hardly have time to make up 



292 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a Breach with one Nation before we entered into a War with 
another. It is true that the Indians of Detroit, particularly the 
Ottawas under Pondiac, excited by the beforementioned Nations 
have acted warmly against Us, but they have been brought to 
their senses by Losses and Distress, they have lost since the 
beginning of this Affair near Ninety of their best Warriors, and 
reduced to a want of every necessary, particularly Ammunition. 
They have been taught their Folly, by their sufferings, which 
is all we can desire, and not our Business to push those Indians 
to extremities; this has even induced them to desert their Allies, 
and make Overtures Of peace, without their participation, and 
I think it is our Interest, if we find them sincere, to close with 
them, and break the Confederacy; and be thereby enabled to 
turn our whole force against the Rest. The Chenussies mur- 
dered our people a long time before hostilities began, who were 
going peacably thro the Country, and when we demanded Satis- 
faction returned insolent Answers, and fell upon our Convoys, 
on the portage of Niagara: they now find themselves in a 
dilemma, and send Deputies to You, to treat of peace : they have 
yet met with no loss or suffered any distress, but solely induced 
to ask for peace by seeing themselves disapointed in their expecta- 
tions of French succours, and deserted by their Allies. Upon 
the whole, for the sake of future peace, of a peace which shall 
be sure and lasting. I can not think it consistent with prudence 
and the good of his Majesty's Service to make peace with the 
Chenussies upon equal Terms, I demand, that the advisers of 
the War, or at least that the Murderers before demanded should 
be delivered up and to put an End to all future Claims and dis- 
putes about the portage of Niagara, that the Kings Subjects 
should have the Right formaly delivered up to them of a free 
and uninterrupted transportation both ways over that carrying 
place without lett or Molestation, Fee or Reward or demand 
whatever of any indemnification. 

We must treat cautiously with Wabbicomocot, not appear too 
eager for peace but to assure them of our dispositions towards 
an accommodation if they will give us proofs of the sincerity of 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 293 

their Overtures. All those nations are in want, from the stop 
put to their Trade and I dare say it's what, they are now coming 
to you about. 

Major Gladwin will be acquainted with every thing that has 
passed relating to the Mohawks who went to Detroit. He 
should pay them as the charge must enter in his Account, but 
if he has no Money his Certificates will be sufficient to get them 
paid. 

You will hear from Governor Penn, what has happened to 
the Conostogoe Indians and of the threats of the Rioters, in 
respect of the Indians supported by the province of pensilvania, 
whom they had placed for security, on an Island a little below 
the City. To prevent Mischief the Governor sent them under 
an escort of Montgomery's Regiment to this province but the 
Governor and Council resolved not to receive them, or suffer 
them to enter the province of New York: On which account, 
I am oblidged to escort them back to Philadelphia, and shall 
at the same time send the Governor a Military Force, which he 
may make use of for their protection, if he should stand in need 
of it. 

The Messassagga Indians, who have been hovering the whole 
summer about Fort W'" Augustus have at length broke out by 
plundering a Store near Oswegatchy, and carried off Two Men 
of the Royal Artillery, and Two Servants belonging to the 
Sutler. The Indians of Swegatchy went in pursuit of the 
Messissagas and promised to bring them back. 
I am with great Regard, 
Sir, 
Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Thqs. Gage 
S«. W-^. Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED: Janry 12'^^ 1764 — 
Gener'. Gages letter 
opened by Bradstreet 



294 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson hall JanS 12th 1764 
Sir 

I should Sooner have answered your Excellcys favor of the 
26th ulto but by reason of a severe indisposition from which I 
am but Just enabled to sit up. 

In mine of the 23^. ulto^ I acquainted you with the arrival 
of above 200 of the 5 Nations accompanied by some Seneca 
Deputies, since which there arrived here sev'. more of that Nation 
who came on the same errand, and were followed by near 300 
of the 5 Nations who are for the most part come to offer me 
their service to go upon any thing which I may require, this I 
have gathered from their Chiefs as I have not yet been able to 
hold a Conference with them I shall be glad to have your 
directions whether I should send them on imediate service, which 
if you approve of the same shall be imediately done but I should 
be glad to be impowered to appoint a few Officers with about 
20 good Woodsmen; who would be of much use in accom- 
panying them, I have no Officers at present for that service, 
they being all dismissed on the Reduction of Canada, the 
procuring a few parties at this time to annoy & fall upon the 
Enemy will I apprehend prove of great service, as well as induce 
all our Friends to declare heartily in our favor, and therefore I 
cannot but recommend it to your consideration — as to the 
Senecas I have acquainted them that I am not yet authorized 
to treat with them, but that they may be assured we shall accept 
of no terms, unless they make proper satisfaction for the injurys 
they have committed; On my hearing that the Senecas intended 
me this last Visit I imediately sent them word that they need*^ 
not to come down, without they had something satisfactory to 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 

^In Johnson Calendar, p. 195. The draft was destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 295 

offer, notwithstanding which they came but I plainly see they 
expect we will drop the affair without farther concessions ; which 
almost induced me to direct the Officer comds the Provincials 
at the German flats to apprehend them as they pass and send 
them down prisoners to Albany & nothing prevented me from 
so doing but that it might be disapproved of as they came m 
the Nature of Envoys, I shall however apprehend a White Man 
who accompanied them & was formerly delivered up to me but 
would not leave the Indians, and has had the perfidy as I am 
informed to act against us particularly at Niagara Carrying- 
place & as there may come more Senecas on the same occasion 
I beg you will give me your directions concerning them & 
whether you think it proper they sho^. be made prisoners. 

By Lieut Montresor^ as well as by several others I have been 
informed of the Indians proposals at Detroit, but I apprehend 
no great reliance can be had on their promises, wch they will 
certainly break if they find that we neglect them, & I have great 
reason to think that altho' they may at present be in want of 
Ammunition, they will notwithstanding be able to get supplys 
from the Mississipi, it being the interest of the French to foment 
differences to the prejudice of our Trade & Settlements not- 
withstands. their specious Letters calculated in all probability 
to deceive us into a good opinion of their pacific disposition, for 
however plausible the behavior of the Command', at y^ Illinois^ 
may appear I am convinced that the Gov^^ and people of 
Louisiana &ca wish well to the cause, and will afford the Indians 
assistance, for which purpose many are already gone thither, 
with a large quantity of Furrs &ca. 

If a Considerable body should go against the Indians of 
Detroit they will certainly retire, but this will not occasion their 



^John Montresor, engineer, carried despatches from Colonel Glad- 
win at Detroit to the commander-in-chief in New York, arriving December 
1 6, 1 763. Collections of the Netv York Historical Society, i88i, 
Montresor Journals, p. 252-53. 

^Nyon de Villiers. 

«M. d' Abadie de St. Germain. 



296 Sir William Johnson Papers 

totally abandonning their present abodes, since they may come 
back without molestation on the return of our Troops. 

I am far from thinking it either adviseable or consistent to 
make the smallest overtures to the Indians, on the contrary I 
have repeatedly told them it was in vain for them to think of 
our accepting any proposals they sho*^. make, unless full satis- 
faction was made for the hostiHties committed, but I am certain 
the only satisfaction they will ever offer will be that of Joyning 
us against some of the rest. 

Whenever it may happen that a peace is agreed upon, I appre- 
hend it will be Expedient to treat with each Nation separately; 
which will be attended with the advantages you have so 
judiciously pointed out. This way of proceeding I have always 
observed in my Transactions with them, particularly at Detroit 
in 1 76 1 , when I did all in my power in private conferences to 
create a misunderstanding betw^een the 6 Nations, & Western 
Indians, as also between the latter & those of Ohio so as to 
render them Jealous of each other, and the same has had some 
effect on several of them; I have since pursued the like steps 
in all my proceedings, for could they arrive at a perfect union, 
they must prove very dangerous Neighbours. 

I am satisfied of the little importance of the late Transactions 
at Augusta,^ & I apprehend that nothing permanent will result 
from that Congress, — the same methods commenced should be 
always continued with Indians, and the large presents these 
people have now received will but increase their future Expect?- 
tions, [to which the Vicinity of the French ivili gieatl^ con- 
tribute'] which if not gratified will be the foundat". of a future 
Quarrel. 

I herewith enclose you M^ M<^Gee A Dep Agents acct of 
Expences as certified by Coll Bouquet, with that of the Smith 



^A congress at Augusta, Ga., conducted on November 10th, 1763, 
■with the Indian nations of the South by John Stuart, southern superin- 
tendent of Indian affairs, and four southern governors. 

^Crossed out in the original. 



' Post^War Period, J763-/774 297 

from Michilimackinac, for the amount of which accts, I 
must request your Warrt on the Paym"^ General. I must also beg 
to have your Sentiments & directions on the foregoing subjects, 
[and I beg ^ou tpUI attribute the freedom with which I ma]^ 
have Expressed myself thereon to mi; perfect confidence in \)Our 
Candour, & the Esteem Tviih n^hich you have honored me | 
and that you will believe I am, 

With the most perfect Esteem 
Sir &ca 
His Excellcy Gen^ Gage 

FROM RICHARD SHUCKBURGH ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. J 99-201 , are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire : a letter of January 1 3th from Dr Richard 
Shuckburgh, at Fort Stanwix, about the Indian department, his loss of 
the secretaryship, sickness at Fort Stanwix and a coming visit by Colonel 
Campbell to Johnson Hall; a letter of the 15th and 1 6Lh from Witham 
Marsh, at New York, congratulating Johnson on an enlargement of 
authority by royal proclamation and on influence with the Five Nations. 
bemoaning his sufferings by the weather and asthma, and speaking of 
violent political excitement in England and a riotous jail delivery in New 
York; a letter of the 15th from John Duncan, at Schenectady, mention- 
ing a letter from the Governor, which he forwards, British feeling toward 
General (Amherst), the Albany sessions and the royal grenadiers; a 
letter of the 15th from Roba(r)t McKean, at Schenectady, to say that 
he has completed his company and to ask that he may be quartered at 
Schorey and the lieutenant governor informed that the company is ready; 
W. Weyman's bill of the 16th, at New York, for printing 50 copies of 
a royal proclamation, dated December 24, 1 763 ; a letter of the 1 6th 
from John Stuart (Indian agent), at Charles Town, about murders com- 
mitted by the Creeks, their plea, and conflicting policies of colonial gov- 
ernors; 20 documents of the 17th, New York, Lieutenant Governor Cad- 
wallader Colden to Andreas Witbeck, Gentleman: a commission as first 
lieutenant of the company in the 1 st or Albany battalion, of which Peter 
Vosbrough is captain; same to Jacobus Teller, Gentleman: a commis- 
sion as quartermaster of the 2d or Schenectady battalion; same to 
Cornelius Van Schaack jun'r. Gentleman: a commission as first lieutenant 
of the company in the 1 st or Albany battalion, of which Dirck Hoose is 
captain; same to George Klauw, Gentleman: a commission as second lieu- 

^Crossed out in the original. 



298 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tenant of the company in the 1 st or Albany battaUon, of which Dirck 
Hoose is captain; same to Omia Jacob Le Grange, Gentleman; a commis- 
sion as first lieutencint of the company in the 1st or Albany battalion, 
of which Adam Vrooman is captain; same to John Jacob Le Grange, 
Gentleman: a commission as ensign of the company in the 1st or Albany 
battalion, of which Adam Vrooman is captain; same to Abraham Teni- 
Brook Esq.: a commission as captain of the company in the 1st or 
Albany battalion, lately commanded by Rykert Van Franken; same to 
John Thomson, Gentleman: a commission as second lieutenant of the 
company in the 2d or Schenectady battalion, of which Sufferinus Tyger 
is captain; same to Harmanus Peters, Gentleman: a commission as first 
lieutenant of the company in the 2d or Schenectady battalion, of which 
Daniel Campbell is captain; same to John Leaver (Seaver), Gentleman: 
a commission as ensign of the company in the 2d or Schenectady battalion, 
of which John Welles is captain; same to Casper Huyck, Gentleman: a 
commission as second lieutenant of the company in the I st or Albany 
battalion of which John Van Housen (Johannes Van Hoesen) is captain; 
same to John Uppam (Upham), Gentleman: a commission as ensign 
of the company in the 1st or Albany battalion, of which John Van 
Housen is captain; same to Abraham Bratt, Gentleman: a commission 
as second lieutenant of the company in the 2d or Schenectady battalion, 
of which Daniel Campbell is captain; same to James Spencer, Gentleman: 
a commission as ensign of the company in the 1 st or Albany battalion, 
of which Johannes Hogeboom is captain; same to Johannes Jacob Lan- 
singh Esq. : a commission as captain of the company in the 1 st or Albany 
battalion, lately commanded by Abraham Van Arnam; same to Myndert 
Hoose, Gentleman : a commission as ensign of the company in the 1 st or 
Albany battalion, of which Peter Vosbrough is captain; same to Dirck 
Hoose Esq. : a conmiission as captain of the company in the 1 st or Albany 
battalion, lately commanded by Francis Klauw; same to Volgert Veeder, 
Gentleman: a commission as second lieutenant of the company in the 
1st or Albany battalion, of which Adam Vrooman is captain; same to 
Philip P. Schuyler, Gentleman: a commission as ensign of the company 
in the 1st or Albany battalion, of which Abraham Ten Brook is captain; 
same to Barent Ten Eyck, Gentleman: a commission as a second lieuten- 
ant of the company of grenadiers of which Abraham C. Cuyler is 
captain; a letter of the 19th from Captain Robart McKean, at Schenec- 
tady, asking that, if the company attempt any injury or depredation, they 
be mustered ; a letter of the 1 9th to the officer in command of the New 
York provincials at the German Flatts, advising of the nearness of a 
party of Senecas, and ordering that, if they attempt any injury or depreda- 
tion, they be seized and sent down under guard ; also commanding vigilance 



' Posi-V/ar Period, 1763-1774 299 

to prevent their trading with the inhabitants; a letter of the 20th to Lieu- 
tenant Governor John Penn, approving nnieasures taken for punishing the 
murderers of the Conestoga Indians, discussing the effect of the crime 
on Indian sentiment and pointing out the only policy which will re- 
move Indian disaffection; a letter of the 20th from Ferrall Wade, at Phila- 
delphia, asking a remittance for a draft on Captain Clause and complaining 
of Monture's refusal to honor a draft; a letter of the 20th, Fort Johnson, 
to the lords of trade, in which Johnson acknowledges the receipt of the 
royal proclamation, reports the failure of Maj. Wilkins's expedition to 
Detroit, examines the causes of the war and of the peace proposals made 
by the Senecas and western nations, suggests separate treaties with the 
several confederacies, the retention of the Niagara carrying place by the 
English, the removal of the French from Michilimackinac and Miamis, 
the abolition of the Jesuit missions, the establishment of a resident bishopric 
and clergy in Canada, the keeping of small vessels on Lakes Erie and 
Huron and the righting of Indian grievances, and mentions his labors 
and losses, including that of the Canajoharie grant made by the Indians, 
the massacre of the friendly Conestoga Indians, and his giving the war 
belt to the Oneidas and Tuscaroras. (Printed in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. Y. 7:599-602) ; also a letter of the 20th from Joseph Knox, Niagara, 
notifying that he has drawn on Johnson in favor of Mr Shipboy for the 
amount of Lieutenant Colonel Gladwin's and Captain Lehunt's accounts. 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson-hall January^ 20^^ 1764 
Sir 

I have had the favour of your Excellency's Letter of the 8*. 
Inst together with the Dispatches for Niagara and Detroit, con- 
cerning the forwarding of which I am at present greatly at a 
loss. 

Daniel the Mohawk has been very unwell, since his return 
home and is now afflicted with a severe Bloody flux, so as to 
be in no condition for undertaking the Journey. 

There are many other Indians whom I could safely confide 
in but they are very liable to be discovered by some of our 

^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



300 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Enemies & in that case their suspicions would probably occasion 
them to apprehend & search the Messengers, so that the packet 
may be stopped in which case its contents will be Explained to 
to them by the White Men who are amongst the Chenussios; 
I shall notwithstanding do what I can to have them conveyed 
at least so far as Niagara, but it will be attended with some 
Expence at this Season, as no less than 2 Ind^ will chuse to go 
on the Errand. The Rout by Fort Pitt I apprehend is safer 
at present than thro the Seneca's Countiy or that of the 
Misisagas where any Expresses are liable to a strict Examinat". 

I hope you have received my Letter of the 12'*^ inst concern- 
ing my second Visit from the Senecas, as also that from the 
Five Nations who came again to offer their service. 

As the Visit from the Senecas was neither desired or approved 
of by me, I represented in my last that I should Willingly have 
secured them as Hostages if I thought it would be approved of, 
and least they might from the cool treatment they met with be 
induced to do some mischief on their Way back at the German 
flatts. I have given the comd? Officer of the York Provincials 
there, notice of their return, with orders in that case to appre- 
hend and send them down Prisoners,^ which I hope will meet 
with your approbation. 

Agreable to my resolutions in my last I apprehended the 
White man, who acknowledges his havs accompanied the 
Senecas agamst us, I have for better safety sent him to Albany 
Goal. I have also obtained from the Friendly Senecas of 
Kanadasega one Ellison an Englishman taken in the year 1 762, 
who after being for sometime prisoner made his Escape & threw 
himself for protection on the Ind^ of Kanadasego who now 
brought him down & delivered him up ; he gives a very favorable 
account of the Indians of that Castle, and declares that they 
withstood with great firmness all the sollicitations of the rest of 
their nation. 



^The draft of this order, dated January 1 9, 1 764, was destroyed in the 
fire. 



' Postwar Period, I763-I774 301 

In my last I omitted sending down Capt Claus's acct of Indian 
Expences which I now herewith transmit, for the am', of which 
I beg to be favored with your Warrant. The Disorder in my 
Stomach is but little abated as the Ind*. give me not a moments 
rest [being continually at m^ bedside] from the great resort of 
them for sometime past, wch is attended w''^ no small Expence 
of prov"^ &ca altho' the same is at present unavoidable. 

I am 

&ca 
His Excell^y Gen^ Gage 



TO DAVID VANDER HEYDEN 
L. 5.1 

Johnson hall Jan^ ZO^K 1764 
Sir 

As I am informed that Capt John R Hansen has got his com- 
pany compleat, you will in that case Order them under Arms, 
and muster them, taking care to pass none but good Men, who 
are well supplied with Arms, Ammunition &'^^ 

As soon as the Company is passed you will sign the Muster 
Roil, & transmit it to me, on which I have given Capt Hansen 
orders to march his Men to Scohare for the protection of that 
Settlement. 

I herewith enclose you Commissions for him and his LieutS 
which you are to fill up agreable to the directions in the War- 
rants, and dehver them to him as soon as you have passed the 
Company transmitting to me the Dates of their Commissions, 
& Warrants 

I am Sir — 

Y^ Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson' 
L^ Colonel Vanderheyden 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City; in handwriting 
of Guy Johnson. 



302 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM JOHN BRADSTREET ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 201-2, are listed the following papers, which 
were destroyed by fire: a letter of January 22d from Colonel John Brad- 
street, at Albany, inclosing a letter opened by mistake, and expressing 
pleasure at Johnson's recovery from sickness; Duncan & Phyn's account, 
£57, 19s., Schenectadj/, the 23d; a letter of the 23d, Schenectady, from 
John Duncan expressing gratification that a rumor a^ecting Johnson's 
safety was false, and a hope that the sacrifices of the latter for the public 
will meet a reward, also mentioning the expected visit of Colonel Campbell 
and the indictment of John Glen, himself and other justices for quarter- 
ing soldiers on Tobias Tenyck and others; and a letter of the 23d from 
Witham Marsh, New York, about the publication of the King's proc- 
lamation, a friendly paragraph in Weyman's paper, the escape of Rogers 
to "precious" Connecticut by way of Hell-gates, articles to be sent by 
sled, patents, his lawsuit and a project of revenge in case of an adverse 
decision by the court, and a letter for Mr Croghan. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. 5.^ 

A^en; York Jan'^- 23^. 1764. 
Sir. 

I was yesterday favored with your Letter of the 12*'^. Ins*, 
and am sorry to hear you have been So much indisposed, hoping 
that as you were upon the Recovery, this will find you perfectly 
reestabHshed. 

It gives me great Pleasure to find the Five Nations Indians 
So well disposed; And I don't know whether the Overtures of 
the Western Indians, sincere or not May not have excited their 
Jealousy; least we should become too closely connected with 
those Savages & neglect our old Allies Who in the late Broils 



^In the Harvard College library, Cambridge, Mass. 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 303 

have rather given Some Reason to suspect their Fidelity. I much 
approve of your Sending the Indians on immediate service. The 
Senecas of Chenussio are of All the Enemy Indians the nearest 
to them but I fear that we must not hope for from the Nations 
Confederated with them. The Shawnese or rather the Dela- 
wares I hear are removed back towards the South Shore of Lake 
Erie a Stroke made upon them or those Rascaly Thieves the 
Wiandots near Sandusky would be of great Consequence was 
it only to enter the Indians fairly in the Quarrell. You will 
please to appoint the officers you think most proper for Such 
Service, as well as the Woodsmen whom you shall Select as 
useful on such Occasions. 

I wrote to you concerning the Senacas in my last, and am glad 
you treated them with the Contempt they deserved : You Judged 
in my opinion very right to let their Messengers pass, as they 
came in the Nature of Envoys: But as you have let them know 
your Mind, I should think it very proper to Seize any of them 
Who may come hereafter, Without your particular Permission. 
They seem to me rather to brave us by their Behavior and to 
think we are affraid to Meddle With them: And it would not 
be amiss to undeceive them in that Error, by making Prisoners 
of as many as shall come within your Reach. The White Man 
should of Course be sent Prisoner to Albany Goal, & all the 
Proof collected that can be brought against Him. 

By what I can learn of the Resolutions of the Indians of 
Detroit It was determined amongst them from the Beginning, 
In Case they were drove from their Settlements, that they would 
go & settle amongst the French, on their Side of the Mississipi 
It is only a Matter of Opinion of My own, but I am inclined 
to believe that the Supplys from New Orleans will be scanty, 
and the savages totaly disappointed in their hopes of French 
Succours will be glad to make Peace in earnest But I have a 
very extraordinary Piece of good News to tell you, which is 
that the French are to cede all Louisiana to the King of Spain, 



304 Sir William Johnson Papers 

by which we shall get rid of a Most troublesome Neighbour 
and the Continent be no longer embroiled with their Intrigues. 
The French Minister has declared this to M^ Neville'^ with a 
Compliment that it was done purely to avoid future Disputes & 
Quarrells With the English Nation. I don't know whether 
they are yet acquainted with these Resolutions, on the Mississipi. 

I am not a little pleased that you approve of what I said to 
you, concerning the Manner of treating with the Indian Nations 
when Peace is made with them and that you have insisted on 
Satisfaction for the hostilities committed. If you think any other 
Demands should be made as Preliminarys of Peace with the 
Senecas of Chenussio preferable to those I have mentioned in 
my last Letter to you of the } 2ih Ins*. You will please to act 
in this Matter agreeable to your own Sentiments. 

I have lately received a Letter from M^ Stewart the Indian 
Agent to the Southward He seems greatly Satisfied With what 
passed at the late Congress at Augusta. The Indians made 
Strong Professions of their Attachment, And the Creeks, from 
whom the Most was Apprehended, have ceded a large Tract 
of Country to Georgia. This they did Voluntarily, as a Proof 
they Say, of the sense they have of His Majesty's Goodness 
in forgetting past offences. In short we were Courted by all the 
Nations. But at length the Secret of all this Affair is explained. 
The Cherokees, Chacktaws, and I believe likewise the Chicke- 
saws, are upon the Eve of a War with the Creeks. And it's 
my Opinion as long as they Quarrell with one another we shall 
be well with them all. And when they are all at Peace, It's 
the Signal for us to have a good Look out. 

I shall order McGee's Ace* to be examined and paid but 
there is a voucher or two for Money paid to Levy & C°. as also 
to Josiah Davenport as well as the Smiths and Interpreter's 
Receipts, which should be Sent. 

The Michellimackinak Ace*, should be settled and passed 



^Richard Neville Aldworth Neville, secretary to the British embassy 
in Paris in 1 762 and 1 763. 



Post-War Period, 1 763-1 774 305 

with all the rest of the Detroit Department by Major Gladwin. 

I am, with great Regard, 

Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

c- . . , , T , Thqs. Gage 

omce writmg the above 1 have 

examined some Directions left with me 

concerning M^. Kees Ace', and those of 

Michillimakinak a Copy of which I transmit 

to You. It is very easy to send the Vouchers 

demanded & then a Warrant will be granted. 

Sr. w«. Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED: Jan'-y. 1 2*^.' 1764 

General Gages letter 
w^. enclosures 

FROM WILLIAM MCCRACKEN ETC. 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 202, are listed these papers, which were 
destroyed by fire: a letter of January 24th, Montreal, from William Mc- 
Cracken, relating pecuniary misfortunes due to his being "bound" for 
Major Rogers, and Governor Burton's kindness in appointing him sole 
vendue master, and asking Johnson's influence to secure his retention of 
the place in the event of General Murray's becoming Governor of Canada ; 
a letter of the 24th from John Glen Jun'r, Schonectady, informing that 
he sends by Symon Van Antwerpen, in 1 3 sleighs, 30 barrels of flour and 
20 of pork. 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A. L. Sr 
j^^^j^ gjj^ Johnson Hall JanrK 27^^. 1764 

I have received your favour of the 9*^. Ins'.^ and herewith 
transmit You the Muster Rolls of the Two Companies who are 



^A manifest error of the indorser. 

-In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft 
destroyed by fire. 

^See Collections of the Neri) York Historical Society, 1876, C olden 
Papers, p. 278-79. 



306 Sir William Johnson Papers 

now at Scohare & Cherry Valley, and consist of verry good 
able Men. I have given y^. Capt'^^ Instructions in writeing 
regarding the security & defence of these Settlements. 

I am much oblidged to You for y^. freindly Sentiments You 
have expressed on my opinion, and I heartily wish that such 
parts as I apprehend were calculated for the public safety had 
been deemed worthy Attention. 

The Orders You have received from the Earl of Hallifax 
seem to me to have been calculated for raising Men with greater 
expedition than in y^. ordinary way of inlisting Provincials, but 
I conclude the Assembly have already taken their resolutions 
on that Head. 

I am Just now parting with a large Number of Indians, from 
whose behaviour I have reason to expect a happy result, I assure 
You it would scarcely be imagined how Sanguine they are ; and 
how desireous their Young Men appear to go against our 
Enemies. — the Chenussios are a verry proud People, and I dont 
expect much concessions from them, the delivering up of some 
of their Ringleaders which would be a reasonable demand will 
I apprehend hardly be agreed to. — the French who were at the 
bottom of this affair deserve to have their conduct strictly 
enquired into, the Jesuits are a dangerous Society which I heartily 
wish may be abolished, their possessions in Canada would endow 
a Bishoprick, as well as make provision for Several protestant 
Missionaries, the utility of such a foundation appears to me 
verry evident in that Country, where I think it would greatly 
promote the Interest of his Majesty, and soon encrease the 
Number of his Protestant Subjects. 

Governour Penn has given me an Ace", of the barbarous 
Murder of the Freindly Canestoga Indians & I enclose his 
Proclamations in consequence thereof. — that Massacre may 
prove of dangerous consequence, such as may be severely felt 
as well by the Murderers, as by many Innocent Inhabitants of 
Pensilvania &^^. it cannot but fill all the 5 freindly Nations 
(with whom they were connected) with the greatest resentment, 
and give them y^. worst impressions concerning our Faith and 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 307 

sincerity. — I apprehend I shall find it a difficult task to satisfy 
them thereon, as well as to convince them that the Governments 
are greatly incensed thereat, and determined to bring the 
Offenders to Justice. 

I heartily wish the return of the 140 Indians may not expose 
them to further insults, if that should be the case it will be 
impossible to make up the breach w''^. our Freinds. 

So Soon as it may suit with Your Conveniency, I shall be 
glad you will favour me with the Militia Commissions, agreable 
to the return of Officers which I transmitted for filling up the 
severall Vacancys in the Regiment. I am with verry high Esteem 

Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson. 

The Hon^l^ LlEU"^. GoV^. COLDEN 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson Hall Jan^. 27 ^K 1764 
D^ Sir 

Your Excellencys favour of the 12'^ inst was enclosed to me 
from ColK Bradstreet, who writes that the same had been directed 
to him thro' mistake, which he discovered on opening it. 

I am much obliged to you for the Judicious sentiments & 
Instructions communicated in your Letter, and agree entirely 
with you in opinion concerning the utility of his Majestys 
Proclamation regarding our new Southern Acquisitions, on what 
relates to those Northward, I have only to observe in addition, 
that the Holdings by Indian Grants in this Country were occa- 
sioned by these Indians being the original. Proprietors, as the 
Kings Instructions to his Governors have always Expressed, 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



308 Sir William Johnson Papers 

whereas the CaghnaTvagas Abenaquis &ca were only invited 
to Canada to serve I apprehend as a Barrier to the French Set- 
tlements, and a Nursery of Warriors for distressing our Fron- 
tiers, & consequently had no claim in that Country, but I must 
confess that after the lands in these parts are legally vested in 
& purchased in the name of the Crown, there is no necessity for 
an Indian Deed to the Subject — Patents have always run in 
the name of the King. 

The Indians certainly acted upon political principles and 
however many of them may have palliated or Excused them- 
selves. The Greater part of them have publickly and long before 
the commencement of hostilities, related their several causes of 
Jealousy & disgust, all which I represented together with my 
Sentiments, thereon & apprehensions that Evil designs were in 
Agitation. 

They were to the last Degree Jealous of our encrease of power 
since the reduction of Canada, and the loss of their Benefactors 
the French, who made it their interest to esteem them, and whose 
return to Canada with a proper force would have given great 
satisfaction to most of the Indians v/ho being a mercenary people 
discovered the change to be greatly to their disadvantage. 

This, many of the Nations foresaw before the end of the War 
with France in these parts, and would I believe have at least 
greatly protracted it in order to preserve the balance of power; 
but for the great pains I have been constantly at in dividing 
them, & preventing their unanimity. 

[The Chenussios I believe Were Utile acquainted with the 
plot, in which the French, Western Nations & Delatvares of 
Ohio &ca had principally concerted, the]^ appear to me to have 
been drawn in as Auxilliaries, on finding them ripe enough for 
that purpose, arising from several causes.^] 

The defection of the Chenussios, I attribute to the causes 
following, first, The difference they found between the present 
& former possessors of Niagara, The loss they sustained at the 



^Crosseii out in the original. 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 309 

carrying place where they used to earn a good deal by trans- 
porting the Traders & Western Ind* goods, but chiefly from the 
peremptory (but reasonable) demand made of the Murderers 
living at Kanestio, and the threats issued in case of non-com- 
pliance, which they concluded would have been put in Execu- 
tion, and were therefore the easier mduced to be beforehand 
with us. This is corroborated by their original complaints, & 
the accts giv". by the rest. [The Situation and connections of 
the Chenussios renders this opinion the more probable,^] but 
they, with the Delawares and Sharvanese have discovered so 
much inveteracy that they certainly deserve the severest punish- 
ment unless they strictly comply with the terms you propose, and 
with these I shall acquaint them in the strongest manner 

The security of the carrying place of Niagara being the only 
Land carriage in a course of some 1 00 miles, is of the highest 
importance and should certainly be vested in his Majesty, & the 
possession thereof Guarrantied to him by the Senecas; permit 
me likewise to add, the delivery up of all prisoners & Deserters 
now in their Nations or who may hereafter fly to them, and I 
am of opinion that as the Society of Jesuits are abolished in 
France, it would be highly necessary the Nations where there are 
Missions should agree to part with them, their possessions in 
Canada if vested in the Crown would I believe endow a 
Bishoprick as well as provide for several Missionaries in their 
stead. I apprehend such a Foundation (already talked of at 
home) would prove a great strengthening to his Majestys Interest, 
as well amongst the Canadians ae Indians, amongst the former 
of whom many proselytes wo'^. speedily be made, and the Estab- 
lished Church now very Weak in America would derive a con- 
siderable strength & Lustre from such an Institution, the utility 
of which I submit to you as a private remark of too important a 
nature for me to Enlarge upon. 

If the carrying place is once secured a few Small Vessells 
on the Lakes Erie & Huron will render that Communication 



^Crossed out in the original. 



310 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tolerably safe, but the navigation with Boats is liable to many 
risques particularly as it puts it too much in the power of a few 
Indians to seize upon Kings stores, provisions, & Traders Goods. 

In case they shall agree to the terms to be offered them I 
Imagine it will be deemed an unmeritted compliment to treat 
with either the Western Ind^ or Chenussios, in their own 
Country, & as 'twill be Expensive to bring them down, Niagara 
will be very convenient & Centrical for that purpose, where if 
there are more than one Nation, they may be treated with 
seperately, altho' they should publickly subscribe to the Terms 
of peace,. at least the Head Sachem and Warrior of each Tribe. 
It is not my intention whenever WabhicommicoU or any others 
sho'^. come here to shew them we are in the least sollicitous for 
peace, neither do I think it should be made with any of our 
Enemies till they make proper satisfaction for what they have 
done, which with regard to the delivery up of any of their 
^ to the Indian custom, that I have little reason to 
think they will comply therewith, but I hope a Campaign 
attended with some success w^ill alter their ^ 

GoV^. Penn has wrote to me concerning the Murder of the 
Conestoga Ind^ & inclosed me his Proclamations in consequence 
thereof. I must say it is a very Extraordinary & unwarrantable 
proceeding; These Furious Rioters might better have employed 
their abilities against our Enemies, but there they wo'^'. have been 
Exposed to hazards which Murderers (generally Cowards) 
have not fortitude to encounter. This act of barbarity may 
prove of dangerous consequence as these Ind^ were under the 
protection of & in alliance with the 5 Nations who will thereby 
be induced to judge very unfavorably, of our Faith & Dispo- 
sition, but I shall do all in my power to set it in the best light, 
& convince them how disagreable it is to the Government & how 
desirous they are to bring the Offenders to Justice. 

I am &ca 
His Excel^y Gen^. Gage 

^Illegible. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 31 



FROM ROBERT CALLBECK ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 202, are found these papers, which were 
destroyed by fire: Robert Callbeck's bill, January 28th, Niagara, on 
account of clothing furnished to Adam and David, two Mohawks; a 
letter of the 28th from H. Van Schaack, Albany, explaining the failure 
of Mr Douw to pay Dr Stringer and pleading the scarcity of money and 
the impossibility of getting it for bills on New York. 



AFFIDAVITS CONCERNING URY KLOCK 

A. D. S. 

Conajohar^ January 28^^. 1764. 

Affidafits 
[ ]ns who by the Instigation of George Clok [ 

] Sign'd their Names to a Petition against [ 
] tenant Hannikel Herkimer, taken, Before [ ] 

Frey Esq^ one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace, for 
[ ] of Albany. Viz'. 

Martinus Sparbeck Declairs on Oath, that [ ] 

he Sign'd against Clok and Herkimer, was not to h [ ] 

but out of fear, as he Hveth on George Cloks Lands, Sign'd he 
[ ] Says the particulars in the Petition are Matters, 

he cannot Com[ ] off against his Officers. 

Christ Young Declairs on Oath that no part of [ ] 

was explained to him of which it consists, but was told [ 

] Story, not touching any of the Premisses, and therefore 
[ ] Name to be put down ; the Petition contains the 

Name a[ ] Mark asserted. 

Caspar Keller Declairs on Oath he Signed no Pet[ ] 

Clok and Herkimer, neither order'd any other for him to Sign. 

Hendrick Zander Declairs on Oath he Sign'd a Petition but 
did not know what he Sign'd, as the Contents thereof were not 
told him. 

Salomon Myer jun^ Declairs on Oath he Sign'd the petiti [on] 
but that the Contents thereof were not told him but that it was 
[ ] account they were fin'd. 



3 1 2 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Andreas Zoller, Hend'-'. Zoller, & Jacob Zoller on Oath 
Declaire, the Contents of the Petition were not told them, but 
that they Sign'd for their being fined; the Latter Says he Saw 
George Cloks Name on the top of the Petition and the Name 
of Baxter Cunrad Clock, Lawranz Blasius [ ] their 

oath Declair, that George Clok [ ] to them with a 

Petition, which they Si[ ] Baxter told them it was 

only to get Pay for the march [ ] late Allarm to the 

Flats, for which they Sign'd, and no [ ] thing; The 

latter Says, Ekert Baxter & Thomas Baxter [n]ames were 
Sign'd at the top and farther Saith not. 

Fred^. Cunterman, Joh^ Wendeker, Jurry Cunter[man] and 
Andreas Dussler on their Oath Declair, that George Clok jun"^. 
and Ludwig Shneider came to them with a Petition, which they 
Said was because Some People were fined and for no other 
thing; The latter Says, two Names of Baxter were Signed at 
the top. 

Antony Walliser on his Oath Declairs that he did not Sign'd 
the Petition given in against Clok and Herkimer, and that he 
give no orders to any to Sign for him. 

Bartholomews Pikert, Cunrad Windeker, Hend^. Wallrath, 
Jacob Haberman, Anthony Shuyler and Hend''^. Matthes, on 
their Oath Declair, that George Clok iun^ and Ludwig 
Shneyder came to them with a Petition, which they Signed, But 
that they were not told the Contents thereof, but only for Reason, 
Some people were fined; the latter Says, he was told, it was on 
account the Officers did wrong Some times. 

Fred''. Gehler Declairs on Oath, that George Clok came to 
him with a Petition, and asked him, to Sign it, the Deponent 
asked; for what, Clok told him, that it was only to petition his 
Excellency the Governour, and farther Saith not. 

Ludwig Shneyder [ ] 

never Signed a petition against Clok and [ ] 

orders to any to Sign for him, but Says, George [ ] 

if he would with the assistance of his Son, go about [ ] 



Post-War Period. 1763-1774 313 

people, and get a Petition Signed against their Offic[ers ] 

they fined Some, and in order to Procure others in their [ ] 

upon which the Deponent assisted Cloks Son; and got [ ] 

to Sign, he also Says Thomas Baxters and Ekert Bax[ters ] 

-mes were Signed in the Petition, and that John Shuyler, [ ] 
the first he got Signed and that John Shuyler also Signed for 
his Brother Antony, who was absent and not Spoke to by the 
Leaders. 

Hendrick Frey. Jus[tice] 
INDORSED : Affidavits 

Shewing Ury Klocks Villainy 

1764 

TO WILLIAM EYRE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 202, are listed the following papers, which 
were destroyed by fire; a letter of January 29th to Lieutenant Colonel 
William Eyre, viewing the grounds of Indian defection, advocating con- 
cessions, as well as the removal of French settlers from Indian country 
and the appropriation of the Jesuit lands for Protestant church uses in 
Canada, and mentioning Johnson's employment of Oneidas, Tuscaroras 
and Mohawks against the hostiles, and the favorable opinions of his 
policy expressed by the British government; a letter of the 29th from 
Jacob Snell, Stonraby, in relation to a sum of money desired ; of the 
29th from Hendrick Frey, Canajohary, sending proceedings in relation to 
Clok and Herkimer's affairs and the complaint of William Lauks, and the 
letter of Jacob Snell; a letter of the 30th from Lieutenant Colonel David 
Van Der Heyden, Albany, informing that he sends up, by Mr Putnam, 
a negro belonging to Jolinson; a letter of the 30th from Ab'm Mortier, 
New York, with the information that he has paid the balance due Johnson, 
£640, Is, 2|/^d, to Mr Darlington and holds vouchers for other sums 
paid, and a request for the return of Mr Bayard's draft on Abraham 
Dow, which the latter has neglected to pay to Johnson; Sir William 
Johnson's account, the 30th, New York, with Ab'm Mortier; a letter 
of the 3 1 st from Captain John Wells, Chirrey Valley, expressing pleasure 
at Johnson's recovery from illness and gratification at the arrival of a 
company for the defense of the settlement, recommending Daniel Clyd 
as suited for scouting, and mentioning the need of a supply of money; a 
letter of the 31st from William DarHngton, New York, about accounts. 



314 Sir William Johnson Papers 

a sum received from Mr Mortier and money sent up to Johnson Hall in 
care of Major William Hogan; a letter of the 31st from John Welles, 
Montreal, giving a list of attested accounts against the estate of Captain 
John Lotteridge, deceased, and speaking of the effect in Canada of the 
King's proclamation. 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. 5.1 

Nerv York Jan^y. 3hK 1764. 
Sir, 

I have received your Letter of the 20^^. Inst', the Dispatches 
to Niagara & Detroit are both Duplicates. The original for 
Detroit went to Fort Pitt, where Aaron and another, who had 
brought Major Gladwin's Letters, were waiting to receive my 
Answers. 

I am sorry to find there are so many white Men amongst the 
Chenussies. I can't think that they are Prisoners but most 
probably Deserters from the Troops. The Fellow you have 
sent to Albany Goal may be a Deserter in which Case I would 
try him by a Gen'. Court Martial as I think He would sooner 
meet with the Punishment which Such a Traitor Deserves, from 
a Military than a Civil Court. If you can find out how he came 
amongst the Chenussies, I should be obliged to you for the 
Information. 

Your Precaution to prevent the Chenussies doing any Mischief 
on their Return was certainly very Judicious, and I should not 
be Surprized to hear they had attempted something before they 
left the inhabited Country. 

I shall be very glad to hear that a stout Party is Set off, in 
a firm Resolution to attack our Enemy Indians; It would not 
only be a means of restoring Peace, but would enable us to 
humble our Enemys, by seeing some of their own Tribes in 
Arms against them, in such a Manner as to procure a Peace 
that we may depend upon to be sure and lasting. 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Post-War Period. 1 763-1 774 315 

A Memorial has been sent me from Some of our Merchants 
in Canada, Praying that when Peace is made with the Western 
Savages, It should be stipulated that they should discharge the 
Debts they had contracted before these Disturbances began. I 
believe there will be No Difficulty in this Business, and that it is 
customary with the Indians to do it. It should be So, or it is an 
Encouragement to them to run in Debt, and then cut our Throats 
to clear off all Scores. 

Notwithstanding what I related to you in my last concerning 
the Congress at Augusta, I see by the Carolina Papers, that the 
Creeks have begun Hostilities against us on the Back of Caro- 
lina. But I hear Nothing of any Attacks on the Cherokees 
or the Chickesaws or Chacktaws, tho it was said that the Creeks 
had murdered some Men of this last Nation. 

There have been Regulations here in Respect of Ace" as 
you may perceive by my last Letter. Every Department to be 
kept as separate as possible. Cap*. Claus's Ace'*, should have 
been paid at Montreal, or at least certifyed by Me before he 
went away. As he is to go soon to Montreal I have wrote to 
Governor Burton on this Subject and desired him to act con- 
formable thereto. In Respect of the Acct of Capt. Claus 
which you have transmitted to me, tho it is irregular, I shall 
order a Warrant to be Made out in your Name for the Payment 
of them. But for the future every Department is to certify or 
pay the Expences dependent on it. In am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 
Your Most obedient, 

humble Servant 

Tho^ Gage 
Feb'-y. 3^. 

Since the above I have a Letter from 
M^ Stewart, the Creeks disown their Nation 
being concerned in the Murders, th'o committed by 
People of their Nation; whom they represent as 
Renegadoes, & promise to put them to Death if they 
meet them, & desire us to make Application to the 



316 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Cherokees to do the Same, Amongst whom these Villains have 
lived for some years. Beg no war may be commenced on 
this Ace*. 

T. G. 
Sr. w^. Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED: Janry 31^*. 1764. 
Genr^ Gages letter 



FROM HENDRICK FREY ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 203, are listed the following letters which 
were destroyed by fire : a letter of February 1 st from Hendrick Frey, 
at Canajoharre, inclosing proceedings against Martin Dillenbagh, consider- 
ing the prospects of his punishment and suggesting a device for his appre- 
hension ; a letter of the 1 st from Captain John R. Hansen, Schohare, 
telling what disposition he has made of his force and indicating the need 
of snowshoes for scouting parties ; and a letter of the 2d from De Couagne, 
Niagara, telling of a visit by an Indian to the fort and the restriction on 
the sale of ammunition. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
L. 5.1 

Johnson hall Fehr^, 3^. 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have received your favour of the 23^. Ult".' together with 
the Militia Commissions which I shall distribute accordingly. 

Two or three days ago I received Information that Lawrence 
Blasius a german Taylor an Inhabitant of Canajoharee, has 
inveigled two young Indians of that place to accompany him 
to England, these Indians being of George Klocks party one of 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City; in hand- 
wnriting of Guy Johnson. Draft destroyed by fire. 

^See Collections of the Nen> York Historical Society, i8y6, Colden 
Papers, p. 283-84. 



- Posi-War Period. 1763-1774 317 

them allways living at his house, there is great Reason to think 
that he is principally concerned in sending them on some of his 
customary Fraudulencies. The Canajoharees on hearing of 
their Departure sent to me, desiring their Journey should be 
stopped, as they were ignorant of the Cause of it, and justly 
apprehend they go on no good Design. I shall be glad you will 
please to take this into Consideration, and do therein what you 
may think necessary, as also favour me with your Sentiments 
about it. 

I understand M^ Lydius is making great preparations, and 
furnishing himself with a Number of Claims &^^. to his large 
Tracts of Land, and that he will set out for England by the 
Way of Quebec early in the Spring, I thought it necessary to 
give you this Information, as it may in some Measure concern 
the Province, to be Timely apprized thereof, he intends likewise 
to prove the just Title of the Connecticut People to the Susque- 
hanna Lands. 

I am obliged to you for your friendly Declaration in behalf 
of M^ Johnson, he will accordingly get the necessary Certificate 
and Petition but before that can be done, I shall take it as a 
favour if you'll acquaint me, whether he may have his Share in 
one of the following Places, viz', about the Landing at Tiyon- 
darogo, about half Way Creek near Lake George, about Otter 
Creek Lake Champlain Isle a la Motte or on the West Side 
of the Lake, near Crown Point, otherwise about Potnams Land- 
ing between Tiyondarogo and the former, that he may preferr 
his Petition accordingly. 

I am with y^. utmost Esteem 
& Respect 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient & 

Most Humble Servant 

W^. Johnson 
The Hon^^«. 

LlEU^. GOVERNOUR CoLDEN 



318 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. S.' 

New York Feh'K 6^K 1764. 
Dear Sir, 

I am favored with yours of the 27*^. Ul'"^. and greatly obhged 
to You for giving me your opinion on the Several Matters con- 
tained in my Letter of the 12*^ Jan'^y. your observation on the 
Difference of the holdings in our Provinces and Canada is cer- 
tainly just our Indians were Proprietors and the Cahnawagas 
&c^ were invited into Canada. But there were aborigines in 
Canada when the French first Settled there, who are either dead 
or gone off, or confounded with the other Nations, invited 
thither And when I was in Canada I could not learn that the 
French had ever purchased Lands of them, only Settled amongst 
them by Permission & Desire. 

The Defection of the Chenussies was most probably hastened, 
for the Reasons you mention. These were certainly the col- 
leteral Causes of their entering so readily into the War And 
persuading themselves and Spuring on other Nations to believe 
what they wished that a French Armament was in the River, 
and that it was Time to put in Execution the Plan which had 
been concerted. 

I have already acquainted you with my Intentions to make 
Peace with the Detroit Indians; and I have empowered Major 
Gladwin to close with them if he finds them Sincere till Peace 
can be made with proper Formalitys. And you will perceive 
by my former Letters that my only View in making those 
Demands of Concessions from the Chenussies, is to Set us in a 
respectable Light amongst the Indian Tribes, which may pre- 
vent Many Broils hereafter and Secure Us from future Wars. 
The Satisfaction demanded, is certainly not equivalent to the 
Insults we have received tho' as much as can be expected from 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



- Post-War Period. J 763-1 774 319 

such an enemy. And tho the dehvering up of any of their 
People is repugnant, as you represent to their Customs; Yet 
the French have brought them to Submit to it, and on one 
Occasion five or six Indians who had Murdered Some French 
Traders were brought down & dehvered up at Montreal The 
French had always Indians to assist them in their Wars, against 
Indians: and from your Report of the good Disposition of the 
Several Nations, it gives me great Pleasure to find that we 
may expect their Assistance this next Campain. And I should 
hope that even the Six Nations would join Us to oblige the 
Chenussies to give us proper Satisfaction; that we Might be at 
Peace and in Alliance as formerly with every part of that Con- 
federacy. And th'o they might not actually join us in an 
attack upon them. Might insist on their making Concessions. 
Many of those Tribes may possibly be glad to humble the 
Chenussies for the gross Insults & Threats which they lately 
received from them. And there is Some Reason to hope that 
the Indians of Canada, would actually join in falling on them. 

You will be so good to acquaint me in what Manner & where 
it would be properest to conclude Matters with the Western 
Indians you seem to pitch upon Niagara as the properest Place. 
It is necessary that Major Gladwin should be acquainted as 
early as possible with every thing Which shall be regulated in 
order to effect that Work. The Delivering up of all white 
People, Prisoners & Deserters, should as you justly propose, 
be a Condition Made with all our Enemys And a Right of 
Establishing Ourselves in every Place where the French were 
established and on the Same Footing, should not neither be 
neglected. 

What will be done with the Jesuits, I can't pretend to Say, 
your Remarks concerning them are very Judicious and we must 
absolutely banish them from the upper Posts. 

It is difficult, and will take up a good deal of Time, to Secure 
the Carrying Place of Niagara as effectually as we could wish. 
It is a Post of the greatest Consequence & we must give very 
great attention to it. 



320 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



The Murderers who fell upon the Indians in Pensylvania, 
certainly deserve the Severest Punishment & I hope the Governor 
will exert himself to bring them to Justice. I am with 
great Regard, 

Sir 
Your Most obedient, 

humble Servant 



I inclose you his 
Majestys Speech &l 
addresses of both Houses 
brought by an Extraordinary 
Packet which arrived the 
4th Ins', but brought little 
more News, than these attacks 
on the famous M^ Wilkes 
INDORSED: Feb'^y. 6*^. 1764 

Gen'. Gages letter 



Thos Gage 



FROM FRANCIS WADE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 204, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of February 6th from Francis 
Wade, Philadelphia, on the recent alarm occasioned by riotous attempts 
against friendly Indians under the protection of the city, an arrangement 
of the difference between his brother Matthew and Johnson, and John- 
son's desire to draw settlers to his lands; Sir William Johnson's account, 
Schenectady, the 6th, with Duncan & Phyn; a letter of the 6th from 
John Duncan, Schenectady, about goods sent, and to be sent; a memo- 
randum, Schenectady, the 6th, of goods from Mr Duncan; a letter of 
the 8th, from James Phyn, Schenectady, mentioning goods sent in sledges 
to Johnson and the inferiority of the Albany to the Schenectady "stores;" 
a letter of the 8th from John Hansen, London, acquainting with English 
affairs: Lieutenant Colonel Lee, president of a club of officers who have 
been in America, criticizes Gen. Amherst in print; the latter is advised by 
friends to publish his instructions and orders from the government; he 
censures the province of New York; public opinion favors conciliation 
of the Indians; General Monckton's chance of the chief command in 
America impaired by his affiliations in the Commons; party spirit runs 



Posl-War rcrlocl, 1763 1774 321 

high; British officers would ^l^dly return to America; a letter of the 
9th from John Duncan, Schenectady, on goods lent to Johnson, also 
declaring a purpose to enlarge his assortment; John DLncan's account of 
the 9th. 

TO ROBRRT LEAKE 

In Doc. Hist. N. v.. 2:8U4 5 ; Q, 2:467. is a letter to Robert Leake, 
recommending Mr Byrne for employment in the commissary service, 
mentioning a war party sent against the Delawares and Shawanesc. and 
discur.sing the policy of employing Indians again't Indians; dated Feb- 
ruary 9th. The letter is in the New York Historical Society, in the 
handwriting of Guy Johnson. 

INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAIN HENRY MONTOUR 

D. S. 

February 9, 1764 

Instructions [ ] 

You are to take this party of Indians, and [ ] 

command and care, and with the greatest dispatch, secretly 
[ ] march them against the Enemy Indians Hving at 

Kane[stio ] you are to use all means to destroy also 

their Villages, Mag[ ] 

On your march to that place, You are to tell all the Fri [ ] 

You meet or see that it is my desire, and I Expect that they 
[ ] you all the assistance in their power to\s'ards execut- 

ing said design. 

In case you find by your Scouts and advanced parties that 
the Indians of Kanestio are fled, or so much on their guard as 
to be able to defeat your design, You are then to fall upon any 
of the next Villages of the Enemy and totally destroy them if 
possible. 

You will always keep up a good Understanding between the 
Indians of your Party, and the Whites; and should any Sachem 
or other Indians of any Nation whatever take upon them to 
stop or discourage your design. You are to tell them from 
me, that I cannot look upon them as Friends, but will resent 



322 Sir JVilliam Johnson Papers 

such a conduct as it deserves, for which purpose you are to carry 
this belt of Wampum to speak to them therewith. 

You are to keep a good look out on your return, as well as in 
going there, so as to prevent the least surprise or disaster and 
also to dispatch an Indian or two, with a White Man to me 
imediately with an account of your success. 

When you return with the Party to Oneida you will then 
consult with the Chiefs, whether prudent for the Warriors to 
come down imediately or not, I am of opinion they should not 
leave [ ] return before [ ] 

[ ] have on the other Nations [ ] 

Given under my Hand [ ] 

Johnson Hall, this 9'^ d[ay ] 
February I 764 

W". Johnson 

TO JOHN PENN 

Johnson hall Feh\) 9"'. 1764 

Sir 

I had the pleasure of writing to you in Answer to your Two 
Letters, on the murder of the Conestoga Ind*. which I hope you 
received. 

Since my writing I am credibly informed that Mr Lydias, 
of Albany the person employed on behalf of Connecticut to 
procure the Deed from the Ind*. for the Lands they claim on 
the Susquehanna within your Government, is now preparing a 
number of Vouchers, & other necessary papers with which he 
intends to proceed for England early in the Spring by the way 
of Quebec, in order to support & make good the claim of the 
New Englanders to that tract. I thought it necessary to give 
you this information that you may be enabled to take such timely 



^In the Newberry Library, Chicago, III ; in handwriting of Guy 
Johnson. 



Postwar Period, I763-I774 323 

steps for preventing people at home from being imposed upon 
thro his misrepresentations — his character is too well known 
here, to require being enlarged upon, but they are probably 
Strangers to it in England [& I believe in Pennsilvania to require 
any illustration of mine, but his little importance having perhaps 
prevented it from extending to England, care should be taJ^en 
least the artifices of which he is master mlax; not deceive those 
in power. ^] 

As great part of the Five Nations were lately here, I took 
the opportunity of giving them a just representation of the 
Massacre of the Conestoga Indians, explained your proclama- 
tions thereon, & assured them of your Resolutions, to bring the 
Offenders to punishment, and then agreable to their custom, I 
delivered them belts of Wampum & covered the Graves of the 
deceased, at which they expressed some satisfaction, but told 
me that we had often upbraided them for not keeping their 
people in order, which they were sorry to see, was too much 
our own case. 

In my last I represented the great Zeal of the 5 Nations &ca 
and I have now the pleasure to acquaint you that I have Just 
sent off a party of near 200 Indians chiefly Oneidas with some 
White Men as Ind". Officers, in order to attack & Cutt off 
(if possible) some Castles of the Shawanese, Delawares &ca 
or those nest of Villains at Kanestio. I flatter myself this will 
be attended with happy effects, & tend to the Security of your 
Frontiers, by giving our Enemies enough to do at home, for 
which purpose I shall shortly send out several other Party's, 
from whose performances I hope it will appear that Indians are 
the best calculated to fight against Indians, The better to facili- 
tate the success of these parties I could wish you were able to 
send out some of your Provincials, who at this Juncture might 
easily meet with success, or at least create a diversion in favour 
of the Ind*. sent on service whom I have directed To give no 



^Crossed out in the original. 



324 vSiV William Johnson Papers 

Quarter, as any Ind*. we may take will at the end of the War 
be probably delivered up in return for which (such are their 
notions of clemency) they will become our most inveterate 
Enemies hereafter 

The 5 Nations have desired I shall acquamt you that as by 
the Extinction of the Conestoga's, the lands they possessed revert 
to them their Relations & next heirs, they therefore expect to 
have the liberty of disposing of them, or that a proper considera- 
tion be paid for them. I shall be glad to have your Sentiments 
& answer on this head, and I am, 

with much Esteem 
Sir 
&ca 
The Honble Gov«. Penn 

INDORSED: Johnson hall Feby 9'^^. 1764 

To Gov^ Penn, concerns Lydias's 
going home, & on the Ind*. going to War 
& about M"^ Lydius of Alb^. 

FROM GRACE COSBY ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 204-5, are lisled the foilowlng letters 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of the 1 1th from Lady G. Cosby, 
at London, about disposal of her land and mining interests in America ; 
sending Lord Halifax's compliments, (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 
2:806; Q, 2:467); a letter of February 11th from Captain Daniel 
Campbell, Sch'y. relative to the payment of money by Captain Clause 
on account of Wells & Wade; a letter of the 1 1th to Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Ralph Burton at Montreal, sending information that a party of 
200 Indians has been despatched by Johnson against the Delawares 
and Shawanese, and that he purposes to employ Canadian Indians in like 
enterprises, and referring for further knowledge to Captain Claus, the 
bearer; a letter of the 11th from Henry Monture, William Hare and 
John Johnston, Burnuts Field, Indian officers, about obstacles to their 
expedition created by Thomas Spencer, who has brought a small, ill 
equipped party from Cherry Vally ; a letter of the 1 1 th from Dirk Van 
Der Heyden, London, communicating the fact of his failure in business. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 325 

declaring that gifts to the savages vsnll furnish the most sohd basis of peace 
and inquiring as to the means, time and cost of procuring 5000 pounds 
of ginseng. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York Feb^'-^- /3'^- 1764 
Sir 

I had the Pleasure to receive your Letter of the 3^. Ins', the 
Day before yesterday, and am greatly obliged to you for the 
Pains you are taking to fit out a large Party to go and attack 
the villains of Kanestio. As you observe, if the Indians are 
once entered it will become their own Quarrell and we must reap 
great Benefit from their Assistance, if they are brought to espouse 
our cause heartily. I hope the want of Ammunition will not 
delay the Party; If you shall have applied for it to the officer 
Commanding the Artillery in Albany, I am perswaded he will 
have granted it you on this Extraordinary service without any 
particular order for it. I write to Him by this Opportunity, 
directing Him to grant you such supplys as you shall demand. 

I am perswaded you will do on every occasion what is most 
Beneficial for the service, therefore leave it to you to regulate 
the Pay of the officers and woodsmen. 

Lawrence Blasius came to me for an order to embark in the 
Transports with his two Indians, which I refused, without seeing 
a Pass from you for the savages to leave the Country. I have 
talked to the L'. Gov^ about this Affair, & shall make all the 
search after them that is possible. No private Grants of Land 
whatever will be allowed of, and we must take every Measure 
necessary to prevent it. 

In my last I desired your opinion of everything necessary to 
be done, in case of an Accommodation with the Indians. If 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



326 Sir William Johnson Papers 

we don't hear from Detroit by the latter end of this month, I 
think we shall have no news till April. 

A Packet arrived late last night. No particular news. I 
am with great regard. 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 

humble servant 

Tho^ Gage 

INDORSED: New York Feby 13*^. 1764 
From Gen^ Gage 



FROM CHRISTOF STROBEL 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 205, are the following letters, which were 
destroyed by fire: a letter of February 14th from Christof Strobe!, at the 
city hall, Albany, asking aid as an old servant and soldier of Johnson's 
and relief from the humiliation he suffers as a public charge (In German) ; 
one of the 14th from Elioner Flood, New York, imploring Johnson's 
intercession with a creditor, Joseph Greswold, with a view to release from 
prison ; one of the 1 4th from Gilbert Tower, seeking a continuance of 
benefits and invoking divine aid to his benefactor in the performance of 
public duty; one of the 15th from Thomas McKee, Lancaster, condemn- 
ing the massacre of the Conestogo Indians, discussing the attempt of 
rioters to destroy certain Indians under the protection of the city of Phila- 
delphia and asking that warrants for money be sent to himself and his 
son; one of the 16th from Ferrall Wade, Philadelphia, asking the money 
or a draft on New York in payment of draft on Captain Clause; one of 
the 17th from Daniel Claus, Albany, requesting payment of £50 in 
currency to Abraham Lyle ; and one of the 1 7th to William Smith 
Ju'r, excusing delay, agreeing to charges in connection with unsuccessful 
suits and mentioning war parties which Johnson is sending out. 



Post^War Period, 1 763-/ 774 327 



FROM JOHN PENN 
L. S.^ 
Philadelphia 17^^. February 1764 

Sir. 

I had the pleasure to receive your favour of the 20'^. Ult°.^ 
and am now to acquaint You that the Indians, who were refused 
a passage thro' New York, returned safe to Philadelphia under 
an Escort of a party of Royal Americans, — by the order of 
General Gage, and have continued since in the Barracks here. 

It was very fortunate they were under the protection of that 
Guard, otherv/ise I fear they would have been all put to death 
by a very considerable number of armed Men, who came last 
Week from the Frontiers, as far as Germantown, on that horrid 
Design, but were happily diverted from putting it in Execution, 
in a great Measure, by the opposition they apprehended from 
the Inhabitants of this City, as well as the King's Troops. — 
It now seems more than ever necessary, that all the Indians 
should be removed out of the Province, in order to put a Stop 
to the present Disturbances & Murmurs of the people; and lest 
their rage may not be restrained by any Measure in the power 
of the Government, from venting itself still, in the destruction 
of these Indians. 

As I would take the most prudent & easy method of removing 
them into their own Country, & avoid any steps that might 
interfere with Indian Affairs in general, I must beg your opinion 
and advice on this Head, whether it would be advisable to send 
them up, by the shortest way, under a Guard to the Towns on 
the Susquehanna; or whether Governor Colden would not con- 
sent, upon an Application from you, that they might pass up 
Hudsons River as far as Albany, in a Sloop, which might take 
them on board at A^mboy; Or if you think of any better Expe- 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City. 
^The draft of this letter in the New York State Library was destroyed 
by fire. 



328 Sir William Johnson Papers 

dient for their Removal. I should be glad you would commu- 
nicate it to me by the return of the Bearer, whom I send Express 
with this Letter. 

I have asked General Gage's further protection of the Indians 
here, till I receive your answer. 
I am 
Sir 

Your most Obedient 

&hble Servant 

John Penn 

FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 205, are listed the following letters, which 
were destroyed by fire: one of February 18th from William Darlington, 
New York, repeating a mention of money sent in charge of Maj. William 
Hogan, and informing that he sends up a butler, recommended by Lord 
Stirling's butler, and he has forwarded the letter for the Lords of Trade 
on the Halifax packet. Captain Jeffery ; and one of the 1 9th from Witham 
Marsh about orders executed for Johnson, John Heath Mullis, a butler 
shipped with Captain Gage, who sails to the Visch-Kilns, bodily sufferings, 

the machinations of disloyal "imps" regarding the K a patent, a new 

delay in the suit regarding his office, a scheme of the lawyers to exclude 
members of the established church from the profession, Quincey's Dr's- 
pensator^, "which so particularly points out the proper Medicines for 
every Disorder," and French clover and La Lucerne seeds for Johnson 
Hall; v^th compliments to Brandt, Molly and others. 

TO THOMAS GAGE 
Df.^ 

Johnson hull Feb^ 19'^. 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have had the pleasure of receiving your Excellency's Letters 
of the 3 1 »' ult** and 6'^. inst, and I am happy to find they contain 
your approbation of my Sentiments. 



^In American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



Posl-lVar Period, 1763-1774 329 

Several of the White men amongst the Chenussies are desert- 
ers as you observe few, or none having been taken by them, but 
there are some who have been prisoners amongst them for many 
years; The Fellow I sent to Goal was taken many years ago 
near Fort Cumberland when a Young Lad — by the Delawares 
& by them delivered up to the Senecas: he was never in our 
Service, but I know he will prove a dangerous enemy if he is 
ever permitted to return amongst them. 

It is but Just that the Western Indians should discharge the 
debts due to the Traders, and I imagine they v/ill readily agree 
to it when the peace is made, in which it can be stipulated. 

I was all along apprehensive concerning the Stability of the 
Peace to the Southvv^ord; the war commenced by the Northern 
Ind^ has probably hurried them on to begin sooner than they 
would otherwise have done, and I wish the declaration of the 
Creeks may be true. I have had two Letters from M"". Stewart 
on that head, desiring my Sentiments. In short we seem to stand 
on such indifferent terms with several of the Nations that it will 
evidently appear our interest for the future to establish a good 
name amongst them, by every proper method in our power. 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that the Indians appear 
as Zealous as I could wish, and that Six days ago a body of 
200, with several Woodsmen & Ind". officers, marched for 
Oneida on their way to Kanestia, which they are if possible to 
cut off; I have directed next to fall upon the Delaware & 
Shawaney Castles about the Ohio, and as the place of Destina- 
tion has been kept a perfect Secret till their setting off from 
Oneida I have great hopes of their being able to effect that 
necessary service, another party is now here which I shall be 
able to set off in a day or two ; and more are Expected. Indeed 
I have great pleasure in finding that I shall be able in some 
measure to ansv/er your wishes and Expectations concerning the 
Friend Indians, who had offered their Service the whole last 
Summer, but were not made use of till now, at present they may 
be said to be let loose, against our Enemys, and I flatter myself 



330 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they will answer my most Sanguine hopes. To effect these 
necessary ends I have not the smallest leisure, Conferences are 
incessantly succeeding one another, and 'twill continue so a con- 
siderable time. The consumption of provisions & Goods are 
as unavoidable as necessary, & to prevent my being unable to 
supply them in the Spring, I could wish you would please to 
order up here as much as might prevent me from being obliged 
to send down, at a time when it is scarce possible to be got up 
from the badness of the Road here 

It is highly necessary that the Chenussios should make proper 
concessions, & altho' the Six Nations have never given up any 
of their people, I have notwithstanding some hopes that the 
Chenussios may be brought to terms of that Nature, especially 
as I find that the 5 Nations, are unanimously inclined to us, 
& that some of their People have even declared to me that they 
wo*^. go against the Chenussios as soon as against any other 
people. 

I mentioned in my letter of the 27'*^. that I Judged it too great 
a Compliment to treat with the Indians in their own Country, 
indeed was it not for the Expence of bringing them down, it 
would be probably best to treat with them here, as they all con- 
sider this place as their Grand Fireplace for Treatys of that 
Nature; but I am induced to think that OsTvego, or Niagara 
would answer very well, because great part of the Chipeweighs, 
& Missassagas, live on the North sides of Lakes Ontario & Erie 
to which Niagara would serve as a Centre without being too 
distant for those who live in the Neighbourhood of Detroit & 
if we treat with the Chenussios, or any of that Quarter (which 
may probably be the case) no place can be better calculated. 
[In this case I would beg leave to propose that Deputes con- 
sisting of the Chiefs of each Nation should on/\j meet, the rest, 
being of no great consequence, and thaf] At this Treaty where- 
soever held we should tye them down [in the peace^] according 
to their own forms of which they take the most notice, for 



^Crossed out in the original. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 331 

Example by Exchanging a very large belt with some remarkable 
& intelligible figures thereon, Expressive of the occasion which 
should be always shewn at public Meetings, to remind them of 
their promises; and that we should Exchange Articles with the 
Signatures of the Chiefs of every Tribe; [Some of The five 
Nations have hut Three, the Western Indians several.^] The 
use of frequent Meetings with Ind^ is here pointed out, They 
want the use of letters, consequently they must frequently be 
reminded of their promises, & this custom they keep up Strictly, 
amongst themselves, since the neglect of the one, will prove a 
breach of the other 

In my opinion a Treaty of Offensive & Defensive Alliance 
would be the best, as we should then have a right to claim their 
assistance on occasion, & they would hardly ever desire ours for 
any thing more than Arms & Ammunition which it would be 
our interest to give them in a War with one another. That we 
should enter into this with each Confederacy against the other, 
which would put them more on their guard hereafter. That 
they should deliver up all prisoners, deserters, & Frenchmen 
(of whom there are several) amongst them. Engaging never to 
admit any of the Two latter into their Castles. That they should 
agree to the removal of the Jesuits whenever it may be 
demanded. The occupancy of all the French posts &ca to be 
left to our discretion & a free passage by land or Water to them, 
as also the Navigation of the upper Lakes &ca. The payment 
of debts, & free permission to all Traders to pass unmolested. — 
with regard to the Senecas, that they Guarranty the carrying 
place. I would add from the importance of Aserotus^ & 
Arundiquaf (both along Ontario) the former as a harbour for 
Vessells, the latter for Boats, and being a Convenient & near 
rout into their Country, That we might be at liberty to make 
use of them, or Erect places of security at them, whenever we 



'Crossed out in the original. 

^Sodus. 

^Irondequoit. 



332 Sir William Johnson Papers 

found it necessary. That a free passage be likewise granted 
thro' their Country to & from Niagara when occasion required. 
That the Misisaga's &ca Hving on the N side o*f Ontario 
Guarranty the Communication down the R. S'. Lawrence to 
OsWegatchy. That none of the Nations treat with the Shawa- 
nese & Delawares for the future without our knowledge & 
permission, & That all intercourse be imediately stopt between 
our Friends, & any who may hereafter commit hostilities (this 
they call shutting up the Road of peace) & that every Nation 
for the future shall on our requisition properly made deliver up, 
such of their people as may be guilty of Robbery or Murder, 
that they may be tried according to the English Laws. This 
may & doubtless will appear hard (& is contrary to the original 
Covenant) but is nevertheless a very necessary point to push 
and lastly that they ratify & confirm all their Engagements 
entred into by that Covenant, as well as those enterd into between 
them 6l the French. — on our part I believe it will be necessary 
To assure them of A Free fair & open Trade, at the principal 
Posts, & a free intercourse, & passage into our Country, That 
we will make no Settlements or Encroachments contrary to 
Treaty, or without their permission. That we will bring to 
Justice any persons who commit Robberys or Murders on them 
& that we will protect & aid them against their & our Enemys, 
& duly observe our Engagements with them. 

These few Remarks I submit, with deference to your opinion, 
nor would I abuse the freedom with which you have indulged 
my Sentiments, but from my hopes that some of them will agree 
with your own upon this Subject. 

I shall for the time to come give orders to keep each Depart- 
ment as seperate as possible. Capt Claus, set out for Montreal 
but was obliged to return as there was no passing the Lakes, 
I hope he may be able soon to go to his post — 

I must beg the favour of your Certificate in favour of Lieut 
Johnson setting forth his rank, & that he is reduced. The Gov- 
ernor informing me that it is necessary in order to his obtaining 
the Lands agreable to his Majesty's proclamation 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 333 

I am much obliged to you for His Majestys Speech, & the 
Addresses of both Houses which you were so kmd to send me; 
affairs seem to go hard against Mr Wilkes. I heartily wish all 
unhappy divisions at home may be speedily terminated to the 
satisfaction of the Crown and the Subject. 

The steps taken by the Friend Indians particularly the 
Oneidas & Oghquagas will I apprehend greatly expose them 
to the resentment of our Enemys, who may attempt striking a 
blow about CanoTvaroghere^ & other of their Villages: of this 
they are also very apprehensive, and request protection for their 
Familys in their absence. — should the Enemy attempt this, they 
may probably come down farther, I should therefore be glad 
to have it in my power to issue such orders, or make such dis- 
position of the York Provincials now at the German Flatts, as 
may be necessary on an Emergency [and I am reall]) of opinion 
that the posting at least one of the Compan\)s at one of the 
Oneida Castles would give fresh spirits to that people, & checJf 
the designs of the Enem'^] pleas to pardon any Impropriety in 
this being well intended. 

A Certain Christopher Strubble formerly a Deserter from 
Shirleys, who lived for sometime amst the Indians is a Prisoner 
in Albany Goal & sev'. of the Justices &ca at the Flatts have 
appHed to me to SolHcit his releasement; In case he is confined 
as a Deserter I think it necessary to observe that the General 
told me all such as came in & accompanied y'. Ind«. w'^. our 
Troops should be forgiven, which Strubble accordingly did in 
1 759, & has resided on this River for two Years past. 

After taking up so much of your time With this tedious letter 
I shall conclude myself 
His Excellcy Gen^. Gage 

INDORSED : Johnson hall Feby 1 9 1 764 

To Gen' Gage, with Sentiments 

on a Treaty of peace with the Indians 

Feb^y. 19'h. 1764. 



^Oneida Castle. 



334 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York Feb'-i^' 20 ^K 1764. 
Dear Sir, 

As the Season for Action is approaching, I should be glad 
to know from you, as far as a Thing of that Nature can be 
Ascertained, what Number of Savages you Judge we may 
reckon upon to join the Troops during the Course of the Cam- 
pain, whether to act against the Western Indians, should They 
break The Truce, & again commit Hostilities; or to act offen- 
sively against The Senecas, or against the Shawnese & Dela- 
wares. I have lately received Letters from the Westward, but 
have never received Intelligence of the Smallest overtures being 
made either by the Shawnese or the Delawares, which gives me 
Some Suspicions of the Sincerity of the Detroit Indians; As 
They can't be ignorant of the offers of Peace, made by Pondiac 
to Major Gladwin, it seems reasonable to think, that the Dela- 
wares & Shawnese would have sent Deputys to you or to Fort 
Pitt, had they not Hopes of Perswading the Detroit Indians 
to renew the War, and that they would not chuse to bare the 
Brunt of it alone, 

I imagine the Indian Nations in general, would be as glad 
of Peace as ourselves. They must all suffer very much thro' want 
of Trade, and be very bare of all Manner of Necessarys, which 
they have been so long accustomed to. These Considerations 
may possibly induce many Nations to join with us to put a 
Speedy end to a War, which is ruinous to them as well as to us. 
And they Certainly must now be convinced of the Errors, of any 
Notions They had formed of our Evil Intentions towards Them. 
The Nations who have struck, may despair of a Sincere For- 
giveness, for the Injurys They have done us, and May influence 
others, and by these means continue the War. But I think for 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 335 

the Reasons I have given, many of the other Tribes would join 
against Them to force Them into a Peace. 

If the Five Nations with the Indians of Canada would talk 
Sharpely to the Senacas, & threaten to join us against Them, 
They might be brought to make Us Satisfaction and conclude 
a Peace with Us, upon Such Terms as we could accept of 
without our exposing Ourselves to frequent Quarrells with other 
Tribes. I am with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

Your Most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

Tho^ Gage 
S«. W". Johnson Bar'. 

INDORSED : New York 20'^ Feb^ I 764 
From Gen'. Gage 

FROM DANIEL CAMPBELL ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 206, are listed the following letters, which 
were destroyed by fire: one of February 20th from Captain Daniel 
Campbell, Schenectady, recommending Captain Tice and mentioning Mr 
Matthew Wade's order on Johnson for a balance shown in Captain 
Claus's account; one of the 20th from Robert Leake, New York, speaking 
of Mr Byrne, whom he has continued at the royal blockhouse at Oneida 
lake on Johnson's recommendation, congratulating Sir William on his 
remarkable success in keeping the Five Nations loyal, communicating 
certain military appointments to be made in England for America, com- 
plaining of long and laborious service and asking suggestions for the pur- 
chase of land, the "land jobbers" in New York refusing to "let one 
into anything unless it be above Fort Edward"; one of the 20th from 
Charles Williams, New York, concerning a letter of recommendation to 
Admiral Tyrell and Captain Delancey's thought of buying the lead 
mines; one of the 20th from John Duncan, Schenectady, commending 
Gilbert Tice for the command of a company of rangers or provincials, 
reporting that Colonel Bradstreet is considered for a major generalship, 
speaking of an intended trip to New York and soliciting a letter in 
support of his claim for land under a grant made to provincial officers 
serving in the war in America; one of the 20th from James Rivington, 



3 ^^» Sir WiViam Johnson Papers, 

New York, of publications which he can supply, Johnson's public services, 
Major Loftus's expedition up the Mississippi, the exchange by France of 
Louisiana for a Spanish settlement on the Gulph of Darien, the King's dis- 
missal of Colonel Barre, the vast popularity of John Wilkes and General 
Amherst's discredit with the army (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 2:806-8; 
Q, 2:468); one of the 21st from Henery Monture, William Hare and 
John Johnston, Kaun au Wau Roharie, asking money to pay for a feast to 
their Indian warriors, also paper and sealing wax ; and of the 2 1 st 
from the same, Kaun a Wa Rohare, describing the opposition of some 
Indians of Old Onida to their expedition and sending messages from 
the warriors of their party about that opposition and the care and pro- 
tection of their castle during their absence. 



TO HENRY MONTOUR 

A. L. S. 

Tuesday) feb'^. 2hK 17 
This goes by Thomas King & his party v/hich consists of 
twelve Men. He says he will be with You at Oneida in three 
Days if You should not be gone, w^. I hope You are long before 
this. His being Sick prevented the party going Sooner; w^. 
gave me verry great concern, as I have y^. greatest Dependancc 
on Your doing a glorious Action for Your King & Country, 
and all People here talk of Nothing else but of that Party. — 
which You will let the Ind*. all know, & tell them there are 
great Numbers will Soon go against our Enemies, — the 
Oghquagoes and Otseningo Indians are all ready to Join You 
at Ogquago Should you go that Way. also the Tuscaroras who 
live about there. — for Gods Sake exert yourselves like Men 
whose Honour & every thing dear to them is now at Stake. 
The General has great Expectations from the Success of Your 
Party & indeed So have all People here, & I hope they will not 
be mistaken, in Order to Encourage y'=. party I will out of my 
own Pocket, pay to any of y<=. Party 50 Dollars for the Head 
Men of the Delawares [ ] viz^ Onusseraquedra^ 



^The Iroquois form; in the Delaware tongue, Yaghkapoose; the English 
name, Squash Cutter. 



Post- War Period, 1763-1774 337 

— and 50 Dollars more for the Head of long Coat, alias, 
A' ttdtdvpilsera , in wh. case they must either bring them alive, 
or their whole Heads the Money shall be paid to the Man who 
takes or brings me them or their Heads. This I would have 
You tell to the Head Men of the Party, as it will make them 
more eager. — pray tell them all from me that I wish them all 
Success, & expect they will act with Spirit & Honour, so as to 
be a Credit to themselves & me, & that nothing will Stop them. 
The Stockbridge Ind*. Sent me an Offer of all their Mens 
Service, this Day, & I Intend to Send for them imediately, & 
get them to Join y^. Mohawks & others, pray write me from 
Oneida or Elsewhere when you possibly can, & let me know 
how everything goes on, how Strong the party is, how they agree & 
what time You think it will be before You return. 

The Credit of the Indians will now rise if they behave well, 
w^. I hope You will all encourage as much as in your power. — 
TTie Ondagaes & Cayugaes liveing along the Susquahana 6c 
its branches have all given themselves up to me as fighters, 
] against the Enemy imediately on their ret [urn] 
] one party of them who have been out la [ ] 

] & killed five English, for w^. they are 
] verry Soon five Scalps of the Enemy, & then 
] forgiven, they have their Dance this Night, & 
are to [ ]tt of to Morrow for Owegey where they 

live, then [ ] out imediately ag»*. our Enemies. 

I wish ycu all Well & that Y[ou] may all return with Credit 
&: Success. 

& am 
Y^ Humble Serv'. 

W". Johnson 



'The Iroquois form, also Aleatta^veetsarc5 ; in the Delaware tongue, 
Anindamooky. 



338 Sir M'^illiam Johnson Papers 



ADDRESS TO INDIANS 
A. L. S. 

I ] 

[ ] as by our [ ] able before that 

time [ ] to your & their everlast[ing ] 

I will in a few [ ] to go out again, to War. — 

[ ] to your haveing Enemies, you need not [ ] 

You may be assured that Everry Indian [ ] the World 

will be our freinds verry soon, [ ] are none our Enemies 

now but them who live [ ] Diaaga River, Ohio & the 

Senecas, the first [ ] You need not fear, & the Senecas I 

believe will [ ] peace, if not they will soon feel the 

consequen[ces] 

As Soon as this Meeting is over with [ ] Six Nations, 

the Mohav/ks & Severall of y^. five [ ] will go out 

directly. — the f arewel Brethern be Strong take Courage & fear 
nothing, but God in him put y^ trust. — farewe[ll] 

I wrote many days ago by David the Schohaie which I hope 
you have received. 

Gentlemen You will make this Speech [ ] the Sachims 

& Warriors all together, and encourage them all you can, to do 
Service soon, otherwise y^. Enemy will all run away from them 
parts. — be sure burn their Castles & everry thing you can, — All 
here are well & long to hear of your further Success, in taking 
or Surpriseing some of their little Villages. — I wish you all 
Success and am Gentlemen Y". Sincerely 

W"^. Johnson 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 207, is entered a letter of February 23d 
from John Duncan, Schenectady, mentioning an order which he is filling, 
discoursing on causes of Indian troubles, and the debt of the community 
to Johnson, and promising a visit. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 339 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 

A. L. 5j 

London Feb^. 24^^. 1764 
Hon''. Sir 

I Arive"^. hear die 1 n\ and on y^. 13*^ I Deliverd your 
Letter to Lord Hillsborrow who is att y^. Head of the Board 
of Trade he Received Me very pohtely & Exprest his Great 
Satisfaction on Receiveing itt as he Said itt wold be a Rule for 
thire Conduct as y^. afairs of North Amerrica wold be brought 
on att y^. board of Trade in two or three Days, att y*. Same 
Time I Deliverd y^. Leters to Secratery pownal & his brother & 
then Weated on Lord Hallifax with y*. Leter which he Read 
and aprov*^. of he found Greatt fault with Gineral Amhirsts 
Conduct & Said he wold Call on Lord Hillsborrow and if^ruse 
y^ State of Indian affairs which he Said he was Shure wold have 
itts proper Weight with y*'. board & Meet his Majestys apero- 
bation as they wore all Truly Sencable of y"". Honours Services, 
So Dismist Me Saying as Soon as y^. Indians affairs was under 
Consideration he wold See me often. 

the 14*^ I Deliverd y". to Sir William Beaker who Tould Me 
that he had nott Much Intrest Butt if he Could Serve Me he 
wold on y^ Recommendation. 

Sence my arivel Hear No one thing has been Don Except 
y^. affairs of M^ Wilks & Liberty which Draw the attension of 
y^. Nation and has Imbarrest the present Ministry Much y*. 
Grand qustian Debated in y^. house was whether y^. Ministers 
of State had any More power then a Civel Majestreat when itt 
was putt to y^. Vote, the Minoritty was within Nine So that 
with greatt adress itt was putt of for four Months — as itts 
thought y^. Ministry Did Nott Chuse itt Should be Decided att 
this Time for fair of Lessining thire power w^. Indeed apeers 
to be Little aNouff — 



^From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., 
made by C. E. Carter before the (ire; original destroyed. 



340 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have Seen Gineral Monckton who Inquier*^. very kindly fer 
you his frends are of y*. opaseat party tho Nott Violant So that 
he Seems to Lay by & Say Nothing, the Comm^. in North 
amerrica wold be given to him if he wold ask for itt w^. I find 
he is Determined Nott to Do tho he wold be very WiUing to go 
there with itt & Tiss thought itt will be ofer^. him, he has Spoke 
in Several Companys of y"". Merrets & Servises in a very Genteel 
Maner M^ Penn & M^ Alen of Phill. has gon Greatt Lenths in 
Condeming Gineral amhersts Conduct to Lord hallifax and y' 
board of Trade in a very publick Maner and Saying as Much 
in prase of y^ Honours Services w^. has Never been properly 
Rewarded M^ Penn & M^ Allen has boath a Great Dail to 
Say heer and are y"". very Herty Frends 

I have Seen Governer pownal & his brother Several Times 
the Later this Morning when we had Some Conversation about 
y^ patten Near Conjgaury & he Shoe"^. Me a Memorrieal he had 
Dravm to present his Majesty & Council, Butt from y*. Many 
Changes att y^. board of Trade and in y*. Ministry he Did nott 
think itt Time as yett besides y*. Many Representations that 
has been Made from america of y^. Injustus Don y^. Indians on 
acounts of thire Lands (w^. was Made by G:A: as he gave me 
to understand) tho he wold nott Name any body Butt Desierd 
Me to Make his Complements to you & ashure you that as Soon 
as things was Setled he wold prefer itt & Did Not Doubt butt 
he wold Succeed, he gave Me to understand that when the board 
Satt on Indian affairs that I wold be Examined on Many Repre- 
sentations w'^. y^. board has Received this two years past 
Respecting Indian affairs 

as I Menshon*^. before No busness of any kind has been Don 
Sence I Came heer Nor is things Setled as yett Tis thought there 
will be Some Chang in the Ministry in a fwe Days butt this is 
thought will be by Compremising Matters when this is Don the 
amerrican affairs will be attended to & nott Till then M^ Walks 
has Lost ground yett he has his frends tho he is Gineraly Condem<^. 
for his Imprudence Butt as his Error was on y^. Side of Liberty 




THE CAUTIOUS COMMANDER 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 341 

& in oposion of the Sc th he will allways find frends — 

Ginera! Amhirsts Conduct is Condem^. by Everybody and has 
been pelted away in y*. papers y*^. army Curse him in publick as 
well as the Merchants Co". Lee' w'\ was Cap', in y*' 44'^. is 
Now Writeing apices against him w^. I will Send you Next Week 
with the other papers Wrote on his Conduct, in Short he is No 
body heer Nor has he been askt aqustion with Respect to y^. 
affairs of amerrica Sence he Came over which a gentelman might 
nott ask his footman 

on Monday I am to Wate on Lord Hillsborrow who is in 
Greatt Esteem heer by all Ranks of people and thought to be 
a Man of Greatt understanding he askt Me if you was Nott his 
Cuntryman and Seem*^. Much ples'^. when I tould him you was 
he Said he had only herd So y^. Evening before I Deliverd him 
y"^. Leter, he Said he hopt to be More acquainted with you in a 
Litle Time & this Day I was tould that y^ State of Indian Affairs 
& plan for y*. futer Manjdgm^ of them had been much aproved 
of as I have Wrote your honour So Much & Litle to y*. purposs 
Tis Time I Should Laufe of I Shall Write you by Every oper- 
tunity what is Doing hear you will plese to Make My Com- 
plements agreeable to M"". Johny Cap*. Johnson & Cap'. Claus 
& the Ladys & blive Me with the Greatest Esteem & Regard 
y^ Honours 

Most Humble Servant 

Geo: Croghan 
PS: 

I had Like to fergott to acquaint you that we was Cast away 
on y*. Cost of Normundy in france where in Ten Minutes after 
we gott on Shore in y^. Long boatt the vesel Struck and was 
Stove to pices w^. ocasion"^. my Nott Raching this City Till y*. 
1 1^. Instant I Sav'^. all My papers Butt Lost Every thing Else 
I Traveld about 140 Miles in france Butt Never See So Much 
pride & poverty before Co". Geo : Armstrong and Lif '. M<=donald 
from Detroit was with me they boath present thire Complem'*. 



^Charles Lee; Major General in the Revolution. 



342 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to you & So Dow Major Gates who is very often with Me & y". 
Same Man he allways was I BHve he Expects to go over with 
General Monckton if he getts y*=. Comm'^. 

I See M^ Harris y^. Gentelman whome you Menshon*^. to Me 
he Tould Me he had aply"^. to y^. Lords of Trade for thire orders 
to Send presents to y^ honour for the Indians butt had No 
answer, & by what I have herd from others I wish he May Nott 
have abuse'^. y^ Sivelety to him, I Main only by his being a Litle 
forword in Conversations 



FROM JAMES PHYN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 207—8, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of February 24th from James Phyn, 
Schenectady, explaining character of goods sent, apologizing for defects, 
informing that six carpenters will be sent to the Niagara carrying place, 
and touching on a story of an attempt against the life of Wilks, in 
England; Sir William Johnson's account, the 24th, Schenectady, with 
Duncan & Phyn; Captain Robert McKeen's monthly return, the 25th, 
Cherry Valley, of his company of provincials, 53 officers cuid men; a 
report from the same on the condition of his company and his efforts for 
the protection of the settlement, the same date; a letter of the 26th from 
George Wray, Albany, clerk of artillery stores, on powder and carbine 
balls which he sends in J. B. Van Eps's sleigh, and musket balls which 
can be furnished; a letter of the 27th from David Van Der Heyden, 
Albany, correcting an error in an account and sending an account for the 
Schohare Indians; Sir William Johnson's account, the 27th, Schenectady, 
with Duncan & Phyn; a letter of the 27th from Sampson Simson, New 
York, to William Darlington, informing that Hyam Myers, who has 
suffered by the Indian trade, has sailed for Europe, accompanied by 
Sychnecta and Trosoghroga, Mohawks, and requesting Darlington to 
apply to Johnson for a proper certificate for the Indians; a letter of the 
27th from John Welles, Montreal, congratulations on the view of John- 
son's conduct which prevails in England, a scornful estimate of General 
Amherst, mention of Captain Lotteridge's afFairs, comment on the con- 
dition of Indian trade, the denial of preferment in Canada to any but 
Scots, and the report that the Bishop of America will reside in Albany, 
and a request for attention to a stock of Indian goods. 



Posl'War Period, 1763-/774 343 

TO JOHN PENN 

or 

Johnson Hall FebK 27 ^f' 1764. 
Sir 

The Express delivered me your favour of the 1 7th last night 
concerning the persecuted Indians nov/ in Philadelphia. The 
Rancour v^ith which they have been pursued by the Rioters is 
as Extraordinary, as it may be dangerous to the public, and least 
their designs might be put in Execution I cannot but approve of 
your proposal of sending them hither, for should they fall a 
sacrifice to unjust resentment It must certainly occasion a breach 
with all the Friend Indians. 

The sending them thro' the back parts of the Country at this 
time might subject them to the insults of the Rioters, neither would 
it be so practicable. I think the safest and best way will be what 
you propose of sending them by Water from Amboy to Albany, 
after which I shall dispose of them (altho it may bring some 
expence on the Crown) amongst the Friend Ind*. whilst the 
present ferment continues. I shall accordingly write imediately 
to Governor Colden, & represent the necessity of removing these 
Indians for a time, as highly essential to our Interest & the public 
safety & I shall request the Gov"", in case the Government has no 
objection to their coming to give you notice that no time may 
be lost. 

I am sir your most obed^ & most humble Serv'. 
The Honble Gov«. Penn. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



344 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM HENRY MONTURE, JOHN JOHNSON AND WILLIAM HARE 

A. L. S.' 

Auqvauge Feb^. 28 1764. 
Sir William 

Sir 

This Day With pleasure We can aqquant you of our Pro- 
ceedings and success after our Arrival which we shall deliver to 
you in the following maner from the Indians. 

After our Love and Respects to you as Governer & Chief 
and then to the other Commander of the several Diffarant Places 
in America (first) Three Days after our Arrival at this our 
Settlement We Were Informed that a Body of our Enemies 
Were Arrived here and going Down Under some Pretence to the 
River but on the Contrary we Suspect to Do Damage as they 
formerly have Done to kill burn & Destroy being Noted for 
Murdering Notorious Villans. Last Night we Seised Seven of 
there Chief Warrours here in our Castle and the famous Captain 
Bull of their party after some Little Resistence bound them hand 
and feet. This Morning we all set out for their Incampment and 
Unbeknowing to them about Day seised Eleven Men of their 
Warriours and Eight Women & three Children which Make 
twenty Nine in Number and Now Brother 

You see our Fidelity in opening the Door and we hope you 
will consider our Case and that we lay Exposed to Censure and 
III Will of All Nations that are not Sound in the Cause. We 
hope that you will Look into our Case and Listen to us as well 
as We Listen to you as we think we are equally Bound to Each 
Other. Consider Brother that this our Settlement and Chininga 
and Chuk Nut are our Bounderies of Friendship so as we Expect 
you will Listen to our Request that is to send a party of Men to 
Conawarohare at Onida and another party to this our Settlement 
at Auqquage of a safe guard for our Women and Children and 
to hurry all partys of Warrours to Come to our Assistance Imme- 
diately as we are very Weak at present and make no Delay so 

^Original destroyed by fire. 



Posi-War Period, J 763-1 774 345 

after our Arrival We found All our Warrours as Ridy to 
Execute our Disigns as we war to propose but we are sorry to 
think that the Onidas Differ so Much in their way of Thinking 
and that is one of the reasons we Request a safe Guard and When 
we heard the sound of our Brother Warrours Coming from you 
and f.om ConaWaRohare it revived our Spirits, and was like a 
Pleasing Toy to a Child or Like a physick that refreshes a Sick 
or Weak Body so as we are Delay*^. from Proceeding untill we 
get More assistance. You uset to say that your body was Light 
and it was only the word for you to say March and Every One 
must com.ply and you was never short of provisions. To Morrow 
We send the prisoners by the way of Onida for the Reason that 
perhaps Some of the friends of the prisoners May Meet Each 
other and breed a Quarrel. No More but we Remain Your 
Trusty Brothers Indians 

Attested by us 

Henery Monture 
William Hare 
John Johnston 

FROM INDIAN CAPTAINS 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 208, is entered the following: letter of 
February 28th, from Henry Monture, John Johnson and William Hare, 
Auqvage, about success in their expedition against Kanisto and the 
character of the prisoners whom they send. Destroyed by fire. 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

Johnson Hall FebK 28th 1764. 

Dear Sir 

I have just received your favour of the 1 7th instant as also 
a Letter per Express from Gov^ Penn representing the late 



^Destroyed by fire. An abstract is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. Y., 7:6n. The letter received by Golden is in the New York 
Historical Society. 



346 Sir William Johnson Papers 

audacious attempts of the rioters to murder the Indians under the 
protection of Philadelphia, as also his apprehensions concerning 
their future safety there, on which account he purposes sending 
them by Land thro his Government or else by water from 
Amboy to Albany, the former may subject them to too many 
insults and hazards, and as I am well satisfied that should these 
Indians or any of them fall a sacrifice after what has already 
happened it will prove highly prejudicial to our affairs, as well 
as dangerous to the public security. I cannot avoid recom- 
mending the proposal of transporting them by Water, to Albany, 
after which I shall dispose of them amongst the Indians here till 
matters are accomodated. If this is judged advisable a Line 
from you to Gov^ Penn will enable him to take the necessary 
steps without loss of time. 

Whenever any thing farther transpires relative to Mr Lydius 
I shall let you know it. I am told that one of his sons has been 
lately through the Country in Compy of a Justice of peace to 
obtain affidavits, for what purpose I know not but probably in 
support of some of his claims. 

Isle La Motte is supposed to be the Southward of the 45th 
Degree of Latitude, but perhaps on future observations it may 
appear in the Quebec Government, the lands above the Great 
falls on Otter Creek may be good tho' a good deal out of the 
Way for a Small Tract. There is a small piece of land within 
about 3 miles of Lake George on the road leading from Fort 
Edward. Please to inform me whether it can be granted, but 
I find at the back of my Patent here, eind at about 10 or 12 
miles from the River, a small piece w'^*^ is an intervale & I should 
be greatly oMiged to you if you would grant it. Lieu*. Johnson 
will have a Certificate shortly from Genl Gage as you desire. 

There are now several partys marched against the Enemy, 
one of them ammounts to about 200 Indians, many more are 
collecting to follow them & my whole time is occupied in Con- 
ferences, fitting out partys &*=*. The Indians will not be dis- 
couraged by the Rigour of the Season. The parts I have sent 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 347 

them to are the Forks & branches of Ohio and Susquehanna 
where many of our Enemies reside; & the Alacrity which our 
Friend Indians manifest gives me great reason to hope I shall 
shortly have the pleasure of acquainting you that they have in 
a great measure destroyed & removed these dangerous Enemys 
who have infested the neighbouring frontiers. 

I am &*=". 
One M^ Tice of Schenectady has been mentioned to me as a 
very proper person for a provincial Compy. I must beg leave 
to recommend him to your notice sho*^. such be raised as he has 
served as an officer for some years. 
LiEU'T. Gov^. Golden. 



FROM JOHN WELLS 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 208, is found a letter of February 29th 
from Captain John Wells, at Chirey Valley, reporting favorably of 
Captain Robert McKeen's company and of the behavior of the Indians 
who come to that place. Destroyed by fire. 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson Hall March /*' 1764. 
Dear Sir 

I have had the pleasure of your Letter of the 13'^ & 20'^ ult°. 
and embrace the first opportunity wliich my time has permitted 
of answering them. 

The Exact number of Indians who may accompany the army 
must be uncertain, nor is it possible to know how many they will 
consist of; the present spirit amongst them gives me great hopes 
of a powerfull assistance and I shall use every endeavor in my 
power to keep it up for that purpose. I apprehend however 
that I may rely with confidence on the attendance of 4 or 500, 



^The original was destroyed by fire. 



348 Sir William Johnson Papers 

perhaps they may be twice that number, but it will greatly depend 
on circumstances, & the time I shall have given me to collect 
them with the help of several proper Indian officers, who must 
necessarily be appointed for that purpose. The Friend Indians 
in General will readily Joyn either against the Western Nations 
or the Shawanese and Delawares, and if affairs are not speedily 
settled between us and the Senecas, I have no doubt but they 
will march also sgainst them. 

I apprehend the Shawanese & Delawares will suffer greatly 
from the partys I have already sent, and shall continue to send 
against them, which will make easy work for the Troops on the 
Campaign. These two Nations appear the most determined, 
but their party decreases, many of them have already fallen off 
on hearing the determination of our friends, and I am hopefull 
they will (as affairs are now cnxumstanced) be unable to per- 
suade the Western Nations to renew hostilities, Especially as 
the latter will shortly discover that such a proceeding must 
involve them in a War with the Friend Indians, which they 
wo^. by no means relish. The like reasons will (I hope) have 
the same effect on the Senecas, which will prove of great service 
to us, as the Indians in General would certainly proceed with 
greater alacrity against the rest. 

Many steps have already been taken by the Friend Indians 
to bring over the Senecas, to which their inactivity for some time 
past must be chiefly attributed, and I trust that the Belts and 
Messages lately sent to them will be productive of an accom- 
modation, of which I expect to have notice in a Very Short time, 
as the upper Nations will shortly be down. I mean to treat 
with them outwardly as a misguided people whom we are desirous 
to Compassionate, & forgive on certain terms, rather than to 
give them any Confidence in their abihties, by Expressing a 
desire to promote a peace with them, and I trust this Conduct 
will have a good effect. 

I have sent out sev'. partys since the first, and shall continue 
to do so as much as I can, as I have the pleasure to find that our 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 349 

Enemies are already greatly alarmed at the resolutions of the 

rest. 

His Excellency Gen'. Gage. 

TO JOHN BRADSTREET 
L. 5.' 

Johnson hall March 2^' 1764 
Dear Sir 

It gives me great pleasure that I can now inform you of the 
success of the First party I lately sent out against our Enemys, 
an Express being Just arrived with letters acquainting me that 
on the 26th ult° in the evening near the main branch of Sus- 
quehanna as they were pursuing their Rout, they received advice 
that a large party of our Enemys the Delawares, were encamped 
at a Small distance on their way against Some of the Settle- 
ments hereabouts; upon which intelligence they made an Expe- 
ditious march, to their Encampment which they surrounded at 
Day break, then rushing upon the Delawares, (who were sur- 
prised & unable to make a Defence) they made them all prison- 
ers to the number of 41, including their Chief Capi Bull, son 
to Teedyuscung, & one who has discovered great inveteracy 
against the English, & led several partys against them during 
the present Indian War. — They are all fast bound & may be 
Expected here under an Escort in A few days. 

The Indians of Onoghquagey and Canowaroghere,' the latter 
within 1 2 miles of Oneida lake, are very uneasy least our Enemys 
should take advantage of the absence of their men, and destroy 
their familys, on which account they are very sollicitous for a 
Guard till their Men return, & I apprehend if their request is 
complied with, it will give new Spirits to the partys, & 
Encourage more to go on Service. I have therefore mentioned 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 
-Oneida Castle. 



350 Sir William Johnson Papers 

it to the General & am of opinion it may be easily done by partys 
from the provincials at the German flatts. 

I am of opinion it will be best to send the prisoners to New 
York as the best place of security, there to remain 'till some- 
thing be done with them. 

I am with great Respect 
Sir 
Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W'^. Johnson 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
Copy'' 
Johnson Hall March 2, J 7 64, at night 
Dear Sir : 

It gives me great pleasure that I can now inform you of the 
success of the First party I lately sent out against our Enemys, 
an Express being just arrived with letters acquainting me that 
on the 26^^ ulto in the evening near the main branch of Susque- 
hanna, as they were pursuing their route they received advice 
that a large party of our Enemies the Delawares were encamped 
at a small distance on their way against some of the settlements 
hereabouts upon which intelligence they made an Expeditious 
march to their Encampment which they surrounded at day break, 
then rushing upon the Delawares (who were surprized &: unable 
to make a Defence) they made them all prisoners to the number 
of 41 including their Chief Capt Bull, son of Teedyuscung, & 
one who has discovered great inveteracy against the English 
& led several partys against them during the present Indian War 
— They are all fast bound & may be Expected here under an 
Escort in a few days 

^In the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Draper Manuscripts, 
2F7, copied from the original in Col. T. Bailey Myer's Collection. A 
copy transmitted by Colden to Lord Halifax with his letter of March 1 0th 
is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:6n. A copy is also in 
the New York Public Library. 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 351 

The Indians of Onoghquagey and Conowaroghere,' the latter 
within 12 miles of Oneida lake are very uneasy lest our Enemys 
should take advantage of the absence of their men, and destroy 
their families, on v/hich account they are very solicitous for a 
Guard till their men return, & I apprehend if their request is 
complied with it will give new Spirits to the partys & Encourage 
more to go on service. I have therefore mentioned it to the 
General & am of opinion it may be easily done by parties from 
the provincials at the German flatts. 

I am of opinion it will be best to send the prisoners to New 
York as the best place of security there to remain till something 
be done with them. 

I am with great Respect 
Sir 
Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 

Wm. Johnson. 
INDORSED: A. L. S. 4'° 
no address or 
endorsement' 

TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson hall March 2^. 1764 
1 at night. 

Dear Sir 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that an Express is Just 
arrived [from OnoghquageX)] with letters from the first party 
of Indians I sent out against the Enemy informing me that on 
the 26^^ ulto as they were pursuing their rout & had reached 



iCanowaroghare, Oneida Castle, Oneida county, N. Y., W. M. Beau- 
champ, Aboriginal Place Names of Nerv York, p. 137, and Aboriginal 
Occupation of Nen> York, P- 89. 

'Added by the collector. 

^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



352 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Main branch of Susquehanna River, they received intelh- 
gence that a large party of the Delawares our Enemy were near 
at hand on their way against some of the Settlements: that 
thereupon they made all the haste possible, & by break of day 
next morning arrived at the Indians encampment which they 
imediately surrounded and rushing upon them made the Whole 
party prisoners to the number of 41, after which they bound 
them & sent them under an Escort for this place, where it is 
Expected they will arrive in Three or four day's, among the 
prisoners is Capt Bull the head of their party & Son to Teedyus- 
cung; he has been principally concerned in the whole War, and 
has done much mischief. The apprehensions the Indians are 
under at Canowaroghere & Onoghquagey least the Enemy 
should cut off their Familys whilst they are absent, occasions 
them to apply for a Guard at these Villages till their return; — 
Canowaroghere is a new Oneida Village about 1 2 miles from 
the Royal Block-house at the East end of Oneida lake, & I am 
certain that was their Villages garrisoned imediately by some 
of the Yorkers, for a time, it would give great spirits to the 
partys. 

As the Express is just setting olf I have only time to request 
your Sentiments on their desire, as also your directions concern- 
ing the disposal of the Prisoners in the mean time I shall direct 
them to be Escorted to Albany under a Guard of N York 
Provinc'*. 

I am &ca. 
Hi:i Excell^y Gen'- Gage 



FROM INDIAN CAPTAINS 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 208, is entered a letter of March 2d from 
Henery Monture, William Hare and John Johnston, Oueqvage, telling 
of the departure of the Onidais with their prisoners for Johnson Hall, 
asking a reinforcement of white men and Indians in order to destroy the 
Indian settlement along the Dioagoa river, and commending Captain 
Bull and his warriors, among the prisoners, to severe punishment. Destroyed 
by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 353 



FROM ISAAC PARIS 

A. L. S.' 

Stone Rabie the 3 March 1764. 
Sir 

Agreiable to your Desire, I hereby let you know That on the 
16 Febrary Last I left New York Where I saw Blassius and 
the two Indians, all at Liberty. Blassius told me he expected 
your Pass and that he had employd a certain Person at Albany 
to Procure him your Pass. I find he has Choyce of Partners 
at New York to engage with him and unless he is secure in my 
opinion will go off. He has made application to General Gage 
for a Pass But was not heard, on acco' of the Indian the General 
told him that you was the Propper person to apply to. 
I am Hon^'« Sir 

Your most obed'. Sarvend 

Isaac Paris. 
Sir William Johnson. 

FROM WILLIAM TONGUE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 208'-9, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of March 3d from William Tongue, 
New York, about payment of interpreters whose services were certified 
is present, and money needed to meet Indian demands; a letter of the 4th 
from John Glen Jun'r, Schonectady, concerning provisions sent in charge 
of Nicholas H. Veadir and calvancis which he has been ordered by 
Colonel Bradstreet to send to the royal blockhouse; a letter of the 4th 
from the same, concerning an order from Colonel Bradstreet to send some 
calvancis to Johnson ; a letter of the 4th from John Wells, Chirrey Valley, 
about a sachem who will visit Sir William, a villainous tall Cayuga who 
is present, and money needed to meet Indian demands ; a letter of the 4th 
from Thomas Shipboy, Albany, inclosing a copy of a draft drawn by 
Joseph Knox at Niagara and inquiring if it be agreeable to pay it; a 
copy of a draft by Joseph Knox on Johnson for £47, 7s, 1 Od in favor 
of Thomas Shipboy. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 

12 



354 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. 5.1 

New York March 4^K 1764 
Dear Sir: 

I received your Letter of 1 9^^. Feb'^y. this Day and am greatly 
pleased to find that the Indians are so very well affected towards 
us. It can not fail to be of the greatest Consequence, if They 
continue in their present Disposition & good Temper; and from 
the Precautions you have taken to keep the Destination a Secret, 
of the Detachment which has marched against Kanestio, there 
is great Reason to flatter ourselves with Hopes of Success. The 
Account you give me of the unanimous Inclinations of the Five 
Nations, exceeds my Expectations greatly; and gives a pleasing 
Prospect of humbling the haughty Spirit of the Chenussies, and 
reducing them to Reason. 

You have pitched upon Niagara as the properest Place for 
holding the Conferences, in Case of Peace, and indeed I don't 
think you could have pitched upon a better spot, considering all 
Circumstances. As we have Reason to hope That Peace will 
be made with the Indians of Detroit, Major Gladwin must be 
apprized of this, and of the Day you would appoint to meet 
them at Niagara ' You will be so good to think of this, and 
acquaint Me of every Step you Judge Necessary for Major 
Gladwin to take previous to the Meeting and the Orders it will 
be proper & Necessary to Send Major Gladwin upon this Sub- 
ject as soon as the Communication with the Detroit becomes 
practicable, which may be as soon as I shall receive your 
Answer. I mention only the Indians of the Detroit, as it is with 
Them only we have as yet agreed to make Peace: We may 
hope Those of Chenussio, v^ll hearken to Reason, without 
forcing us to have Recourse to Arms. The Shawnese & Dela- 
wares seem resolved to stand it out. Colonel Bouquet who is 
just arrived from Fort Pitt, Says they have never made any 



iJn the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Postwar Period, 1 763-1 774 355 

Overtures. Colonel Robertson^ is likewise just arrived from 
New Orleans, and from his Report there is no Reason to beheve 
the French in that Quarter neither able or Willing to Support 
the Detroit Indians, or inclined to perswade Them to continue 
in Arms against Us. If so, a Peace with those Savages may- 
be looked upon as certain, but a little Time will clear up that 
Matter. In the mean Time it seems Necessary to be acquainted 
with the final Resolves of the Chenussies, whether They will 
accept of the Terms proposed or not. And perhaps a threatning 
Message at the same Time from their own Brethren, may have 
a wonderfull Effect on their Councils; for if they refuse, we 
must use all means whatever, to destroy Them. Nothing Seems 
to me better calculated for our Interest, than the Terms you 
propose to demand at the Treaty. If any Articles should appear 
too harsh & rigid, we must yield a little on our Side. There is 
one Circumstance however I would Submit to your Considera- 
tion, which I think would tend much to the Benefit of the Crown 
if properly managed hereafter; and greatly reduce the enormous 
expence the King is now loaded with, for the Support of the 
Forts. What I mean is to demand a Tract of Ground of four 
or Five Miles round some of the Forts particularly Niagara & 
Fort Pitt, to be ceded to The King. If it should be thought 
reasonable that The King should give some Consideration for 
these Tracts of Land, the Price should be fixed, & left at His 
Majesty's option to purchase Them or not, as He shall adopt 
or not, the Measures proposed to Him on this Head. As for 
the Detroit we shall & ought of Course to have the same Liberty 
of settling the Lands there which the French formerly had. 

I don't know whether I Mentioned to you a Circumstance of 
the Messessaga Indians, who carried away four of our People 
from Oswegatchi. The Oswegatchi Indians promised to get 
them back, but have not done it. They have Since been down 



^Lieutenant Colonel James Robertson, of the 15 th regiment. He was 
appointed a major general in 1776, and on the 23d of March 1780, 
became military governor of New York. 



356 Sir William Johnson Papers 

with Col**. Burton, to propose an alliance with the Messessagas, 
the Cahnawagas and themselves; but Col°. Burton waved all 
this Matter till Cap^ Claus should arrive, & He should knovv^ 
your Sentiments on all Proposals of this Nature. 

Lieu'. Johnson's Certificate is inclosed, and I wish the Gov', 
may grant Him Lands worth his Acceptance. 

You will likewise receive an order to the Officer Commanding 
the Provincial Forces, which you will make Use of as you find 
Occasion, Nor believe me, need you have made any Apology 
for this or any other Demand you think proper to make. I shall 
have no great Occasion for these Troops till towards the Middle 
of April. 

I shall write about Hubble, whom you tell me is in Albany 
Goal for Desertion, by this opportunity. 

I before ordered that you should be Supplied with the Pro- 
visions you Should demand, and shall repeat those orders by 
this Post. I am with great Regard 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 
Sir W". Johnson Bar*. 
INDORSED : New York March 4*^. 1 764 
General Gages Letter 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 209, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of March 5th from William Darling- 
ton, New York, inclosing a letter about two Mohawks who have gone 
to Europe and speaking of a cabinetmaker's account and a negro sent 
up the river on Pemberton's sloop; and one of the 5th from A. Mortier, 
New York, concerning Sir William's draft on him in favor of Mr Van 
Schaak, an expected warrant for Johnson from General Gage and his 
legret at Abraham Dow's delay in paying Bayard's draft; Sir William 
Johnson's account with Duncan & Phyn, the 8th Schenectady; and 
Duncan & Phyn's list of goods, dated the 8th. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 357 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York March 8'K 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I was this Day favored with your two Letters of the 1". 
and 2'^. Ins'. It is not possible for you to ascertain the Number 
of Indians with any Exactness; The rough Sketch you have 
given me of the Numbers you hoped might join is all I expected 
or indeed have occasion for. 

The Reasons you give, Why The Detroit Indians will not in 
your Opinion recommence Hostilities, are so very well founded, 
That I must join in your Sentiments, and think with you that the 
Same Effect will be produced on the Senacas. The Manner you 
propose to treat with the Senacas is certainly most Judicious, and 
we may very well hope for the greatest Effects from it. 

I am now come to your Favor of the 2^. In*^, and very 
Sincerely congratulate you, on the Success of your first Party 
which indeed is a very Surprizing Stroke. The Particulars of 
which you are by this Time acquainted with. In my last Letter 
I inclosed you an order for the Provincial Forces, to move as 
you should Send them Orders, So that you will be able to Secure 
The Indian Familys, during the Absence of the Warriours. 

I shall write by this Opportunity to Lieu*. Colonel Elliot to 
secure the Indian Prisoners on their Arrival at Albany, and to 
Send Them here very well guarded as soon as the Navigation is 
practicable. 

The Council here are of Opinion that it would be very 
improper to send the Indians now at Philadelphia back to their 
Castles, as they must be full of Resentment at the Treatment 
those of Conestogo met Vvath from the back Settlers; and the 
Riot which has lately happened on Acc^ of Themselves. They 
are now secured from doing Mischief & are a Sort of Hostages. 
Whereas if They are Sent up. They might represent us in such 
a Light amongst the Indian Nations as to make them change 

^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



358 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



their Friendly Disposition towards us, which is now so very 
apparent. I agree so much with the Council in this way of 
thinking, that I intend writing to Gov'. Penn on the Subject, 
& to propose to Him to lodge the Indians in the Barracks of 
Burlington in the Jerseys, where they will be Secured from the 
Rioters, & be well taken Care of. If I had not sent Him a 
Detachment of the Royal Americans to protect These poor 
Wretches, The Rioters would not only have attacked them, but 
I believe done great Mischief in the City where they had a great 
Party who would have joined Them. I am with great Regard 

Dear Sir 
Your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Tho^ Gage 
As you have White-Men with your Partys, I 
conclude there will be no Danger if 
they go near Fort Pitt. I have just beared 
from thence, that a small Scalping Party was 
out, and had killed one man with an Arrow. 
S^. William Johnson Bar*: 
INDORSED : New York March 8*^. 1 764 

General Gages Letter 

on the taking so many 

Prisoners &ca. 



JAMES RIVINGTON S ACCOUNT 
D. S.i 

Sr. W. Johnson Bart ^^'"- ^' ^ ^^"^ 

Bo', of Ja Rivington 

1763 

March 21 8 Pictures 6: 8:0 

Smolletts Cont in 4 Vs 2:16:0 

Biograph'a Brit'a 5 V 3 : 5 :0 

A Case to pack y^ above 0: 2:0 

^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, J 763-1 774 359 

April 13 Sundry Pamphlets & Books brought 
by y*' Pacquet with the Court 

Register 3 : 6:6 

The Reverie 2 Vs 0:14:0 

Chinese Peice 2 Vs 0:13:0 

Millennium Hall 0: 7:0 

Cheval Pierrepoint 2 V 0:12:0 

The Polite Lady 0: 7:0 

Nov 7 History Louisiana 2 V 0:16:0 

Langhornes Letters 0: 6:0 

Lond Magaz July Aug Sep 0: 4:6 

Pamphlets per Pacq' 0: 7:0 

Collection of Scots Caracatures Pic- 
tures &c in 2 vols 1:12:0 



1764 
Feb 


6 
20 

the C 


Sundry books & pamphlets per Pacq'. 
Sundry D° per Duke Cumb'^ Pacq'. . 

ontents in full Mar 8 1764 

JA Rr 


1: 
1: 


7:0 
2:6 


Reed 


£25: 8:6 
KINGTON. 



TO ROBERT LEAKE 

Johnson Hall March P"" 1764. 
Dear Sir 

I have had the favour of yours and am obhged to you for the 
provision you made for M^ Byrne. 

I can now with pleasure acquaint you that one of the partys 
I lately sent out against our Enemies has surprised a party of 
41 Delawares with their Leader Cap*. Bull. They are now on 
their way here under an Escort, and appear to have been des- 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



360 Sir William Johnson Papers 

tined against these Settlements. They are Chiefly against 
Kanestio a Village of our most inveterate Enemys. I hourly 
expect some agreable intelligence from the other partys I have 
sent out, and I have great reason to think they will answer my 
Wishes, & prove of public service. 

I thank you for the particulars you mentioned of the Estab- 
Hshment for America, and I wish your continuance in office as 
long as it may suit with your own inclinations & Conveniency, 
tho' I must confess that your long service requires that you should 
have a little Ease & Relaxation from it. 

The people in N York no doubt are too selfish to admit per- 
sons readily into their Land schemes Except where it may be 
of little value. There is a good deal of Land about the Western 
parts of this province unlocated, but at the same time such as 
the Ind®. would not readily dispose of. The greatest part of 
the Lands between this & Hudsons River is included in a patent 
called Kayaderosseras, fraudulently obtained in Q Annes time 
as the Ind^ say, no Consideration paid for it. The Ind*. grant 
was intended to be only 2 or 3 Farms near Saratoga but the 
partys (who are now a large number) took up ab' 5, or 600000 
acres which has given great disgust to the Mohawks & been the 
occasion of their present dislike to selling Lands. However I 
shall think seriously of what you desire, and endeavor to bring 
about a purchase for you to your mind of which I shall shortly 
write farther to you, but in case of a purchase some method must 
be fallen upon for the Governor to meet the Indians; perhaps 
on a proper application he might be induced to come up at least 
to Schenectady, as the Ind*. who must all be present would not 
go down to York. I shall be glad you will let me know the 
Quantity you would chuse, as otherwise I shall be at a loss 
how to proceed. 
RoB^. Leake Esqr. 



^Original destroyed by fire. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 361 

CADWALLADER GOLDEN TO THE EARL OF HALIFAX 

L. S.' 

New York March 10"^. 1764 
My Lord 

I have the pleasure of communicating to your Lordship, an 
account of the success of one of the parties of Indians sent out 
by Sir William Johnson against the Ennemy Indians, by the 
copy of a letter' inclosed, which I received two days since from 
him. 

This plainly evinces the great influence which Sir William 
has among the six Nations: for it has been at all times difficult, 
to make one Indian nation attack another, when the quarrel was 
not their own: and if the Indians deliver up their Indian prison- 
ers to him, to be disposed of as he pleases, it will be more than 
was at any time before obtained. In our wars with the French, 
it was difficult to get the french prisoners from them, even after 
peace, & I think there is no instance where they delivered up any 
Indian prisoner 

The Five Nations formerly subdued the Delawares, & in the 
Indian phrase put Petticoats on them, that is, the Delawares 
were never aftei"wards to make war as a Nation. In the last 
war with France they revolted, joined the Shawenese, & told 
the Five Nations that We are Men. This, without doubt, made 
the Five nations more willing to Chastise them at this time 

Teduiscung & his son Capt" Bull, mentioned in Sir William's 
letter, have been much caressed, & often kindly treated at Phil- 
adelphia. It is evident from this that kind usage is not sufficient 



iln Public Record Office, C. O. 5.1097, p. 63, London. England: 
also in Collections of the Nen) York Historical Societ^;, 1876, C olden 
Papers, p. 314. 

-Letter of Johnson to Colden, March 2, 1 764. 



362 Sir William Johnson Papers 

to preserve the friendship of Indians, while they are not affrayed 
of punishment 

I am with the highest respect 
My Lord 

Your most obedient 

& faithfull servant 

Cadwallader Colden 
Right honourable 
Earl of Halifax 

INDORSED : New York, 1 0^^. March 1 764. 
Lieu*. Gov^ Colden. 
R 13'K April. 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 

A. L. S.^ 

London March 10^^ 1764. 
Hon''. Sir 

After my arival hear Last Month I Wrote you all the News 
then hear & Inclos^. you two papers of Co^^ Lees preformance 
Respecting Gineral Amherst whos Conduct in Amerrica is Much 
Condem^. hear by Every Rank of people. With Respect to 
my Reception hear on my Arival and what M^ Pownal Desir^. 
Me to Write you about y'. Indian Deed att or near the uper 
Mohawk Castle U Must Refer you to my first Leter. 

Tho I have been hear now a Month Nothing has been Don 
Respecting North Amerrica. The peple hear spend thire time 
in Nothing butt abuseing one a Nother & striveing who shall be 
in power with a view to serve themselves & thire f rends, and 
neglect y^ publick. Itt was butt yesterday that your State ot 
Indian Affairs was Read off att the Board of Trade tho I 
deliverd itt y^ 13*^ of Last Month. Lord Halifax & Lord 



^Original destroyed by fire. The concluding part of our copy has 
been lost. The letter is printed entire in Collections of the Illinois State 
Historical Library, 10:221-24. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 363 

Hillsborrow boath have Read itt and M^ Penn Tould me 
yesterday that Lord Hallifax approves much of every thing you 
have Recommended. Lord Halhfax Talkt with me about a 
boundrey with y* Indians and I menshon^. to him your Honours 
thoughts on itt, which we Talkt of before I left Johnson Hall 
& there is Talk of Setleing a Coleny from y^ Mouth of the Ohio 
to y*" Ilonias which I am Tould Lord Hallifax will Desier My 
opinion of in a few Days. M^ Pownal Tould me yesterday 
that I would be soon sent for to attend y^ board of Trade. 
What measures they will take y^ Lord knows butt 



FROM THOMAS ACKESON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 209-1 1, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire : a letter of March 1 0th from Thomas Acke- 
son, Schoharry, about men who have joined Captain Honsan's company, 
Indians of Schohary who will go to war, and supplies for Indians who 
are on the war path; one undated from Christian Hoofnagel, petitioning 
for advice in a quarrel forced on him by relations of children whom he has 
adopted and is rearing ; one of the 1 0th from John Duncan, Schenectady, 
asserting his purpose to fill all of Johnson's orders for goods, mentioning 
a false rumor about the good faith of the Onidas and asking a line to 
the Lieutenant Governor in behalf of his claim to land under the grant; 
one of the 10th from Gavin Cochrane, New York, discussing Indian re- 
lations and status, asking particulars of the capture of 41 Delawares and 
Shawanese, arguing that happy results would follow a blow to the Genesees 
and suggesting that the promise of being presented at court might augment 
the zeal of the Indians; one of the 12th from John B. Van Eps, Schinec- 
tady, inquiring whether he shall receipt for a supply of ammunition short 
in some particulars; one of the 12th from John Macomb, Albany, asking 
a pecuniary favor; a draft by Daniel Claus, Albany, drawing to the 
amount of £60 in favor of John Macomb; a letter of the 12th from 
Abraham Lyle, Albany, sending Captain Daniel Claus's bill and John- 
son's account, inquiring about Preinteic's bill on Johnson and contrasting 
Johnson's success against the Indians with Amherst's in the expedition 
of Major Wilkins ; one of the 1 2th from Captain John R. Hansen, 
Wisersdorp, about a detachment sent to Onoghquago, two Indian prisoners 
taken by Mohawks and the discontent of his company at receiving no pay; 
one of the 12th from Joseyas Swart, Schohary, writing in favor of two 



364 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians sent as prisoners to Johnson by Captain Hanson ; one of the 1 3th 
from Thomas Harris, London, on General Amherst's unpopularity at 
home, meetings with Colonel Croghan in London, the probability that 
the Board of Trade will adopt Johnson's views of Indian affairs, the 
purchase of Indian goods in England — a commission with which he asks 
to be intrusted — the comparative value of mining and agricultural lands, 
copper and silver ore consigned to him from America, a consignment of 
potash from one of Johnson's tenants, also prices, returns and shipment of 
that product; Major General Thomas Gage's warrant, the 13th, New 
York, to Abraham Mortier directing payment to Sir William Johnson of 
£732, 2s, Id New York currency on account of expenses in Captain 
Claus's department and presents made by him to Indians; a letter of the 
i 4th from Witham Marsh, New York, on a 1 3 weeks' illness, the 
publication in Weyman's paper of good news (capture of 41 Delawares?) 
communicated by Johnson to Marsh and Mr Leake's effective reply to 
invidious comments; one of the 14th from H. Van Schaack, Albany, 
begging a few garden seeds, informing that the colony of Connecticut 
has voted 300 men, Massachusetts none, and giving details of a riotous en- 
counter between civilians and officers and men of the 55 th and Royal 
Artillery; one of the 15th to Lieutenant Colonel Elliot, delivering, under 
escort of Captain De Garmo with 50' New York provincials, 14 Dela- 
ware Indians, to be conducted to New York, and enjoining care to prevent 
their escape, also mentioning that the women and boys of the captive 
party have been delivered to the Mohocks for adoption; one of the 15th 
from David Van Der Heyden, Albany, giving a circumstantial account 
of outrages committed by soldiers of Colonel Elliot's command in the 
late riot and asking for orders; one undated from Lieutenant Nath'l 
Hillyer, complaining that he has been superseded by younger officers and 
asking a few words in his behalf to the Governor. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. 5.1 

Johnson Hall March I6^K 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have had the pleasure of your verry kind favour of the 9^. 
Ins*.,^ and in addition to the Success of my first Party, I have 



iln the New York Historical Society, New York city. The draft 
destroyed by fire. 

-See Collections of the New Yorl^ Histcrical Society, 1876, Colden 
Papers, 311-12. 




o 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 365 

the pleasure to acquaint You that another Party of onl}/ ten 
headed by Thomas King which I had lately Sent out, met with 
a party of Nine Delawares who were Singing their War Song 
against the English, on ^vhich they imediately killed & Scalped 
One & took three Prisoners who are now on their way here, this 
is but a small affair, but as it is the first who has been killed by 
our Indians it will prove of some consequence, & I have reason 
to expect good news daily from the other Partys. 

The first Prisoners taken arrived here Yesterday, & this morn- 
ing I sent down 14 Men of them to the care of Lieu'. Co". 
Elliot at Albany, one of y^. Stoutest remains wounded at 
Oghquagoe, & I v/as obliged to give them People 5 Prisoners 
for their good behaviour Others to the Oneidaes Tuscaroras 
Ondagaes & Mohawks & to detain four myself which I dis- 
tributed amongst the most deserveing, to replace Persons 
deceased, for which purpose the rest were given agreable to the 
Indian Custom. 

The consternation our Enemys are in on Ace", of our Employ- 
ing Indians against them is verry great, and will I hope Soon 
be the means of bringing y^. disaffected to our Terms. — Near 
400 Senecas, &*^*. are comeing here to make some proposals. 
As the Oghquagoes are verry apprehensive that their Familys 
may suffer by the Enemy in the absence of their Warriors, I 
thought it verry necessary at this time to comply with their 
request of a Guard, & accordingly sent them an officer & 30 
Men from the Cherry Valley & Scohare Garrisons, with 6 of 
the Militia, and the General having given me the direction of the 
Provincials at the German Flatts I have ordered Oghquago to 
be reinforced by a Detachment of a Cap'". 2 Sub^ & 60 Men, 
& Sent the Hke Number to Canoivaraghore a Village of Oneida's 
whose men are all going out ag*'. y*. Enemy, these Garrisons 
for the Ind*. will not be required for above four or five Weeks, 
and will greatly forward the Service by the encouragement it 
will give the Indians. 



366 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I cannot but agree in opinion w'^. the Council that the Wia- 
loosings d>L^^. might give bad impressions to the rest, but I was 
determined, & prepared to guard against that, and hoped to be 
able to remove any unjust suspicions they might conceive, have- 
ing (without vanity I may say) a greater Influence now over the 
many Nations in our Alliance than ever. However, as General 
Gage informs me that he has proposed an Assylum for them in 
Burlington Barracks, I think it will answer verry well for the 
present. 

Capf^. Duncan of Schenectady has requested I would repre- 
sent to You his request whether he may have his proportion of 
Land, He sold out of the 44*^. Regiment, but thinks he may 
claim some Title on Ace", of the Service he performed last Year 
as will appear from Lieu'. Co''. Campbels certificate. 

I only mentioned that peice in favour of Capt". Johnson as 
it was an interval of no great consequence but as that cannot be 
done, shall request the favour of it on either the one Side or the 
other adjoining to the Grants between Fort Edward 6" Lal^e 
George, if you will be kind enough to approve of this he will 
imediately send his Petition & the certificate he has procured. 

One Lieu*. Hillyer has appHed to me representing his haveing 
been a Lieu*, in y^. Yorkers for 6 Years, & begged I would 
recommend him to y*". remembrance for a Company in case any 
Troops are raised in addition to those in the Service. 

I return you many thanks for acquainting the Ministry with 
the late affair by return of the Packquet as it is not in my power 
to write time enough being so hurried. 

I am with the greatest sincerity & Esteem 
Dear Sir 

Your Most obedinet 

Humble Servant 

W'^. Johnson 
The Honr'^'^ 

LlEU"^. GOVR. COLDEN 

INDORSED: Sir W"". Johnson, March 16*^' 1764 



Posi-War Period. 1763-1774 367 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson hall March fd^K 1764. 
Dear Sir 

I liave had the pleasure of both your last letters of the 4*. 
& S**^. Inst, with the Enclosures, for which I am to return you 
many thanks. 

In my opinion the Troops had better be marched Some time 
before the Peace is made, or concluded which will have the 
better effect upon them, and produce some concessions not other- 
wise to be brought about. I am therefore induced to think 
that the latter end of June will be a very proper time to meet 
them at Niagara, as the Troops will not much sooner get over 
the carrying place nor indeed can the Representatives of the 
different tribes be earlier convened. 

I think Major Gladwin might acquaint those Indians in the 
Neighbourhood of Detroit who Express a desire for peace that 
if they continue to demean themselves properly they will be 
treated with about that time, and that the Troops shall be ordered 
not to offer them any insults. That they should forthwith col- 
lect all the Prisoners yet amongst them with all Deserters so as 
to have them in readiness to deliver up at the Treaty, & not 
afterwards, I have lately sent off three Indians with the Letters 
to Maj'. Gladwin, &ca & charged them with a message to the 
Hurons &ca which I expect will prove of great service. 

A General Meeting is now Just over at Onondaga ab'. 200 
of those Senecas who were at it are returned home on my Mes- 
sage desiring only their Chiefs Council" & leads Warr" to come 
down the rest of that Nation with the Onondagas, Cayugas, 
amounting to near 400 are on their way hither, & may arrive 
this night or tomorrow, should any disaffected be amongst them. 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



368 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I have guarded against them by the orders I have given the 
Provincials & Militia. The arrival of these Indians will enable 
me to have the final Resolves of the Chenussios, as Niagara is 
within their Country I shall lay before them t^he necessity of the 
Tract you mention, and make little doubt of their compliance 
(if they are at all well disposed) on making them some present 
in return, and I shall take proper steps for a like tract in the 
Neighbourhood of Fort Pitt and I think such Cessions highly 
necessary. 

The Indians of Oswegatchy have all along shewn some 
attachmt to the Misisagaes, as the latter tho branched into many 
Parts & Tribes, are the most numerous of all the Nations in them 
parts I apprehend we should not Strengthen their hands, nor 
give the others cause to assume a Confidence on having so power- 
full a back. If ever a Strong friendship subsists between our 
Neighbours & the Western Indians, the former on being attacked 
or threatned will find an Assylum amongst the latter. & both 
in Conjunction Ravage our Frontiers, The Six Nations on the 
one side and Indians of Canada on the other may be made an 
usefull barrier and Check upon the Western Indians, and the 
fomenting a Coolness between them, & Jealousy of each others 
power will be the surest means of preventing a Rupture, dividing 
them in their Councils, & rendering an union impracticable which 
cannot be too much guarded against. 

I greatly approve of your proposal for lodging the Wyaloosin 
Indians &ca in the Barracks of Burlington, it will ease me of 
much trouble at this verry busy time, & the Crown of much 
Expence, without the risque of their representing us in an 
unfavorable light to the Friend Indians. 

I have the pleasure to acquaint you that the Prisoners, arrived 
here on the 1 5* & were yesterday sent down under a Guard 
of a Capt & 50 Provincials to Albany, The Indians of Onogh- 
quago have kept Five of them, amongst them — at this time I 
could not well refuse them, there is also one there Wounded 
in the Knee who could not be brought down, The Oneidas, 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 369 

Tuscaroras, Ondagaes &ca have also kept a few in order to 
replace some of their Friends deceased, & I have detained Four 
in order to give them amongst the Nations in the same manner 
which being always done is Expected by them, & thought in the 
greatest light. The Number of Prisoners I have sent to Coll 
Elliot' are 14 Men, with Capt Bull, A Villain of the first rank, 
the manner of their being taken agrees with what I first heard. 
Except that one of them was wounded, as he made a good deal 
of resistance when they Tyed him, but it is with particular satis- 
faction I inform you that they are all of Kanestio, and have 
many prisoners amongst them w^hich Bull offered for his Ransom, 
he told the party that took him that he had with his own hands 
killed 26 English since the Spring & it appears that their design 
was to come hither, make offers of peace, beg for a little ammu- 
nition, & on their return destroy Cherry-Valley or some other 
of our Settlements, they insulted the Indians of 2 or 3 Small 
Friendly Villages & Shot down their Cattle, & took away their 
provisions by force. Bull did not attempt to deny his behavior, 
and on my asking him on what account he became so inveterate 
an Enemy he told me, he did not know, that he was advised to 
it, & his party followed his Example, he is a fellow of great 
address, but feigns an ignorance, & is full of prevarication, he 
is very likely & remarkably active as are sev'. others with him, 
which makes me dread their escaping, altho' I told him If he 
attempted it all those in our hands sho^. be imediately put to 
death. 

I have now the pleasure further to acquaint you that one of 
the partys I sent out of 10 Men headed by Thomas King have 
met with 9 Delawares bending their Course towards the Settle- 
ments, & singing their Warsong agt the EngHsh, our party 
imediatel}'^ engaged them killed and Scalped one, and took three 
prisoners, who may be soon Expected, this is the first blood 
drawn by our Indians, and will prove of great consequence. 

As the Oneidas, & Tuscaroras & Oghquagos have from their 
behavior great reason to dread the resentment of the Chenussios, 

^Lieutenant Colonel Robert Elliott, of the 55 th regiment. 



370 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shawanese &ca to Whom they are by their situation greatly 
Exposed I last Week ordered Thirty Men with an Officer out 
of the two provincial Companys for the defence of Scohare and 
Cherry valley, with 6 of the Militia to go to Oghquago, but that 
number being small, I have now ordered them to be reinforced 
by a Capt with 60 provincials from the German Flatts. I have 
ordered the like number to the Oneida Village called Cano- 
rvaroghere Indeed was it not difficult to get provisions carried 
to Oghquago It would be the best place I know of for a 
Rendezvous of about 4, or 500 Men, as it is in the Neighbour- 
hood of the Chenussios & their Friends which would greatly 
alarm them & facilitate the success of such partys of Whites & 
Indians as I shall continue to send out for harassing the dis- 
affected. This would soon, bring them to terms, nor would our 
Indians afford them time to plant corn or take any measures for 
their Subsistence. 

The sooner some Troops move will certainly be the better, 
as it will greatly encourage our Friends, & Confound our 
Enemys, who will be at a loss how to guard all quarters, & 
unable to collect in a body. 

I have inexpressible trouble, every Room & Corner in my 
House Constantly full of Indians, each individual of whom has 
a thousand things to say, & ask and any person who chuses to 
engage their affections or obtain an ascendency over them must 
be the greatest Slave living & listen to them all at any hour 
Those whom I sent to the Detroit last June are impatient for 
their pay that I was obliged to advance it to Daniel & part to 
the others as they have greatly urged me representing that they 
are destitute, having lost their hunting by that Journey, [/ cannot 
help reminding ^ou of the Warrant for the amount of Capt 
Clauses account, as ^1 I cant help observing to you that I am 
greatly out of Cash, having Expended sev' sums & taken up 
much Goods &ca on my Own credit to satisfy the imediate calls 
of service. 



^Crossed out in the original. 



Post-War Period, 1763-J774 371 

The Expence has been of necessity large, but it has answered 
my Expectations, by obtaining a security to these Communica- 
tions, and producing a favorable diversion to facilitate the peace 
& annoy our Enemys which could not well be done at this time 
without the assistance of Indians, The Expences attending 
presents cloathing &ca have been greatly encreased, by my being 
obliged to purchase them hereabouts, where their prices are, as 
much again as I could have them from home & much dearer 
than at York or Philadelphia, so that to prevent an unnecessary 
charge for the time to come I would request your permission 
to lay in a proper quantity In time & at once to be purchased at 
the cheapest hand, & for that purpose that I might have a War- 
rant for 4, or 5000 Ster so as to make imediate payment as 
this is the cheapest plan I can follow I must submit it to your 
consideration as also the want there will be for a couple of 1 00 
Good light Short Guns for many of the Indians, which I am at a 
loss how to procure. 

The best manner of employing the Indians during the Cam- 
paign After seriously thinking on [that Subject^] I am led to 
observe that If they [Indians^] to the amount of 4 or 500 with 
a few chosen Rangers & proper Officers are sent in sev' bodies 
on the one side whilst the Troops with about 1 00 Chosen Indians 
go on the other it will greatly distress the Enemy and facilitate 
our Success, beyond in my opinion what they could do together. 
As the Indians partys will be able to go to places where our 
Troops cannot follow them, & probably are not to go, The 
interior Country, the Woods & Mountains being the places our 
Enemys will retire to can onlj'^ be penetrated with any prospect 
of success by Indians, who can drive them from their retreats 
destroy many of them & reduce the rest to a state of despondency. 
This will favour the march of our Troops, and promote their 
success, [b]) dividing the Force of our Enemy^s, & rendering their 
designs abortive.^] 



^Crossed out in the original. 



372 Sir William Johnson Papers 

This is only my private opinion on which I would gladly be 
favored with your Sentiments and directions, as I can either 
collect them in a body or divide them as I have [proposed^] 
provided I have time. 

Many of the Indians were desirous of going the length of 
Scioto & falling upon the Shawanese who are scattered along 
that River but I have been unwilling to let them until they had 
first drove away the Delawares & few Shawanees from all the 
branches of Susquehanna & cleared that Quarter of such 
Villains another reason Vv'as that they could not go there & return 
time enough to joyn the Troops. The Indians &ca who brought 
the prisoners here will return tomorrow or next day to joyn the 
partys, now out from whom I shall soon Expect to have 
agreable news. 

I hear from all Quarters of the General pannic of our Enemys, 
occasioned by our Employing their own sort against them, this 
they never Expected as I was not impowered all last Summer 
to send any upon service and this reduces them to a greater 
Dilemma at present; It must have been but a Small party of 
observation who killed the Man at Fort Pitt, the Indians in 
General are retired a considerable distance from thence, & 
greatly alarmed about the security of their familys. In short 
the measures you have been pleased to favor with your appro- 
bation will I flatter myself prove to your satisfaction, and leave 
Less for the Troops to do this Campaign than might have been 
Expected which wo*^. Give me Great pleasure as will every thing 
that can contribute to your Ease & Reputation. 

I am &:c^. 
His Excellency Gen'^ Gage 



FROM JOHN R. HANSEN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 211-12, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire : a letter of March 1 8th from Captain John 
R. Hansen, Wisers Dorp Schohare, further about two prisoners charged 



^Crossed out in the original. 



Posi'War Period, 1763-1774 373 

with making evil threats, a lieutenant's command sent to Onoghquago and 
supplies extorted from Captain Eckerson (Thomas Ackeson) by Indians; 
one of the 18th to J. Stuart (southern Superintendent of Indian Affairs), 
informing that he has sent out scalping parties aggregating 300 warriors, 
whose success has alarmed the enemy, and compelled the Chenussios to 
make proposals of peace, and that he will despatch parties from the Five 
Nations against the Shawanese and Delawares, discussing Indian trade 
regulations, mentioning Indian hostilities in the South and the need of 
cooperation among the colonies and suggesting French instigation ; one of 
the 18th from John Wells, Chirrey Valley, about letters which he has 
forwarded to Onaquago and provisions which he has orders to convey to 
that place; one of the 19th from Ab'm Mortier, New York, sending 
General Gage's warrant lo Johnson for £732, 2s, Id New York currency 
— £427, Is, 2d sterling — and notifying that Johnson has overdrawn 
£ 161, 14s, 9d sterling; account of Sir William Johnson the 19th, New 
York, with Ab'm Mortier; Duncan & Phyn's account and invoice, the 
19th, Schenectady; Dr John Stewart's bill to Sir William Johnson for 
medical service to Indians, Johnson's order on John Duncan to pay Stewart 
and Stewart's receipt; Sir William Johnson's account with Duncan & 
Phyn, the 19th, Schenectady, for Indian goods, from November 26 to 
March 19 — £3934, 4s, 1 Id; a letter of the 19th from Robert Leake. 
New York, intimating that he has silenced one of Johnson's detractors 
by the prospect of a duel, and mentioning that he would buy from 1 6,000 
to 20,000 acres of land, that Colonel Robertson has brought from 
Florida an unfavorable account of the soil, and Sir John St Clair will soon 
go home, out of health and in financial trouble ; a letter of the 1 9th 
from Captain Hendrick Frey, Canajoharre, on his execution of orders for 
stopping trade and the sale of rum at certain places; Sir William Johnson's 
account, amounting to £944, 2s, with Duncan & Phyn, the 19th, Schen- 
ectady; a letter of the 19th from John Duncan, Schenectady, on his 
efforts to furnish goods, the suspension of transportation by the closing of 
the rivers, and Johnson's continued success against the enemy; one of the 
20th from James Phyn, Schenectady, sending accounts and invoice. 



FROM JOHN KEES 
A. L. S. 

Aug[hquaga, March 21, 1764] 
I arived here on the 12'^ Ins[ ] my Party 

Consisting of Twenty men, from [ ] Valley, and 



374 Sir William Johnson Papers 

was Rec^. by the Indians in [ ] and friendly 

Mann«", w1k> Vk-as very much [ ] at our Caming, 

on the ]3^ the Cheifs Deliver d me miee Pris<Hiers, vrlsica I 
have in my Custod [y ] The Indians of this V dlage 

are in very mu [ch ] of an Afctact from the Enemy on 

Account of the [ ] Taken and one killed, at this 

Place, and Se^ns very DiHatory in Joining Cap'. Monture and 
his party who Set out this Morning ^Wth what Indians he Cou'd 
Get to Join his pxarty. 

\Iy mai are very well Satisfied with being here, caily [ ] 

are not Satisfied vsith the Provisions, having nothing [ ] 

Sv^xist on but Flower and a Little Sugar, the Cheifs Gave us 
dbont a Bushell and a half of Com Some days ago, the Pro- 
visHn we have is hardly Sufid^it to Serve us ten days longer, 
and the Indians Complain of Scarcity thems^ves, as ^ve Elxpect 
to Stay here till Cap*. Montuer [ ] Party Returns. I hope 
you'l order a Si^ly of Provisions %>eedily. 

on the 17^ Instant a Serjeant and Nine men of Cap' 
Ranse [ ] Company Joined vsith Sis of the S<dioharie 

Milhtia arived here, 

I am Sir 
Your most Humble Ser': 

John Kee5 L'. 



FROM JOHS CREAN ETC, 

Ib the JolmsoB Calendar, p. 212—13, are listed the following letters 
wtkh were destroyed by fire: a lett& of March 22d from JcJm Crean, 
FUaddpfaia, seekrag ecafAajvaent at Jolmsm Hall, and mentioDing that 
be is a "coardwiDder** by trade, has beeo a soldier 20 years and can 
get recommpndations horn the ccAood of the 35fh, the GoTCTsor of 
Flaladeiphia and otherz; one of the 22d frtm PfiHip Jonathan, Gna- 
joiiaiy, adaag moral au p pott in jfarting a school for Indians and enforc- 
ms dkdiJiiie. (Printed in Doc. Hist N. Y., 4:339-40; Q. 4:216- 
1 7) ; one of the 23d from Genoal Gage, New York, to Major Glad- 
win at Detnst (extract), authorizing terms of peace with tiie Lidians, 
^Ao are re q n es t e d to meet Six William Johnson at Niagara, bringing all 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 375 

prisoners and deserters uith them: and one of the 23d from John Georg 
Liebenrood, London, on the demand for ginseng ajid die hig^ prices of 
furs, giving a list of market values. 



MEETINGS OF MOHEGAN INDLANS 
D.S. 

Mohegan March 24: 1764 

Met at Benj". Uncas's to Consult about our land a^airs Unaini- 
mously cigreed aigsiin to have John Gardner to take a Lease of 
Banks's Fcirm for a Term of Time, — then Present Benj Lncas, 
Zechcuiah Johnson — Henrj' Quaquakquid John Tantucque- 
chen Moses Mazen Solomon Coopper Jacob Clark, Samson 
Occom March 26. ^'e Met with our over Seers at M^ James 
Hortons according to Apointment, to Lease out Banks's farm 
But Some of the over Seers were not there Neither Cou'd \^ e 
agree. W ith our over Seers upon a Tennant and did nodiing. 
cind our over Seers indeed Sciid they -svould do nothing Contrary 
to their Minds, cind So We Parted — But our over Seers got in 
\X ith our Sachem aJone at NorsWch on March 29: & 30: and 
got him to gi\e a Lease to M^ Ross of Banks's Farm — Con- 
krary to the agreements Bet\\een the over Seers and the Indians, 
cind Between the Sachem and his Councel they Were to go 
Unanimously in all Matters. On Monday April 2: 1764 the 
Tribe of Mohegan got together to Consult \Xl:iat our over Seers, 
cuid Sachem had done, and found it altogether Disagreeable to 
our Minds — Then Present Henr>* Quaguakquid, Simon 
Chauchay John Tantucquechen Moses Mazzen Samscwi Occom 
Jacob Clark Noah Uncas, Sam^. Asl^x) Jacob Hoscot Sam' 
Coopper John Coopper Peggee J<^m Lncas Jacob Hoscot 
Se' Robert Aspo, Jonathan Occom, Solomon Coo|>er Joseph 
Shautup John Cooper Ju*^ Sam^ Uncas John L'ncas Ju' Pompee 
George Eliphalet Pegee 

April 23 Met at HeLnr>''s found our Selves of one Mind 
Still, — Constituted Trustees to Act in the behalf of Mohegan 
Tribe of Indians, Concluded to Send the Trustees to Benj 



376 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Uncas, to talk With him in a Mile Manner, to Bring him to 
Consideration, that We may agree and make up Matters in an 
Amicable manner, — Accordingly Went, on 24 of April in the 
Morning to his house, and talkd With him, but it only Stird 
up fire in his Breast and was inraged against us and So We left 
him, then Present 

John Tantuckquechen 
Samson Occom 
Moses Mazzen 
Sam^ Achpo 



John Nannuppoom Jacob George 

Rachel Roben Rebeckah Tanner 

Elisabeth Silas Widow John John 

April 26 Met at Jacob [Claries] Hoscots found many faults 
more against Ben Uncas first he has never regarded his Fathers 
Will by Which he was made Sachem — 2^y he has least out 
Some Lands Without his Councill; and 3^y he has Sold much 
Tymber Wood and Whoop Poles and Stone, and Contrives 
a great deal to Set the Indians by the Ears in Stead of making 
Peace amongst them, and he is not Contented With all the 
Privileges he Injoys and all the help he has from the Indians 
he reckons as nothing, and Wants more Still, but We believe 
he Wont have So much in time to Come for these things We 
think he has forfeted his Sachemship over and over again 
Neither Can we in Concience look upon him again as our Lawful 
Sachem in Mohegan 
INDORSED: A Meeting of the 

Mohegan Indians 

amg^^ themselves — 

Mohegan March 24th 1 764 

FROM THOMAS MONCRIEFFE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 213, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: a letter of March 25th from James Phyn, Schen- 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 377 

ectady, apologizing for the bad character of goods supplied, one of the 
25th from Captain T. Moncrieffe (major of brigade) New York, con- 
gratulations and favorable comment on the policy of employing Indians 
against Indians; and Sir William Johnson's account current with William 
Darlington, the 25th, New York. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York March 26^^ 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I have had the Pleasure to receive your Letter of the 16* 
Ins*, and shall immediately write to Major Gladwin, That He 
may give timely Notice to the Indians in the Neighbourhood of 
Detroit to repair to Niagara towards the End of June, & shall 
not forget to remind Him to tell them to bring all their Prisoners 
& the Deserters with Them. I hope all the Troops May be 
over the Carrying Place at that Time, as nothing can prevent 
our Army taking the Field very early, but the tardiness of the 
Provinces. I am still uncertain what Pensylvania will do. If 
They will assist a little, I think we shall hunt our Enemies pretty 
closely on all Sides. I hope Major Gladwin will receive the 
Letters you have been so good to forward to Him; as They 
contain very particular Directions, about some of the French 
Villains, who have been concerned in this Insurrection, who shall 
meet with their Desert. 

M^ Penn has sent me no Answer to my Letter wherein I 
advised the removing of the Indians to Burlington, I suppose He 
had taken no final Resolution in this Matter; but hope He will 
not persist in troubling you with Them at this Juncture. 

The 14 Prisoners arrived on the 25* Ins^ very carefully 
guarded, and are lodged in the new Goal of this City. I am 
not surprized that the Indians reserved some Prisoners for 
Themselves. That they always did on every Occasion, and 
to be expected on this. Cap^ Bull is very well known in 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



378 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Philadelphia, where He has been greatly caressed by the 
Quakers. The Success of your small Party in taking two Enemy 
Indians Prisoners, & Scalping a Third Shews They are very 
much in earnest, and will have it's Consequences. 

You are certainly right. That the Troops cannot move too 
early, and you may depend upon it that they shall be put in 
Motion as soon as ever I get them. But we need not stay perhaps 
for the whole of them. I have demanded Three Hundred Cana- 
dians, which GoV^ Murray flatters me I shall have. They are 
to join at Oswego, as soon as the Navigation becomes 
practicable. 

I can conceive you have business enough on your Hands, 
with much Plague & long History s, and more Demands than 
you are able to Satisfy. 

Cash is a necessary Article to put every thing in Motion, I 
shall order a Warrant for such sums as you have Occasion for 
and it will certainly be a great Saving to purchase the Goods 
here. I will speak to the Comptroller of the Artillery about 
some light Guns. If there are any in store, they shall be Sup- 
plied you from thence. 

What you are pleased to set forth, respecting the best Manner 
of employing the Indians, I must own Seems to me very 
Judicious, and an Improvement upon the Plan I had proposed 
for the campain. I am not yet able to fix absolutely the Plan 
I have formed, till the Provinces finaly determine what they 
will do, which will now* be very Soon. I shall then write to 
you more fully. Scioto and Muskingham are part of the Plan 
I have proposed to myself. 

I am glad you have paid Daniel. You may add it to your 
own Ace*., or I can settle it with Major Gladwin when He 
arrives. 

The Affair at Fort Pitt could be Nothing more than what 
you mention, yet struck such a Panick amongst the People as 
to stop a Convoy, which I was sending up to that Fort; before 
I thought the Enemy could Assemble to oppose Us. And I 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 379 

have been obliged to send an Express to order it in motion again. 
If it gets safe. The Fort is victualed for a Twelve Month. I 
shall have then Leizure to v/ork against all Disappointment, 
which may happen, and not be obliged to fight at a Disadvan- 
tage, for every Barrel of Provision, which is sent up there, or 
be in Fear that the Garrison will be starved out, which was 
the Case of last year. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble Servant 

Thqs. Gage 
The Comptroller of the Artillery reports to me that there are 
/// Light French Arms in the stores at Albany, and he is 
pretty sure enough of others, of different sorts to compleat the 
200 Arms you are in want of. Orders are sent to deliver that 
Number upon your Demand so you may employ Some Person 
to examine them and choose such as will Answer your Purpose. 

T. G. 

INDORSED : New York March 26th 1 764 
From Major Gen'. Gage 



FROM ELEAZAR WHEELOCK 

A. L. S.' 
g Lebanon 26^^ March 1764 

I rely upon Your Hon'^ Goodness to pardon this, tho' I gave 
you Trouble upon the Same occasion a few Days ago, unless 
my Letter miscarry'd; a fear of which Makes Me now think 
this to be Necessary. 

There is a Report Spread thro' this Country, "that Joseph, 
who was with me, has joyn'd himself With the Enemy, And 
put himself at the Head of a large party of Indians to fight 
against the English" And it has Obtained Such credit, not only 
among the lower sort, but among Gentlemen of Character, as 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City. 



380 5iV WilliciTn Johnson Papers 

that a Memorial I lately preferrd to the Gen'. Assembly in 
Boston, for a further Improvement of S^ Peter Warren's Legacy 
&*^. is Suspended 'till the Report can be cleard up, and only, or 
principally on that Acco*. 

And I have lately rec*^. Letters from Gentlemen in Several 
Quarters which Shew the Necessity of it not only to this School, 
but to the Indian Cause in general. And I have been in ho 
capacity to do anything more for that Purpose, than by Ridecul- 
ing it as Absurd &'^ having never heard anything from him since 
M^ Smith left him. 

I have been utterly at a loss from whence the Report Should 
come, apprehending it to be too foolish to have the Devil for its 
Author, but of late I begin to think Myself mistaken, for it seems 
no creature but he could have tho't that Such a Report could 
have gaind Such credit, or done the Mischeif Vv^hich this has 
done, and Still threatens to a Cause of Such Importance. 

I pray Your Honour to give Yourself the Trouble of a Line 
to Me, by the Most safe and speedy conveyance. If you will 
please to cover, and direct it, to Mess""* Ralph & Eleazar 
Pomeroy or M^ Rob*. Nivins in Hartford (unless you sho'd 
have a more direct Conveyance) I shall likely have it Soon. 

Please to give My Love to My dear Joseph and tell him, if 
he desires it, he shall still be wellcome to the Advantages of My 
School as long as Shall be profitable for him. 

All the Lads from your Parts are well and behave as well, 
as is reasonable to expect from them 

Please, Sir, to accept Sincerest Duty & Respect from 
Your Honours 

Most Obedient, and 

Most humble Servant 
Eleazar Wheelock 
The Hon'^. Sir W'^. Johnson Baron* 

FROM CHARLES WILLIAMS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 213—14, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of March 26th from Charles 




REAR ADMIRAL RICHARD TYRRELL OF THE WHITE 
SQUADRON 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 381 

Williams, New York, acknowledging a letter recommending (Charles 
and David Williams?) to Admiral Tyrell and describing the popular 
feeling at the arrival of Captain Bull and the 1 3 other Indians under 
military guard; one of the 26th from Witham Marsh, New York, about 
the publication of a paragraph from Johnson's letter, the arrival of 1 4 
Indian prisoners, his desire to have certain "carping scoundrels" punished 
with 1 00 lashes, public excitement over Johnson's triumph, and the app>oint- 
ment of a committee to consider a patent; one of the 27th from John Glen 
Jun'r, Schonectady, informing that he has sent up in three bateaux 1 9 
barrels of flour and nine of pork, to he delivered to Dowe Fonda at 
Coghnawagie; one of the 27th from Daniel Campbell, Schenectady, ask- 
ing that a sum of money, due on account of transactions with Captain 
Claus, may be sent him, in care of Dr Constable, and offering to execute 
any commissions for Sir William in New York city; one of the 28th 
from John Macomb, Albany, about money which he has lent to Mr 
Achilles Preston and referring to previous correspondence; one of the 
30th from John Welles, Montreal, about the success of Johnson's war 
policy, the silence of Mr (Matthew?) Wade, Ferrall Wade's possible 
influence over him, a petition of Canadians, the French included, to the 
lords of trade, the enlistment of a Canadian regiment, with Frenchmen in 
command, suspension of trade, and the government's precautions to prevent 
its resumption, payment of the late Captain Lotteridge's debts, marriages 
between British officers and Canadian ladies, his indisposition and the 
prospect that the arrival of the bishop will bring good times to Albany; 
a petition, Montreal, of the gentry, merchants, citizens and other inhabi- 
tants of the city and government to the lords commissioners of trade and 
plantations, asking atten'^^ion to the action of people in Quebec in assuming 
to choose an agent for the province and praying that the Indian trade may 
be free to all who observe the legal requirements, and there may be no 
monopoly of riparian rights on the St Lawrence, and no customs restric- 
tions at Quebec on Montreal commerce; a letter of the 30th from Lieu- 
tenant Colonel William Eyre, New York, touching the effect of the 
success of Johnson's war parties, the disappointment of enemies, the ap- 
probation of General Gage, the appointment of Gage as commander in 
chief, the arrangement for rotation in service of English regiments ordered 
to America, and his expectation of being sent to England; Duncan & 
Phyn's bill the 3 1 st, Schenectady, for articles bought by Sir William 
Johnson; a letter of the 31st from Lieutenant Colonel John Campbell, 
Fort Stanwix, reporting that he has, in obedience to orders, supplied the 
Oneida women with provisions, praising the appearance of the Indian, 
Captain Bull, and mentioning his orders from the general to take the field 
with the 1 7th regiment ; one from Duncan & Phyn, Schenectady, sending 
a list of goods and promising to send articles not now in stock. 



382 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.i 

Ner^-York April Uh 1764 
Dear Sir, 

As it may be thought Necessary that Troops should move 
into the Indian Castles, If they March against the Enemy, I 
would be glad that you made Application, in Case such a 
Measure is absolutely to be taken, for the Militia to do this 
Piece of Service; as our Force is so small, not a Man can be 
spared from the Field. The Provinces have been very backward 
in Affording that Assistance so much for their Interest to do. 
Connecticut However has agreed to raise 250 Men, Jersey near 
the same Number. And I only have to forward those Troops 
for Colonel Bradstreet to begin his Campain, and that He may 
now push on as fast as He pleases, I have put all the Forces 
from Albany westward under his Command. The Number of 
Indians I shall desire of you for this Army, I will mention in 
my next, when I have settled with Colonel Bouquet, the opera- 
tions for the Southward. But the Pensylvanians have plaid their 
old Tricks, voted the Men, & then quarrelled with the Governor 
about the Supplys. The Assembly is adjourned in this Manner 
to the 1 4^^^. May. 

I have the Pleasure to acquaint you, that the Measures we 
have proposed to take in this Indian War, and the steps already 
taken are approved of at Home. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 
humble Servant 

Thqs. Gage 
S**. Wm. Johnson Bar^ 
indorsed : New York 1 ^' Ap'. 1 764 
From Gen' Gage 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 383 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 214-15, are listed the following letters 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 1st from John Duncan, 
Schenectady, about business orders, letters for Johnson, coming by way of 
Schenectady and the fatigues of the Indian superintendency ; one of the 
2d from William Tongue, New York, inclosing Lieutenant Gorrell's 
certificates concerning claims of Peter Souligny fils and Cha's Gaultier 
as interpreters and Pierre Souligny fils as express, with suggestions as to 
the mode of payment; one of the 2d from Robert Leake, New York, 
giving news from England: the ministry adopts most of the plans of the 
late commander in America, General Gage will be commander in chief. 
General Monckton declines to come over again, Murray's appointment 
as governor (of Canada) meets objection, men are being raised for Amer- 
ica, the King continues in a masterful mood, officers, military and civil 
have been dismissed for caballing, money scarce, bankruptcy common, all 
officers to join their corps. Colonels Bouquet and Bradstreet to command 
separately, navy gentlemen to command cutters on the American coast; 
one of the 2d from H. Van Schaack, Albany, asking an order for £ I 1 9, 
1 4s currency to pay Bostwyck & Co. a claim certified at Michilamackinac 
by Lieutenant William Leslie, and informing that preparations are making, 
by direction of Colonel Robertson, to build forts, barracks etc. in 
the "Southern Conquests," and that the officers concerned in the late riot 
are ordered down to New York; one of the 2d from Witham Marsh, Ba- 
yard Hall, relating an interview with Captain Bull in jail, and giving his 
suspicions that Quakers originated the Delawares' outbreak; one of the 
3d from Frederick Sigismund Lentz, New York, speaking of the works 
which he has erected for the manufacture of tobacco and soliciting custom ; 
one of the 3d from Francis Wade, Philadelphia, telling of the wrecking 
on the French coast of the vessel which carried Mr Croghan and Colonel 
Armstrong, asking payment of a draft on Captain Clawes and mentioning 
a petition to the crown for a change of government and a pamphlet called 
the Conduct of the Paxtoners. 



A TREATY WITH SENECAS 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:621-23, are the articles of peace 
concluded by Johnson on April 3d with the Senecas at Johnson Hall, 
by which, together with other concessions, the Indians cede to the King 
a tract, comprehending the Niagara carrjang place, with the lands on 
both sides the strait, about 1 4 miles in length and four in breadth. 



384 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM BAYNTON, WHARTON & MORGAN 
A. L. S.^ 

Philad., April 4, 1764. 
Sir 

A little Time before Mr. Croghan went from Home, He left 
a large Parcel of Goods in our Hands, expecting, you would 
be kind enough, to purchase them from us for his Account. As 
we have not had the honour of hearing from you, on the Subject, 
we suppose Mr. Croghan's Letter must have miscarried & There- 
fore we presume to trouble you upon the occasion. We just 
learn. That the Vessel He sailed in, was cast away, Upon the 
Coast of France, But that he & the Rest of the Passengers & 
the Ships Crew, were safely landed. We apprehend. He got 
to London, about the 1 4th of February. 

If Sir, you should want any of these Indian Goods, We can 
readily and expeditiously forward them to you. 

We have the Honour of being Sir &c 

Baynton, Wharton & Morgan. 
To 

The Honourable S'^ WiLL. JOHNSON Bart. &c 



^From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., made 
by E. C. Carter before the fire; original destroyed. 



Post^War Period, 1763-1774 385 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 

New York April 4'^: 1764. 
Dear Sir 

The Enemy Indians have appeared again and done Some 
Mischief on the frontiers of pensilvania ; On their going off, they 
left behind them Three War Cliibs, which I send to you, in 
hopes that you'll thereby be able to discover, to what Nation 
they belong. 

I am with great regard 
Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant. 

Thqs. Gage 
Sir W^: Johnson, B'. 
INDORSED : New York April 4'^ 1 764 
From Gen^ Gage 



FROM JOHN DUNCAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 215, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a list of goods, dated Schenectady, April 
5th, from Duncan & Phyn, forwarded by Mr Van Eps; a letter of the 5th 
from John Duncan, Schenectady, on the difficulty of conveying goods by 
reason of rain and the impressment of wagons, and his intended journey 
to New York, letter prefaced by a list of goods sent in a three-handed 
bateau by Jassen Hazzard, to be delivered to Barr't Vrooman at Cagh- 
nawaga for Johnson; Duncan & Phyn's bill for goods bought by Sir 
WilHam Johnson — £901, 3s, 7j/2d, the 5th, Schenectady; a list of goods 
ordered (by Sir William Johnson) from Baynton & Wharton, Phila- 
delphia, the 6th. 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 

13 



386 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM JOHN BRADSTREET 
A. L. 5.1 

Albany 6^K April 1764 
Sir 

General Gage mentions to me that I am to have some Indians 
with me; if you can inform me of the number & where I am to 
receive them you will very much oblige 

Sir 
Your most humble servant 

Jn Bradstreet 
Sir William Johnson Bar* 
INDORSED : Alby. April 6'^. 1 764 
Co'^. Bradstreets letter 
desireing to know y^. Number 
of Ind^ will Join him 
when & Where. 
Ans"'^. S\ 

TO CADWALLADER COLDEN 
A. L. 5.2 

Johnson Hall April &K 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have been favoured with your verry freindly Letter of the 
26*^. Ult°.,^ and I am sincerely oblidged to You for the esteem 
you have shewn for me in y^. satisfaction You express at our 
late successes. — I have the greatest reason to expect a good 
Account of the Partys now upon Service from their zeal & 
readiness. — My Son set out with about 200 last Week, and a 
body of the same Number were gone before him. 

Your Observations concerning the Chenussios were verry rea- 
sonable, if they neglected to make proper concessions, but on 

^In a private collection. 

^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 
^See Collections of the New York Historical Society. 1876, Colden 
Papers, p. 315-16. 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 387 

the contrary I have the pleasure to acquaint You that they have 
agreed to the several Terms of which the General approved, 
they are to deliver up the 2 Murderers of Kanestio, all our 
People who are among them whether Prisoners, Deserters 
Negroes &<=^ & cede to his Majesty all the Lands from Niagra 
to the Falls on both sides of the Strait, with Several other neces- 
sary points,^ they have even desired to be employed against the 
Shawanese & Delawares, and sent to call away all their People 
from amongst them, and are to leave three of their Cheif Men 
Hostages for the performance of the Several Articles of Peace, 
all which, plainly shews that they repent of their late conduct, 
& their desire to regain our Esteem. 

The rest of the Confederacy are preparing to Accompany the 
Troops, whose Success will be greatly facilitated from the losses 
I daily expect to hear the Enemy have Sustained and which will 
free us from the Delawares & Shawanese the most inveterate 
Enemys w^. the Northeren Colonies have hitherto had to deal 
with. 

I am to meet the Senecas, & Westeren Ind^ at Niagra the 
latter End of June, in order to Settle & ratify a general Peace 
with them, I have reason to expect the Twightwees will support 
the Shawanese &<^*, but I hope this Alliance will enable me to 
bring them to reason. 

I am much oblidged to You for y^. desire Y". express to serve 
Cap*. Johnson, & am sorry You have been so much troubled on 
the Subject, as he is unacquainted with the parts of the Country 
back from the Hudsons River, & ignorant how far the same is 
pattented, I must once more submit it to you whether there is not 
vacant Lands at the back of Scochf^ticol^e or SanckcLik Pattents, 
or any of those on the East Side of Hudsons River, I think a 
grant was made last Year not far from Saraghtoga to one M'. 
Campbel, an officer, perhaps this might be granted along side 
of his, or at the back of it, or of some of the other Pattents in 
that Quarter. 



^SeeDoc. Rel to Col Hist N. Y., 7:621-23. 



388 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Now that I am on the Subject of Lands I must request your 
Advice concerning the Tract given me by the Conajoharees in 
the Year 1 760/ which by the Present Kings Instructions a Stop 
was put to it at that time. I have laid aside all thoughts of Tracts 
for which I have the most fair Title from the Indians, and 
w'^. few who had the same pretensions to them would have 
neglected, but it would be an Injustice to my Family to give up 
all my pretensions. 

Altho this Tract is as a free Gift from the Indians, yet I gave 
them above 1200 Dollars after Signing & delivering me the 
Deed which was done in the most public manner by all the 
Indians, of that Castle, Who from thence forward consider it 
as my property. I am therefore desireous to take the same up 
agreable to the last proclamation, as there can be no objection 
to this at present, after it has passed the forms prescribed, which 
the Indians are always ready to comply with, I would take the 
liberty of proposing y^ Acceptance of ten thousand Acres 
therein, on remitting y^. Pattent Fees. The Land is verry fine, 
and capable of making good Settlements, I can therefore recom- 
mend it as well worth notice, and as I am resolved on Settleing 
the Affair as soon as possible, & the readier make this proposal 
to You, as what I apprehend would answer the conveniency of 
both. — You will please to favour me with Your Answer hereon, 
as Licenses are now unnecessary, I Suppose it is Sufficient to 
have a Meeting with the Ind^ previous to taking out the Pattent, 
for should the former Steps be requisite, I should sooner take 
other measures for obtaining it than Struggle with an opposition, 
but as I understand the Proclamation, Affairs of this Nature 
remain with each governour & consequently can be soon Settled. 
I am with all regard & Esteem 
Dear Sir 
Your most sincere Welwisher 

& verry Humble Servant 

wm. Johnson 



iVoIume 3, p. 296-98. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 389 

TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson hall April 6"". 1764 
Dear Sir 

I had Yesterday the pleasure to receive your favours of the 
26*^. & 29'^. ult°. and shall take particular care to observe their 
contents ; — 

The Chenussios & Enemy Senecas have been here several 
days & after due consideration on the Articles of peace, have at 
length agreed to them beyond my Expectations; & I hope to 
Y''. Satisfaction I herewith enclose you a Copy of the Prelimi- 
naries, with their accordance thereto, by which you will find 
they have left Three of their Chiefs as Hostages for the per- 
formance of them. They have likewise taken up the War Axe 
against our Enemys & Shew an apparent eagerness for going 
upon Service, as do all the rest of the 5 Nations who were like- 
wise present, & never manifested so great an unanimity or desire 
for War since my acquaintance with them. 

My Son set off from hence above a Week ago for the 
Delaw'^^. Settlem*® near the Ohio with some Rangers he engaged 
& 200 Indians, and as there are as many more on actual Service, 
I can have little reason to doubt their killing & Captivating a 
good many & destroying all the Delaware Towns in that Quarter 
with their Corn, &ca which they cannot have time to remove, 
and as for those who have retired to the plains near Sioto, as you 
have been pleased to approve of my proposal, I shall imediately 
send partys of Indians against them, and as I think they dare 
not retreat farther South by reason of the Enmity of the Southern 
Ind^ I am hopefull they will meet with success \A hod)) of Men 
from SandosJi"^ tv^^ some Ind\ to go down the Sioto may com- 
pleat their destruction, which I imagine will be nearly effected 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



390 Sir William Johnson Papers 

b}) the Friend Indians.^] Those Delawares &ca who are still 
about the branches of Susquehanna cannot easily escape, as our 
Indian partys will take post at the only pass thro' the Allegany 
Mountains. 

The backwardness of the Provinces must greatly retard our 
operations. & I am of opinion should they shortly agree to raise 
Men, the Levys would not be compleated in sufficient time as I 
know the many delays attending them, & am convinced of the 
Necessity there is for our taking the field Early; I am induced 
to think that the greater part of the Army would best go by 
L Ontario, as it wo*^. encourage our Friends, & that on their 
arrival at Presqu' Isle, If some Troops Imediately pushed down 
the Ohio, from Fort Pitt, & went up the Muskingum whilst those 
on L Erie crossed the CarryS place from Sandosky to the great 
plains along the Sioto (where the many body of the Delawares 
& Shawanese are now settled) or from Cayahaga to Muskingum 
from whence there is a Road to Scioto it would greatly con- 
tribute to the success of both. I am of opin" it will be better 
to go from Sandosky than Cayahaga as it will be a much shorter 
march from the former, the only objection in my opinion to this 
is that should they not effectually rout the Enemy, their retreat 
to their boats (wch sho^. be well guarded) will be liable to the 
utmost danger, for in all probability, the Twightwees in the 
neighbourhood of whom numbers of the Shawanese & Delawares 
have retired would in that case heartily Joyne them, & I am 
lately informed by the 5 Nations that they have intimated it to 
be their intention to support these our Enemys to the utmost, 
If a body of men went down the Ohio and ascended the 
Muskingam (wch I think is the best) it wo^. be very necessary 
for a part of them to occupy some advantagious scituation for 
Example at the fork where the Road goes to Scioto, to cover 
their boats whilst the Rest pursued their Rout & might Joyn 
those who came from Lake Erie [either by Sandosky or 
Cay^ahaga] who need not bring their Boats farther than the 



^Crossed out in the original. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 391 

carrys place; but if a body of men were first to arrive at the 
carryg place of Scioto, it would greatly disconcert the Enemy, 
& Give more security to those who might march from 
Muskingam. 

I have thrown together these few hints meerly for your obser- 
vation and hope you will pardon their incorrectness, as they are 
only loose heads of what occurred to me on the Subject. 

If you propose sending any Troops by way of Ohio I shall 
prepare the [Indians of Onoghquago^] (about 100 or more 
Ind*.) to go with them accompanied by a few Officers, and shall 
collect a Suffie*. number of the Five Nations to accompany the 
Army this way whilst I employ a good number of the Con- 
federacy with the Indians of Canada in different partys to the 
Southward which I hope will greatly facihtate the success of 
the Troops. 

It will give me pleasure to hear that the French at Detroit or 
elsewhere who promoted the War have come to condign punish- 
ment, & their fate will I hope prove an Example to deterr others 
from pursuing such a plan hereafter. 

I have heard nothing farther concerning the Wyaloosin Ind'. 
& therefore conclude they are taken proper care of. 

I am glad the 14 prisoners arrived safe, & I Expect that 
Number will soon be considerably augmented. Capt Bull & 
many of that Gang were often caressed in Philadelphia, but the* 
they amused the Quakers, their hearts were purely French, & 
they assisted that Nation during the most part of the late War. 

I have so much business on my hands that I cannot be able 
by this post to send you the ace*® of the Department, for these 
6 Months jDast, but I should be very desirous to have a Warrt 
for 5000 Ster as ment^. in my last for purchasing the necessary 
goods for the Campaign as there is but little time left for it at 
present. Several partys are now delayed here on account of the 
want of necessarys for them which I am obHged to collect as I 
can get them, at a high price. 



^Crossed out in the original. 



392 Sir William Johnson Papers 

The employing Canadians agt the Indians will I apprehend 
shew the Ind*. the Nature of their Subjection beyond any thing 
we co"^. say to them, since the French Traders &ca in whom the 
Ind®. place much confidence, have certainly represented them- 
selves as their Friends, and a people independent of us; the 
fallacy of which will now be discovered. 

[It Would have a very good effect if some Troops Tvere now 
put in motion it would give confidence to our Friends & alarm 
all our Enemys, as well as Strengthen the Attachment of the 
Wavering in all Quarters, and it gives me pleasure to hear your 
sentiments, are of opinion to send march some without waiting 
for the whole, as each Province seems determined to regulate its 
Conduct by that of its Neighbour, the operations of any of them 
must be tardy, or uncertain in my opinion.^] 

I have order'd a proper person to Examine, & Receive the 
Arms, from the Comptroller of the Artilb, & I hope they may 
answer as there is a great want of them. 

I am just Informed that you are appointed Com"^. in Chief in 
America on which establishment I most sincerely Congratulate 
you, [and I most Cordially wish you it may prove to the 
advancem^ of your Reputation, and the good of the public,^] 
& I cannot but felicitate myself on the advantages this Country 
will have reason to Expect from his Majesty Just Choice 
His Excellcy Gen^ Gage 

FROM HENRY MONTURE, WILLIAM HARE AND JOHN 
JOHNSTON' 

A. L. S. 

[Diogoa, April 7^^ 1764] 

[ ] Express Will Inform You [ ] 

Against our Enemy at Kanisteo and Along the Susq [uehanna] 

Destroying & Burning All their Towns Villages and [ ] 

Settlements With there Creatures Such as Horses, C[ ] 

1 Crossed out in the original. 
-Or Johnson. 



Post'War Period, 1763-1774 393 

We Cannot but Let Sir William know that [ ] have 

had Great Difficultys to Encounter With Since We Left You 
and More particular bad Weather and Very high Water Which 
Made it Very Difficulate Foarding and [ ] the Rivers 

and Creeks. At Onok Quago We Was at A Great deal of 
Trouble to Set them upon the March, Which When We found 
there Was no End unto Delays We Sot of With a Small party 
to Cheningo With Thomas king and the Rest for Shames Sake 
Soon followed us and When All together We Made a Body 
of one hundred and forty Warrours We Immeadtly Proceeded 
Against Kanestio and by our Spys and Out Scouts We Dis- 
coverd they Were fled towards Ginauss [ ] under 

the Protection of the Sinaches as the Sinaches had Given them 
a Call to Come and Strengthen them Against All that Should 
Oppose them, diey have been a Considera[ble] time fled Since 
our taken the first prisoners. 

We Cannot but With Astonishment Aqquant Sir William 
of the places being Wrongly Misreported of there Strengtht 
and nunibers We have Destroy^ three Lar[ge] Towns besides 
All there Little out Villages and Scattering inhabitents to the 
Number of one hundred and thirty Very Large and Well built 
indain houses it is the Most beautyful Country that I Ever See 
for Land and prety Improvements for Indian Settlements Which 
there Could not be but Large had [ 

] throughout All [ 
]them has fled perhaps [ 
] Made the Mohawks River as Well as [ 
] Quiet from the Bloody hands of these Savage [ ] 

Remain"^ in this Neighbourhood formerly. 

We think it now Needless for any [ ] Forces 

to Come this Way as We have Drove them far from these parts 
and of Sending any More provisions to Onok Q[uago] the 
Warrours here Sends there Love to You and Says they hope 
You are Well Satisfied in there behaviour [ ] time 

and in Case of Your Wantening of them upon a [ ] they 

are Redy for You as Soon as You Call them. 



394 Sir William Johnson Papers 

for farthar particulars We Will Give Sir a Detail of All our 
proceedings at our Return Which w[ill] be as Soon as Jjossable. 
No More but We Remain Sir Y [our] 

Ever Devoted and hum': Sarv'. 

Henery Monture 
William Hare 
John Johnston 
Excuse My pen as I have no 
better in this place and being so 
Long in the Woods I have forgot 
the Day of the Month 
P.S. 

There has a body of Nine Men follow'^ on the track of the 
Enemey to be Sure What part they are Gone unto that is the 
prinacipl Man that Was Against our Scheme at Onok Quago 
and the Ciuga that promised You the five Scalps is Likewise 
proceeded to Get them for You. 
ADDRESSED: On his Majestys Servic 
To 

The Hon^ Sir William Johnson Bar* 
At Johnson Hall 

Q D W C^ 

INDORSED : [ ] 

April 7^h 1764 

[ ] of their burning 

[ ] 3 large Ind" 

[ ] Many other Houses 

FROM H. VAN SCHAACK ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 215-17, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 7th from H. Van Schaack, 
Albany, giving a summary of news: Sir Jeffery Amherst kindly received 

^A variant for Q D C, the meaning of which is given in the Explana- 
tion of Abbreviations. The double V or double U, to which the W 
answers, admits such a variety of interpretations that it is impossible to 
select one that would be satisfactory. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 395 

at home, Wilkes expelled from the House, all American officers ordered 
to join their regiments, no regiment to stay longer than three years in 
America, pay of commanders at outposts advanced, Michilamackina to 
be reestablished, Governor Monckton's return doubtful. General Gage 
to retain chief command, the opposition in Parliament increased from 1 1 I 
to 240, Col. Bradstreet to command the expedition, and the Assembly 
and Governor of Pennsylvania at loggerheads over the taxation of the 
Proprietaries' uncultivated lands; one of the 8th from James Phyn, 
Schenectady, about the difficulty of obtaining desirable Indian goods in 
Albany or York and the obstacles to transportation, also Mr. Johnson's 
expedition and Sir William's kindness; Captain John Grant's certificate, 
the 8th, Oughquago, to the faithful services of John Harper, 
interpreter and pilot; a letter of the 9th from John Glen Ju'r, 
Schonectady, about his efforts to send pork to Ogquago by way 
of Cherry Valley; a letter of the 9th from James Rivington, New 
York, concerning arrangements for furnishing books and papers, the weak- 
ness of the administration of Lord Halifax and Mr Grenville, the King's 
jealousy of popular statesmen and the victorious, serene ally (Charles 
William, hereditary prince of Brunswick-Liineburg?) who was lately in 
England, and the King's unfitness to be the head of the state; from the 
same, bill for reading matter and stationery, dated the 9th; a letter 
Of the 9th, from Colonel John Bradstreet, Schenactady, communicating 
the fact that he is to command the expedition and asking that Captain 
Grant and his company be enabled to join him, and that a Frenchman 
in the York company at Schohary be sent to him; a letter of the 10th 
from Captain Daniel Claus, Albany, announcing that he will at once set 
out for Lake George and saying that Colonel Bradstreet is exasperated 
at the provinces for their backwardness in raising men and condemns 
Albany roundly, that Johnson's success in bringing the Chenusios to terms 
meets with public approval, that he will endeavor to send Canadian 
Indians to the help of Johnson, that 300 Canadians under their own 
officers will proceed to Oswego as soon as the ice is out of Lake St Pierre 
near Aughquisasne, and Oswego will be the rendezvous of all the troops; 
one of the 12 th from George Wray, Albany, about arms and 
ammunition which he has sent according to command; one of the 12th 
from John Stuart, Charles Town, on the condition of the North Carolina 
Tuscaroras, as described by Governor Dobbs, the tardiness of the Creeks 
in giving satisfaction for crimes, the military posture of the southern 
provinces, the intention of 200 Cherokees to go out against the northern 
Indians and the success of Johnson's policy. 



396 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 



FROM ROBERT ELLIOT 
A. L. S.i 

Albany April 1 2'K 1764 
Sir, 

Agreeable to Gen'. Gages Orders to me I send with the bearer 
Serj'. Anderson fourteen good Men (of my o\vn company) to 
remain at Johnston Hall; and I hope they will Answer my 
Expectations in punctualy Obeying all such Orders as you may 
think proper to give them. 

I you have any Commands for Europe where I Expect 
shortly to go, shall with great pleasure Execute them as 

I am 
Sir, 

Your most Ob', humble Servant 
R: Elliot'. 
S*^. Will". Johnston 
Indorsed: April 12^^. 1764 

Lieut. Co". Elliots Letter 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 

A. L. s:- 

London Aprel 14^^. 1764 
Hon°. Sir '^^I'i^^ 

Yesterday I was Feaver^. with your Honours of the 12* 
Feby by M^ Penn & this Morning I had a Long Conversation 
with M^ Rice one of the Lords of Trade he is Much ples*^. with 
your haveing Sent out partys against y^. Dallaways & Shannas 
& is Convenst that itt is the only Method to bring about a paice 
with y^. Western Indians \v^. he Says thire Lordships has Much 



iln New York Historical Society, New York City. 
^Lieutenant Colonel of the 55th regiment. 

^From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., 
made by C. E. Carter before the fire; original destroyed. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 397 

att hart, he Says that they have all perrused the State of Indian 
affairs you Sent over by Me and aprove of itt tho it has Neaver 
been Read att the Board w^. he Says is owing to the Multi- 
plisetty of other Busness, Butt Says as y^. house w^ill Cartianly 
Breake up about y^. 20'^. they will Take under thire Most 
Seriouss Consideration what you have Recommended & he is 
of opinion y^ Plan will be follow^., Butt the True Rason why 
they have Don Nothing Relating to Indian affairs as yett is that 
they was affrade to Lay itt before the parlam*. knowing well 
that the Minority wold Lay hold of that opertunity to Expose 
the present Ministrys false oconemy & Meshers Taken in 
amerrica Sence y^. Reduction of Canada, I Supose in about 
twenty Days they will have Setled Every thing Relating to y'. 
Department and I hope to y"". Honours Satisfaction, I Shall 
attend them when they Sitt & Do Every thing in My power to 
Explain y®. Nesesity of Takeing the Most Speedy Meshers to 
Send you Instructions Independant of anyi Militery offiser that 
y'^. honour May Imbrase the first opertunity of Setleing a paice 
with y^. Westren Indians (w^. undoubtedly y^. Meshers you 
have been able to gett the Six Nations into will facilitate, and 
I Must Confess your Honour has been More Successfull In itt 
then I Expected you Could have been, they Talk of purchising 
presents hear to Send you for the Indians if they Do I will give 
them any assistance in my power I have Don Nothing in My 
own affairs as yett Nor Do I See any Greatt probebility of geting 
any thing in Restitucion for y^. Greatt Loss My Self & others 
Sustain^, y^ begining of y^. Late War M'". Penn is Greatly 
oblidg*^. to y*". Honour for the Acounts you Gave him Respect- 
ing y^ New Englanders & is in hopes of haveing y^ affair Setled 
when the Lords of Trade Sitt on Indian affairs & you May 
Depend that a proper Carrictor of M'. Leidess^ will be given 
to y^. Lords of Trade before his arivel hear by Several Gen- 
telmen of y^. army who know him & with whom I have an 
aquaintance hear. So that I flater My Self he will Come two 
Late to Do any thing he Expects, I am in hopes there will be 
^Lydius. 



398 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Something Don about y®. Froudelant Patens in y^. Mohock 
Cuntry, which they have So often Complain*^, of & which I 
Intend to push far with thire Lordships that I May Gett Some 
orders with Me to you on that Subject 

I Menshond in My former Letters w^. I hope you will have 
Received how Much Gineral Amhirst has been Condemd hear 
by all Ranks of pople for his Conduct in amerrica he is in very 
Low Esteem and apears to have very Litle Intrest his Brother 
was ordred y^. other Day to Mount Card as a Subaltren under 
y^. Comm^. of Co''. Neugent a young Man whoes first Com- 
mission in y^. army is Nott of four years Date 

your Repert of y^. Traty of Easton^ has been aiproved on by 
y^. Lords of Trade as a Just & Fair Representaton of y^. Case 
& M"". penn Honourably aquited of y^. Charges against him & 
the quakers Conductt found Greatt fault with Butt the Many 
Changes which has hapned att y^. board of Trade has prevented 
thire Writeing you on itt or publishing any thing on the Subject 
Butt M^ Penn will have itt Don as Soon as posable in order to 
Expose y^. pople of Pensylvania & Do that Justus to y"". honour 
w**. he is Convenst you Deserve on that ocation 

as Soon as y^. Lords of Trade has Setled y^. plan for the 
futer Manidgem*. of y*". Depertment I will Write y'^. honour 
M'. John Pownal has been Sick Neer a Month past So that he 
has Nott attended y®. Board as Soon as he is able to Do busness 
I will Wate on him & See what Can be Don about y^ Indian 
Deed M^ Penn M^ Allen & Co". Geo: Armstrong Desiers 
Me to present thire best Complem*^ to y^ honour, plese to Make 
Mine agreeable to M'. Johney Cap^ Clause & Cap'. Johnson 
& the Ladys & blive Me with Greatt Esteem & Regard y"". Most 

Humble & obeident 

Servant 

Geo: Croghan 
P S: 

there is No News Stiring hear Worth Menshoning Except 
one M"^. obryan a Gentelman of lerland who acted on y^. Stage 

^Held June 1 8-28, 1 762, at Easton, Pa. 



wsm^ 



iiomr^'ir^^sm 





'J^S-JyCBfSi^ 



CARICATURE SUPPOSEDLY OF LORD AMHERST 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 399 

heer haveing Marrey^. a Nobelmans Doughter Last Week — 

there has been Nothing Don Sence I Came to London by the 
Grate ones butt Squbeling & fighting See who will keep in power 
the publick Intrest is Neglected to Serve privet Intrest & I blive 
itt is hard to Say w^. party is y**. honistist was I to Spake My 
Mind I wold Say they are all R — g — e — s aLicke I am Nott 
Sorry I Came hear as it will Larn Me to be Contented on a 
Litle farm in amerrica if I Can gett one when I go back Butt 
I ashure y^ honour I am Sick of London & harttily Tier*^. of 
y**. pride & pompe of the Slaves in power hear which are to be 
pitied tho they Dont Deserve itt 

Plese to aquaint M^ Johny Cap*. Clause & Cap*. Johnson 
thet I have gott y®. Small things they Sent by Me for & will 
Send them by y^. first Ship that Sails for New York 
INDORSED: London, April I4*\ 1764 
From M"^. Croghan 



FROM ROBERT MC KEEN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 217-18, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 14th from Robert Mc- 
Keen, Cherry Vally, captain of rangers, reporting the return of Lieuten- 
ant Kees and his party from Aughquaga and his own efforts to get pro- 
visions to that place and asking orders relating to his company, as the 
time for which it was engaged has nearly expired; one of the 14th to 
General Gage, discussing the backwardness of provincial military prepara- 
tions, indicating the success of his policy of conciliating the Senecas and 
crushing the Delawares, mentioning the need of Indian goods for Colonel 
Bouquet's expedition and his intention to investigate some Indian mischief 
on the Pensilvania border and inclosing a sketch taken from a draft made 
by Thomas Hutchins, formerly in the Indian department, now an officer 
in the Royal Americans; one of the 16th to General Gage, reporting the 
work of Captain Montour's party in destroying all the Delaware settle- 
ments on the Susquehanna and suggesting that Mr Stuart, (Indian agent 
for the South) be directed to warn the Cherokees against receiving the 
Delawares, who are fleeing and are to be pursued by the Six Nations; 
one of the 1 6th from Bajoiton & Wharton, Philadelphia, acknowledging 
the favor of a business order, promising attention, speaking of Mr Cro- 



400 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ghan's misfortune at sea, and expressing a sense of Johnson's service to 
Britain and her colonies ; a proclamation of the 1 7th from Governor 
Ralph Burton, Montreal, (copy), forbidding trade with the Indians of 
the upper countries, authorizing interior trade with the domestic Indians 
at Carillon on the Ottowa and the Cedars on the St Lawrence, with due 
regard for the privileges of the seigneurs, prohibiting the sale of arms, 
ammunition or liquors to Indians, and agreeing to transport free to Mont- 
real any merchandise at Oswego; a resolution of an Assembly committee, 
the 19th, New York, providing compensation for a captain, two lieuten- 
ants and 47 privates, to be employed in scouting near Cherry Valley and 
Schoharry, at the rates paid for the same service on the frontiers of Ulster 
and Orange; a return of the 20th — enlistments and discharges of men 
employed in the Indian service at Onokquage; a letter of the 20th to Lieu- 
tenant Governor Colden, informing of the destruction of the Delaware 
settlements by Capt. Montour's Indians and rangers and the readi- 
ness of friendly Indians to act against the enemy; also that the scalp 
brought by Montour's party is that of the chief Delaware's nephew, that 
a captive, Emanuel Hover, of the Raritans, has been recovered, and a 
Delaware put under arrest. (Printed in Doc. rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 
7:628—29, where date is erroneously given as 28th) ; one of the 22d 
from Captain John Grant, Chery Vely, saying that he has thought it 
proper to order the making of canoes for transporting provisions, but he 
awaits instructions. 



FROM CADWALLADER COLDEN 
L. 5.1 

Fort George New York 22^ April 1764 
Sir 

By an Act passed Yesterday,^ Provision is made for con- 
tinuing one Captain, two Lieutenants and Forty Seven private 
Men on the frontiers of Albany, near Cherry Valley and 
Schoharry, from the first Day of May next, to the first Day of 
August. I cannot send you a Copy of the Act; the inclosed 
Copy of the Resolves of the Assembly, will inform you of every 
thing necessary. 



*In the Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 

^The Colonial Laws of New York, 4:758, 762 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 401 

I must desire that you will give Orders to such one of the 
Captains as you think most fit, and to two of the Lieutenants 
now Employed in that Service, to continue after the first of May 
agreable to the tenure of the Resolves; and that they Engage 
Forty Seven of the Private Men for the same Ser\'ice. The 
remainder of the Men, One Captain and two Lieutenants must 
be dismissed the first of May, 

You will please to Station this Company in such manner, and 
give such Orders to them for securing, and Scouting on the 
frontiers of Albany, near Cherry Valley and Schoharry as you 
shall judge proper : they had formerly my general Orders to take 
their Orders from you. — Two Shillings a Day is now added 
to the Wages of the Captain. 

I am with great regard 
S' 
Your most obedient 

humble servant 

Cadwallader Colden 
p. S. I intend to 
appoint M"" Tice, whom 
you recommended Capt". 
of a Company now to be Levied 
The Hon^^^ Sir William Johnson. 

INDORSED : April 22^. 1 764 

Lieu'. Gov^ Coldens Letter 
w'*' a resolve of y^. House 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. 5.1 

New York April 22^. 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I was favored with your Letter of the 6*. Ins*: just in Time 
to sent the Contents by the Packet, and am to hope the Peace 

^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



402 Sir William Johnson Papers 



you have made with the Senacas, will meet with His Majesty's 
Approbation; They were one of the Nations who deserved 
Punishment the Most, tho' perhaps the most difficult to punish, 
from their Connection with the rest of the Six Nations; who 
would not have failed to give them timely Notice of every stroke 
intended against Tliem. The Change they have made from 
War with us, to a War against their late Allies is very Sudden ; 
and their Sincerity in that Respect rather Suspicious. I think 
the Administration will be Satisfied with what we have done 
hitherto. Nothing remains but a {proper Chastisement of the 
Delawares and Shawnese, which His Majesty expects as a 
Thing Necessary before a Genl Peace, in order to Secure it's 
Duration. 

Colonel Bradstreet may now soon begin his Operations. The 
Jersey Troops are expected here in two or Three Days, and I 
am told those of Connecticut were in Forwardness. The Cana- 
dians were to leave Montreal about this Time. 

It is proposed to send Troops by the Ohio, but as the Province 
of Pensylvania raise none, it is Precarious. Colonel Bouquet, 
is set out for the Frontiers of Pensylvania, with Letters to the 
Governors of the Southern Provinces, in order to make Tryal 
of a new Project to get a Corps of Rangers to join His Majesty's 
Troops; As all old Methods, either by the Inability or the dis- 
tracted State of the Provinces have failed. Our Operations on 
the Ohio will depend on the success We shall meet with in this 
Project, of which He will give me the earliest Notice, and I 
shall immediately acquaint you therewith, and of the Time it 
will be proper to Send Him a Reinforcement of Indians. I 
think I before told you that a warrant was made out for Five 
Thousand Pounds Sterling as you desired, in a former Letter. 

I am now to acknowledge your Favors of the 14*^. and 16*'. 
Ins*., which arrived here on the 20*^ and 21'*.; The last P' 
Express. You will be a Judge when it will be best to send off 
a Body of Indians to accompany Colonel Bradstreet, and what 
it will be proper to send with Him for their Use; In Respect 



Posi'War Period, 1763-/774 403 

of other Nations, He shall meet with; as He goes on a Warlike 
Expedition, He can't be Supposed to have more with Him, 
further than to bestow a few Trifles, to shew his Regard, where 
it shall be necessary so to do; and must referr them to you for 
Settling all Affairs betwixt them and the English; when such 
Presents as are Customary, may then be made Them. I thank 
you for the sketch from M"" Hutchins^ Draught. 

The driving off the Enemy from the Cayuga Branch wall 
certainly be of very great Service to the Settlements ; They were 
very commodiously seated there, to infest the Frontiers. And 
I hope no more Tribes will be suffered to make their Nests either 
on Susquehanna or Delaware, or on any of the Branches of 
those Rivers. It's a Pity Cap' Montour was not able to destroy 
those Hornets, as well as destroying their Nests. I hope the Six 
Nations will however be able soon to make some Havock 
amongst our Enemys; and convince all who doubt of their Sin- 
cerity, that they are true and hearty in our Interest, and that they 
make War in Earnest. 

I shall write to M^ Stewart or the Governor of S°. Carolina 
as you desire, to talk to the Cherokees ; and I shall likewise write 
to Major Gladwin concerning the Twigtwees. He has not yet 
said any Thing concerning that Nation. They have made no 
Peace vsath Him as I have beared; It's therefore Necessary 
Some Measures should be taken with them. And He will find 
out the best way to attack them, if it shall be proper so to do. 
He seems to talk worse of the Wiandots of Sandusky than of 
any other Nation, And says they are better supplied. Having 
Ammunition, and plant Plenty of Corn, with which they Supply 
the other Nations. 

The Gov"", of New Orleans" has wrote Word to Colonel 
Robertson that Pondiac had wrote to the Commandant of Fort 



^Thomas Hutchins, of the Royal Americans, geographer, author of 
A Topographical Description of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and 
North Carolina. 

-D' Abbadie de St Germain. 



404 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Chartres, for a Supply of Ammunition and had made some 
Declarations of his Designs to recommence Hostilities. If Major 
Gladwin can discover this for certain, we must not wait for 
further Examples of his Treachery but catch Him in his own 
Net. A young Man has lately escaped from the Enemy to Fort 
Pitt, I believe from some Part of the Scioto. He hunted with 
a few Familys, who afterwards planted some Corn, and said 
they were to be joined by more who intended with them, to form 
a village on that spot. I suppose it to be on the Scioto or 
Musl^ingham, or a Branch of one Them. The Indians call it 
The Captains Creek. They had little Powder some a Pound, 
some half & others none at all. They chiefly used their Bows 
and Arrows in their Hunt. I am with great Regard 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 
I thank you for the Indian sketch 
of the villages which have been destroyed. 
Your will probably have seen by this Time, 
the War Clubs which I sent by Cap^ Balneavis.^ 
I don't know the Part of Pensylvania, which the 
Enemy fell upon, more than what you will see 
in the Papers. 

T. G: 
S"*. W«. Johnson Bar'. 
INDORSED : April 22^. 1 764 

General Gages Letter 



^Captain Patrick Balneavis, of the 42cl regiment. 



Posi-War Period. 1763-1774 405 



INTELLIGENCE FROM JOHNSON HALL 

Nejv York, April 23< [1764] 
By an express which arrived here on Friday last' from Albany, 
we have the following authenticated accounts respecting the 
further success of our Indian detachments against the Enemy 
Indians, viz: " That on the evening of the 15*^. of April instant, 
an Indian express came with a letter to Sir W"^. Johnson, at 
Johnson Hall, acquainting him that Capt. Montour, after pass- 
ing several creeks and rivers, which were very high and difficult 
at this season, arrived with his party, consisting of 140 Indians, 
with some rangers, the beginning of this month, at the Cayuga 
[Cayuta"] Branch of the Susquehanna River, which the enemy 
had abandoned with the utmost precipitation: That they had 
destroyed two large towns of well-built square loghouses with 
chimnies, and a large quantity of Indian com, and other pro- 
visions; several new saddles, kettles, some arms, axes, &*^., which 
they had probably taken from the inhabitants. After this, 
Montour proceeded to the large town of Kinestio, containing 
sixty good houses, which were likewise burnt; and there, as well 
as the other towns, killed a number of cattle, which could not 
be brought off; and sent parties in pursuit of the enemy, who 
have fled to the Southward, whilst with the few remaining, he 



^In the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Draper Manuscripts, 
2F29,30. The New York letter was printed in the Pennsylvania Gazette, 
Benjamin Franklin's paper, of April 26th and the issue of May 3d of 
the Maryland Gazette, pubHshed at Annapolis by Jonas Green. The 
unknown writer, who received the information from some one, probably 
Henry Van Shaack, in Albany, sent it apparently to Franklin's paper 
in Philadelphia. The intelligence following the letter appeared in the 
Boston Gazette of April 30th. 

^April 20, 1 764. 

*An unknown hand has inserted "Cayuta" in the text. But Caj^uga 
Branch was a name for the Chemung river according to Beauchamp, 
Aboriginal Place Names of New York, P- 42. 



406 Sir IVilUam Johnson Papers 

destroyed four other villages of the enemy, on the branches of 
the Susquehanna. 

And as the Senecas will now join with the Five Nations 
(since they have entered into a peace with Sir William, and 
made large consessions, for the performance of which they have 
left several hostages,) there is great reason to think our enemies 
will be overtaken and justly chastised for their defection." 

A Boston Forecast 

*' Sir William goes in June to Niagara to complete a firm 
peace with the Senecas, and the Western Indians. 

His Honor, Sir William, we are credibly informed, is likely 
further to reduce the pride and insolence of the Delawares and 
Shawanese ; the Indians which he has now engaged against them, 
being determined to shake them by the head — alias, to bring 
them to reason." 



FROM JOHN BRADSTREET ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 218-19, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: Sir William Johnson's receipt of April 23d 
to Abraham Mortier, for 21,428 32/56 dollars (£5000 sterling), 
received pursuant to Major Gen. Thomas Gage's warrant, with dupli- 
cates; a letter of the 23d from Colonel John Bradstreet, Schenactady, 
apprising that hostilities are renewed at Detroit and Niagara, Indians 
threaten the carpenters building vessels at the latter place, and he has 
ordered to Niagara 240 men now at Oswego, besides 300 Canadians 
on their way to Oswego from Montreal, and asking that the friendly 
Indians will aid in the defense of carpenters and vessels; one of the 23d 
from James Phyn- Schenectady, explaining delay in transporting goods by 
the impressment of " carriages " for bringing up the King's stores, and 
discrediting Colonel Bradstreet's advices of the reinvestment of De Troit; 
one of the 24th from the same about success and expectations in filling 
orders and the expected sailing of 16 " Schenectady men-of-war " man- 
ned with provincials; Duncan & Phyn's bill against Sir William Johnson, 
the 24th, Schenectady; a letter of the 24th to Colonel Bradstreet, express- 
ing doubt that the western Indians are able to invest Detroit in strength. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 407 

and that the Senecas are troubling Niagara, mentioning a message sent 
by him to the western nations, and one to the Onondagas and Cayugas 
for the protection of the Niagara carrying place, approving the employ- 
ment of Canadians for the defense of Niagara, and mentioning his orders 
to Captain Grant at Onoghquago; one of the 25th from Baynton, Whar- 
ton & Morgan, Philadelphia, concerning goods, amounting to £2618, 
Is, 6d, which they will send by way of New York, mentioning that 
they have given to the printer the intelligence of the submission of the 
Senecas and the zeal of other tribes in the English cause; one from the 
same, Philadelphia, informing that they ship goods with Captain Fergu- 
son, bound for New York, and mentioning the loss of the vessel which 
carried Mr. Croghan, the same date. 



FROM BAYNTON, WHARTON & MORGAN 
A. L. 5.1 

Philadelphia. 25th April, 1764. 
Sir 

We now inclose you a Bill of Parcels for the Indian Goods, — 
which you did us the favour of transmitting us an order for 
Amounting unto £2618:1 :6 and which we candidly assure you, 
we took the utmost pains in selecting, such of them as we had 
not, we purchased, we assure you on the lowest terms for cash. 

You will please to observe that the two Beaver Hats are not 
included in the Invoice which is occasioned by their being made 
illicit Articles; by an act of Parliment prohibiting exportation 
of them from one Colony to another. We should however have 
ventured to send them did not the men of war at New York now 
make a very strict and vigorous search. We could not find two 
Pieces of Red Baize in the City, and therefore we substituted 
four half pieces Red Flannel in their room; neither could we 
obtain six Pieces of deep purj^le Ratteen, wherefore we have 
presumed to supply their place with six Pieces of deep purple 
French Napt Half Thicks. 



^Extract made by Professor Clarence E. Carter, of Miami University, 
Oxford, Ohio, before the fire, the original was destroyed. 



408 Sir William Johnson Papers 

We undertake to deliver the Goods at our risque and Charge 
on board an Albany Sloop at New York from whence we 
humbly hope Your honor will not think it amiss; If they are at 
His Majesty's Risque and Charge, untill they are safely deliv- 
ered unto Dr. Samuel Stringer at Albany. Should you however 
conceive they ought not, We will sustain that hazaprd and 
expense. 

We have Zealously studied to execute your kind Orders in 
the best and most reasonable manner, and would therefore, feign 
persuade ourselves. We may justly anticipate Your Honours 
approbation. 

Baynton, Wharton & Morgan. 

The Honourable SiR WlLL"^ JOHNSON. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
^. L. S.i 

Nem York April 25^K 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I have received a Letter from Major Gladwin of 24*. of 
March. He says Nothing of any actual Commission of Hostili- 
ties against his Fort, further than that "The Enemy Indians had 
lately killed some Cattle in the Settlement, and went off." He 
does not say, who they were. He suspects them all and is upon 
his Guard, but I can not Make out whether They mean in Gen- 
eral to keep the Truce they made with Him or not. He has 
received Advice that the War Belts from the Senacas & Dela- 
wars had been sent every where, that the Pouteatimis of S^ 
Joseph's, the Cuatanons & other savages on the Ouabache & 
to the Southward had accepted them. I hear nothing in Par- 
ticular of the Detroit Indians. 

Lieu*. Colonel Browning tells me, He had received notice 
from Major Gladwin, to be upon his Guard, at Niagara, For 



■^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 409 

that the Wiandots of Sandusky & the Delawares were drawing 
towards his Post, in order, in Conjunction with the Senacas to 
fall upon the Carrying Place, I suppose the Measures were 
taken by the Senacas before they made Peace, to execute this 
Project, If they are Sincere in their Peace, they will no Doubt 
inform you of the Plans they had laid. It's certain we can 
receive no Injury at Niagara, without their being concerned in 
it. I am with great Regard 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 

humble Servant 

Thqs. Gage 
S«. W". Johnson Bar'. 
INDORSED: April 25 *\ 1764 

Genr'. Gages Letter 



FROM FELIX MYER ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 219-20, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 26th from Felix Myer, 
Canajohare, begging advice in the matter of resisting Wiihelmus Dille- 
bagh's design to dispossess him of the farm on which he lives, on back 
of letter a note from Hendrick Frey about seed peas and oats; one of 
the 27th to Major General Gage, informing of the apprehension of a 
dangerous Mohican, and of his measures pursuant to warnings from 
Colonel Bradstreet and Lieutenant Colonel Browning, for the security of 
the Niagara carrying place, charging the renewed hostility at Niagara to 
fleeing Delawares, discussing the late atttack on Detroit, and the means 
of gaining over the western nations and recovering influence with the 
Senecas, also the expenses of his department, and asking directions con- 
cerning numbers and destination of Indians; and Sir William Johnson's 
account, dated the 28th, of disbursements on account of the Indians 
from October 12, 1763. 



410 Sir William Johnson Papers 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. S.i 

Johnson Hall April 28'K 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have the utmost pleasure in y®. verry freindly Expressions, 
and the satisfaction you have declared in your favour of the 
15*. Ins*.^ concerning my endeavours for the public good, and 
I shall think myself always happy in maintaining your Freind- 
ship & good opinion. 

I am now prepareing to sett off a good party of Indians with 
proper officers, & a few Whites from these parts, Who are to 
proceed in a day or two to Niagra in order to secure the Carry- 
ing place there, & prevent the Enemys burning the Vessels now 
on the Stocks, which has been (as it is reported) threatened 
by them. A Report prevails that the Westeren Nations about 
Detroit notwithstanding their declarations to Major Gladwin are 
collecting to the Number of 2000 with designs ag^'. that & 
Niagra carrying place, but I am hopefull that the Belts I lately 
sent to these Nations, and the Speedy appearance of the Army 
with a good Body of Indians I shall procure to accompany them 
will check any Attempts which may be intended against the 
English. 

I am oblidged to You for Your designed favour to Capt". 
Johnson, and I herewith enclose You his Petition, with a Cer- 
tificate from the General. As his Services are at this Juncture 
much wanted here as my Deputy, I flatter myself you will be 
kind enough to dispense with his personal Attendance. 

I have a Just sense of your Freindship towards me concerning 
the Tract of Land w'^. I am desireous to procure a Pattent for, 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City, The draft 
destroyed by fire, 

^See Collections of the Nere York Historical Society, i8y6, Colden 
Papers, p. 324-25. 



Posl'War Period, 1763-1774 41 1 

and I shall within a little time be able to write to your Son for 
the Deputation of a Surveyor to run the Lines. 

It will give me infinite Satisfaction to see You at this place, 
and I hope a Journey hither may in some measure contribute to 
your Health & amusement, as well as prove an agreable relax- 
ation after your close attendance & business at New York. 

I dare say the Affair will not meet with much opposition 
according to either of the Plans you propose, & therefore I shall 
loose no time therein, after the present hurry is over in the mean 
time it shall be kept with the utmost privacy by me. I am with 
y*. greatest Sincerity 

& regard Dear Sir 

Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 

W'^. Johnson 
P. S : The Inhabitants of Cherry Valley 
who are apprehensive that some Sculking 
Ind"*. may take advantage of the Absence 
of the Oghquagoes, & fall upon Cherry 
Valley have represented their ardent 
desire to have the Company raised for its 
defence, continued there a Couple of Months 
longer, 
the Honor^'^. 

LlEU^. GOVERNOUR COLDEN 



INSTRUCTIONS TO CAPTAIN HENRY MONTOUR 
D. S. 

April 28, 1764 

Instructions [ ] 

You are to take the Indians now assembled [ ] 

and proceed with them with all Expedition to Oswego [ ] 

Commanding Officer will furnish you with provisions and 



412 Sir William Johnson Papers 

[ ] by Water to Niagara. On your arrival at that 

[ ] you are to shew these your Instructions to the Com- 

manding [ ] and according to his Orders and Direc- 

tions to take such Steps [ ] Scouting and accompany- 

ing the Convoys across the Carrying place as may most effectually 
protect them, having due regard likewise to the Security of Navy 
Island and the Vessells the [re] 

You are to endeavour to the utmost of your power to Sur- 
prize or Cut off, any partys of the Enemy who may be discov- 
ered, and to Encourage the Indians to the performance of their 
Duty by every Argument in your J)ower. 

You are to see that the Indians are properly supplied & con- 
tented with their Provisions &c as also that they have a Dram 
each, Morning and Evening, taking particular care that they 
Receive no more, and preventing Drunkenness or any Quarrels 
from Arising between them, and any of his Majestys Troops, 
or other persons or any Misunderstandings from arising amongst 
the Indians themselves 

On the Arrival of the Troops at Niagara who are to proceed 
on the Expedition, you are to communicate your Instructions to 
Colonel Bradstreet, or the Officer commanding them, and to 
observe and follow his Instructions & Orders causing the Indians 
to comply therewith, and you are to see that the Goods, Cloath- 
ing &ca ordered for the use of the Indians be fairly and equitably 
distributed amongst them, so that all their necessary wants are 
supplied. 

You are then to proceed on the Exjpedition, Joyning the rest 
of the Indians who accompany the Troops according to the 
Orders you [ ] 

all the Indians and White men [ ] amongst whom 

you are to the utmost of your power [ ]ing, a good 

understanding, and a readiness to go upon [ ] 

service required. 

You are to reconnoitre all Bays, Creeks &c as well as all 
places where the Troops are to Land, sending out Scouts for 



Postwar Period. 1 763-1 774 413 

preventing surprizes, and whenever you may meet with the 
Enemy to use your utmost efforts for destroying them, and 
assisting his Majestys's [ ] with Vigor and Resolution. 

You are to take particular care and Guard against any Indians 
who may endeavor to impose upon you under the pretence of 
Friends [hip] to endeavor to discover the evil designs of any 
Nation and to circumvent them. — Should you meet with any 
Indians who are really well disposed. You may assure them that 
the English have no ill design against any Indians who are 
peaceably inchned towards them, — provided they imediately 
deliver up all Whites, Negro's & French Amongst them, and 
comply with the conditions proposed to them by the Generals 
order, and you will carefully explain any Speech, or Message, 
which the Commanding Officer may think necessary to direct. 

Lastly, You will give me timely notice of any necessary 
intelligence, or remarkable occurrence which may happen, for 
the better government and direction of the Department of Indian 
affairs. Strictly cautioning the Indians from time to time not to 
listen to any reports, Speeches, or Messages but such as they 
shall receive from me, and not to suffer themselves to be led 
away by the delusive Arguments of any Indians whatsoever, or 
by any Idle reports, of w^. there are always many in the time 
of a Campaign. 

Given under my Hand at Johnson hall the 28*^ day of April 
1764. 

WJ — 

INDORSED: Instructions 

for Capt Henry Montour 
April 28^ 1764 



414 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WILLIAM BROWNING 
A. L. S.' 

Niagara April 30^^ 1764 
Sir 

The two Seneca Indians arrived here the 1 8*^ Ins*, with your 
fav' of the 4*^. which has made us Extreamly Easy here. Con- 
trary to their Expectations at Detroit, Where they made no 
doubt of this Carrying place being Invested by that time, by a 
Large number, (at least 1000) Indians; L* WilHams of 17'^ 
arriving the Same day in the Schooner from thence, I had her 
directly Loaded & sent of and make no doubt of her being 
before this day safely arrivd with a good Supply of provissions, 
to the Surprize of the French there, who Little Expected the 
possibillity of Effecting it, in this voyage they have found out a 
Safer cind better passage the north Side of the Large Island 
near detroit, out of musquet shott, and in a direct navigation 
of the wind that serve's to pass the Lake, Shortning the Course 
Eighty miles. Gladwin has sent two french men prisoners 
here, for their Security, a Scheme having been Laid to Rescue 
them, by Setting fire to the Fort, and Investing it at the Same 
time, these two know all the Principal promoters of this Indian 
warr there, and are to be sent up again with the army that go's, 
the three Indians went in the Canoe brought down by the former 
Express, they shoud be there before the Schooner, I however 
acquainted Gladwin of the purport of your Last Lett^ 

I am Sir 

your faithfull 
and most obed*. Hum*^'. Servant 

xr.r.r.,^0.^,. T WiLL I BROWNING 

ADDRESSED : To 

Sir William Johnston Baron*. 
Johnston Hall 
INDORSED: April 30*^. 1 764 

Lieu*. Coll Browning's 
Letter 



^In the Newberry Library, Chicago, 111. 



Post-War Period, J 763-1 774 415 



FROM DANIEL CLAUS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 220, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: a letter of April 30th from Captain Daniel Claus, 
Montreal, about a conversation with Governor Burton, the journey of 
Canadian Indians to Johnson, a dangerous Jesuit at Aughquisasne, John 
Johnson's war party, condolence by the Caghnawageys for Captain 
Lottridge and Sir William's message to them, a message to the Indians 
at Missilim'k acquainting them that public business must be transacted 
at Niagara and not Montreal, opposition to the selection of Governor 
Murray for the government of Canada, the submission of the Chenussios, 
prevention of illicit trade, Mrs. Burton's remembrance of Johnson's hos- 
pitality, Pere Roubaud's recantation, the aversion of the Caneghsadageys 
for war, and the writer's desire to resign his deputy Indian agency; John 
Meanner's receipt, the 30th, Fort Pitt, to Alexander McKee for six 
months' pay as Indian interpreter; Alexander McKee's receipt, the 30th, 
Fort Pitt, to George Croghan for six months' pay as assistant Indian agent ; 
Alexander McKee's receipt, the 30th, to Sir William Johnson for six 
months' pay; a letter of May 3d from Thomas Mcllworth, Schenectady, 
asking consent to purchase Mr Marsh's clerkship (of Indian affairs) ; 
one of the 3d to General Gage, acknowledgment of a warrant 
for £5000, intelligence of Captain Montour's departure for Niagara, 
the arrest of a negro refugee, called Sam Tony, who has an evil 
influence along the Susquehanna, and the recovery of a prisoner, Samuel 
Quinn, carried away from Minisink, and reflections on present relations 
with the Senecas, the worth of prompt action for impressing Indians, the 
value of rangers, the connection of Delawares with recent crimes, their 
desperate condition, Pondiac's attitude, the restlessness of Indians during 
delays, and a suggestion for employing the friendly Indians against the 
Delawares about the Scioto and Muskingam. 



TO JOHN BRADSTREET 
Df. 

May 5. 1764 

I ] 

As the time draws near for the Sloops to [ ] 

Indians being all in readiness for that purpose I must [ ] 

you to inform me where you think it best that the Indians 
[ ] the Army, at what time, and What Vessells, or 



416 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Craft there [ ] transportation over the Lakes? 

For my part I am of opinion that the Indians from the 
[ ] Cayuga, might assemble at Oswego, and tlie 

Senecas (of whom there [ ] a good many), at Niagara; 

If there are whaleboats, or [ ] Battoes, they will be the 

best, the Ind^ being but poor hands in large [ ] 

Capt Montour with another Officer, and about 100 Indians 
[ ] a few days ago for Niagara, and will Joyn you at 

that place, so that [ ] will have a very large body of 

them. 

I think it not amiss to mention to you, that as the Western 
[ ] had desired peace, AX^ch was agreed to, it has been 

all along considered that the Shawanese and Delawares were 
they against Whom the Expedition was designed, in case the 
Troops are destined otherwise, & to rdbuild the Outposts, it v/ill 
be necessary that the Indians be apprised of it, and I am of 
opinion if the Troops do not proceed as was Expected by the 
Indians, the latter might from Lake Erie be detach [ ] 

to good purpose against the Shawanese &ca who have Rendez- 
voused in Scioto plains & other adjacent places. [/ need not 
observe to ijou that] Noths will be more necessary for gains the 
affections of the Inds. than the communication of Sentiments, 
and some [the General] heads of the plan proposed [are to the 
winning the affections of the Indians,] they cant make bad use 
of it, and it will give them an Alacrity which they have seldom 
shewn with us, because they were generally kept in the dark, 
contrary [ ] the practise of the French who [sensible of 

their odd tikiy of thinking] knowing their humour reposed some 
Confidence in them, and by that means removed every Jealousy 
[thought,] and kept them in good humour, but I have no doubt 
that these Remarks of mine altho* well intended will be un- 
necessary to you. I [ 

]nable at Niagara [ 
,] now I shall send you an Invoice of the [ 
] but I must request 2 good Batteaus for the transp [ort] 
[ ] Goods to Oswego with Oil'd Cloth's for Covering — 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 417 

One M^ Robert Adams a very honest, but unfortun [ate] 
[ ] has appHed to me to request you would indulge him 

with a pass[ ] accompany the Troops with Necessarys 

and Stores, I should be much obliged to you if you thought it 
proper to do him that favour, and I dare say he will endeavour 
to please — 

I shall Expect the favour of your Answer that I may g[ive] 
the necessary orders agreable thereto, and 

I am 

Sir, 

Colonel Bradstreet 

INDORSED: [John]son Hall May 5, 1764 
To Coll Bradstreet 



FROM WILLIAM HOWARD ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 221—22, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of May 6th from William Howard, 
Michilmakinack, to General Burton, commending a chief who has been 
loyal and mentioning the desire of the Indians concerned in the massacre 
at that place to make their submission; a letter of the 7th from William 
Darlington, New York about an order, an unsatisfactory butler (John 
Heath Mullis) and a letter for Mr Hansen, delivered to Mr Vander- 
heyden, who promised to send it to his brother in London; one of the 
7th from Robert Leake, New York, sending good wishes for the success 
of Johnson's measures and the expedition led by his son, praising Captain 
Montour, mentioning misfortunes that impend over the colonies from rates 
and taxes and a restricted market and denouncing "a Fellow born at 
Boston named Husk," who has got on the blind side of Charles Towns- 
hend and thrust himself into Parliament; one of the 8th from John 
Harris, Paxton, Pa., about payment of two notes given him by Andrew 
Montours and his son, John, favors he has rendered to men of the Six 
Nations, the consideration heretofore paid to the "Basket & Broommaking 
Bandittey" in that province, one Hicks, who has voluntarily lived with 
the savages, and the confusion of his evil designs by friendly Indians 
under Johnson's influence, sent by Captain Thomas McKee; Duncan & 

14 



418 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

Phyn's bill, the 8th, Schenectady, against Sir William Johnson; a letter 
of the 1 0th from John Welles, Montreal, about goods at Niagara, which 
he wishes Johnson to take for the discharge of a bond, stagnation of trade, 
want of news from Matthew Wade since his departure and Captain 
Lotteridge's debts ; one of the 1 0th from Daniel Horsmanden, New York, 
expressing thankfulness for aid rendered to the restoration of peace and 
describing a tract of land near Connajohaire for which he desires a 
purchaser; one of the 10th from Edward Chinn, Montreal, for the 
Indian traders in the city and government of Montreal, concerning a 
memorial to General Gage and the losses of traders at Michilimakinac ; 
one of the 1 0th from Daniel Claus, Montreal, describing the taking up 
of the hatchet by the Caghnawagey, Caneghsadagey and Aughquisasne 
Indians, Governor Burton and Lieutenant Colonels Manswell ( Maunsell) 
and Christie being present, and the speeches made to stir them, asking 
the appointment of some one in Albany or York to answer drafts, and 
mentioning a measure to stop the Michilim'c Indians from coming to 
Montreal, the attempts of the merchants who traded at the upper posts 
to obtain compensation for losses, apprehensions of new hostilities about 
Detroit, and falsehoods circulated among the Indians by Frenchmen; one 
of the II th to General Gage, asking for a sailboat to convey him to 
Oswego, the use of a vessel from Oswego to Niagara and a guard of 
25 or 30 men, also for tents and oilcloths, and suggesting that the 
Indians be permitted hereafter to buy rum at the posts and shorten their 
days as they like with it ; one of the 1 1 th from John Ellison, London, 
inquiring about Gabriel Ellison, lately a captive among the Senecas, and 
suggesting that this man is the writer's brother, who was kidnapped in 
London 1 years before ; one of the 1 1 th from David Vanderheyden 
Jun'r, New York, reminding of a letter from his brother, D [irc]k Vander- 
heyden; one of the 11th to the lords of trade: mentions duplicates of 
reports sent under an apprehension that the originals were lost when Mr 
Croghan suffered shipwreck, details the advantages gained by war parties 
sent out and shows the good effect in the prompt submission of the 
Senecas, and speaks of coming negotiations with the Senecas and western 
nations at Niagara and a policy for promoting a division between them, 
the preparations of Pondiac for new hostilities, the alarm felt by the 
Delawares and an intention to pursue them further, also of provisions for 
securing Niagara, (printed in Doc. ret. to Col. Hist. N. Y. 7:624-26.) 



Posl-lVar Period, J 763-1 774 419 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 

A. L. 5/ 

London May 11^^. 1764 
HoN'^. Sir 

I have been hear three Months this Day and No Doubt you 
will be Surprised to hear that thire Lordshipes have Neaver 
Taken under thire Consideration Indian affairs Nor Even has 
the State of y^ Department w*^. you Sent by Me been Read 
att y^. board I wrote you by the Last packett what I tuck to be 
y*. Rason why they Defer*^. itt Till y^. parlament broak up w*^. 
I am Now Convenst was y^. True Cause Sence the parlament 
Broak up they have putt itt of from Day to Day, butt when 
they May Sitt on Indian affairs is in My opinion very uncartian 
as y^. Ministry and pople hear in power attend to Nothing Butt 
thire own privett Intrest withoutt Ever giveing any attension 
to public affairs unless push^. by Some parlementry Intrest w^, 
as Seldom hapens unless to Serve privett Ends and opose y^. 
popel in power 

I have Spoke Severall Times to M^ Pownall about y^ Indian 
Grantt Butt Dont find him So willing to push itt as I Could 
Wish tho he is very polite & Comlesant Butt y*. More I am 
Aquainted with those pople y^. Less I find them Sinceer I men- 
shon'^. itt to one of y^. Board of Trade who Tould me he was 
Shure y^. Board wold have No objection to itt, I shall this Next 
Week Menshon itt to Lord Hallifax & Lord Hillsborough & 
when I know thire opinion Shall Insist on M^ Pownals pre- 
senting the Memorial w'^. I am Convenst he Might have Don 
and Carry'^. Long Sence 



^From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., 
made by C. E. Carter before the fire; original destroyed. 



420 Sir William Johnson Papers 

M^ Allen^ who has a Gineral aquaintance hear with Most of 
y^. best famelys has Taken Greatt pains to Sett y^ Honours 
Services in a proper Light & has Commited to Wrighting y"". 
Several Services Sence y^ first undertaking to Serve y^ Cuntry 
in that Departm^ with y^. Greatt Expence you Must have been 
att outt of y^ own privett fortune, which he & I Left with one 
Counceler Jackson to Correct this Last Week and when Don 
will be Lay"^. before M^ Grenvile the present Lord High Trus- 
herrer w^. Can Do No Hurt if itt Dose No good as itt will 
No'tt be presented as from you Butt by a Gentelman who knows 
your Services & wants Nothing for himself Butt to putt them 
In mind of thire Remisness in pasing over y^ Many Emenint 
Services without Notice M^ Penn is Likewise pushing all his 
Influence with Every body for y*". Intrest & we flater our Selves 
that those Meshers will be attended with Success 

M"-. Pownall Some Days Ago asked Me if I Did Nott think 
y^. Department of Indian affairs Could Nott be brought into a 
Nerror Cumpass in order to Save you Truble So that you Might 
Call a Conference onst a year att y"". own house in order to 
Renew frendshipe with y^. Nations & give them Some presents, 
& that all y^. other busness Might be Conducted att y^. Several 
Tradeing Marts or posts by Comisesarys Imlploy*^. by a Gentel- 
man to be apointed ast Comisesary Gineral to Inspectt y^. Trade 
& Collect a Duty to be Lay<^. on the Trade with y*. Indians as 
I had been inform*^, before that his Brother the Governor had 
often Menshon^. in Company Some hints of this Kind, I Made 
him Litle answer on that Head only S^. I thought itt a Delicatt 
point, Butt I am of opinion that this is a plan of M^ Pownalls 
& his brothers and that his brother is to b^. y^. Comisery Gineral 
if Such a plan Takes place I Blive the Consideration of Indian 
affairs will be Entred on Next Week when I Shall be able to 
Write you More fuly Relating to y^ Honours Departm'. tho 
from y^. Little attenshion hitherto paid to itt I have no Greatt 



^William Allen, chief justice of Pennsylvania, 1 750-1 774, 



Posl^lVar Period, 1763-1 774 421 

hopes of itt being Regulated on y'^. plan you Recommended, 
tho they Say they aprove of Every thing you Wrote them 

Sence I Wrote you by y^ Last packett y^. account of one of 
y^ party haveing Taken Cap* Bull & forty More Dallaways 
prisners aRive^. which has been Much Cretisised on M^ Amhirst 
& Some others who wold have pople blive that by y^. Cecesion 
of arms att the Detroit Last fall that y^. Indians was Tier^. of 
y^. Warr and wold Now Submitt to any Terms we plesed to 
Impose on them, wold Insinueatt that is was only a Stroak of 
policy of yours in order to Take y^. Honour to y^ Selves of 
puting an End to y*=. Indian Warr & that those Indians throw 
themselves in y^. Way of y^. Six Nations by agreement in order 
to Make y^. paice & a hint of this Kind was Thrown out in one 
of y^. papers (w'^. I Sent you) Co''. Lee 6c I had Some thoughts 
of answering itt Butt on Consideration of its being a very Low 
thing we Defer'', itt till y^. arivel of a packett w'^. is hourly 
Expected 

I Wated on Sir William Beaker y^. other Day to See if he 
Wold Intrest himself as he has Greatt Intrest with M"". Allen 
& M^ Penn in the aplication on y'. Honours Ac'^ to y^. Min- 
istry Butt found he Seem^. to Decline itt y^. Truth is he Expects 
to be Reimburst y^. Mony Stopt from him when Contractor & 
will Nott use his Influence for any body Butt himself, & this 
Seems to y^. Sperrett of all y^. pople in this kingdom att present 

Gineral Conaway^ & Several other Gentlemen has been 
Dismist his Majesty Service as Soon as the parlament Broak 
up for voating against y^. Court & others has given up thire half 
pays wK makes a greatt Noise & tis thought will Make greatt 
Divisions in parlament Next Cesion I have Some thoughts of 
going to Ireland Next Month Indeed I Should have gon before 
Now Butt that the Lords of Trade Desiered I wold Stay till they 
Could Setle y^. plan to be sued for y^. Manidgem'. of Indian 
affairs, w*^. when Don I will Wright your honour fully on pray 



^Henry Seymour Conway, later secretary of state. 



422 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Make My Complem'*. agreeable to M^ John Cap'. Johnson & 
Cap'. Clause & Ladys and Blive me with Greatt Esteem & 
Regard your Honours 

Most obeident 

and Humble 
Servant 
Geo: Croghan 
PS: y^ Honour was ples^. to Write Me that if you Could 
you wold Take part of y®. goods from Baynton & Warton w'^. 
I Menshon*^. to you in My Leter by M^ M^.Kee w^. if you 
Can will greatly oblidge Me 
To the Honourable 

Sir William Johnson Bar'. 
INDORSED: London May 11'^^. 1764 
M^ Croghans Letter 



TO JOHN TABOR KEMPE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 222—23, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire : a letter of May 1 2th to J. Kempe, Attorney 
General, showing the injustice of the Kayaderosseras patent, the efforts of 
interested persons to uphold it, and the determined opposition of the 
Indians, and asking opinion and advice in the matter of defeating that 
unjust claim; one of the 12th from De Couagne, Niagara, an incident at 
the fort which has disturbed the relations of the soldiers with the Ginesse 
Indians, the difficulty of accomodating Indians who visit that post, and 
the desire of the Ottoways to obtain peace through the intercession of the 
Hurons; Israel Horsfield's bill, the 12th, against (William) Darlington 
for goods ; a letter of the 1 3th from Ab'm Mortier, New York acknowledg- 
ing a warrant for £5000 sterling, inclosing receipts, agreeing to pay £2000 
currency to Mr Darlington and answer drafts for the remainder and 
mentioning that he can furnish dollars ; Duncan & Phyn's bill, the 1 4th, 
Schenectady, against Sir William Johnson; a certificate of Henry Glad- 
win, commandant, the 1 4th, Detroit, stating that Peter and three other 
Mohawks arrived with letters May 6 and left with letters May 1 4, with 
a minute of articles given them; Frederick Sigismund Lentz's bill, the 
1 4th, New York, to William Darlington for a purchase of tobacco, 
receipted; Elizabeth Bend's bill, the 14th, against William Darlington 



Posl-War Period /763-I774 423 

for goods; a letter of the I5tli from A. M. C. Curol, Lac Huron, to the 
commander at Niagara (copy), commending the behavior of the savages 
at Lac Huron and la Claire and informing of the capture of four English 
people at Fort de Levi by Indians of Baic de quinte, the recovery of two. 
whom he will convey to Montreal, the pacific approaches of the Sauteux 
and the disposition of other tribes (In French); one of the 15th from 
brancis Wade, Philadelphia, offering to supply Indian goods more cheaply 
than New York merchants, asking a few lines by Captain Magee and 
sending congratulations on the safe return of Captain Johnson; one of the 
15th from John Glen Jun'r, Schonectady, acknowledging commissions 
for officers, mentioning stores which he has sent to Niagara by way of 
Oswego and his failure to obtain tents and asking directions about a boat 
which is to be made for Johnson ; one from De Couagne about a young 
Fox chief who complains of being enlisted by a deception, John Johnston 
on the same subject, no date; Elizabeth Naughton's bill, the I5lh. New 
York, against William Darlington for merchandise and for making flags. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. S.' 

New York May /6"'. 1764. 
Dear Sir, 

I have received your Letters of 27'^^. of April and of the 3*^ 
Ins*., the first inclosing an Acc^ of your Expences which I must 
see to have put in the usual Form; and must beg you will be 
so good to send me the vouchers of the same Nature of those 
Mentioned to you in a Letter of two or three days ago; relating 
to the like Transactions with S^ Jeffery Amherst; For I under- 
stand that these Vouchers are for the future to be transmitted 
to the Pay-Office, at stated Times. It will not take much Time 
to put your Ace', in order. 

It's right to be on the sure side, but in my opinion we have 
rather taken the Alarm about Niagara too suddenly and it might 
have been better, had not the Indians been sent off so early, 
particularly as the Connecticut Troops, if they are to pass this 
by water, have not Yet appeared. They may ho^vever have 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



424 Sir William Johnson Papers 

marched by Land. I was so much of your Opinion, that not- 
withstanding the Reports of such Numbers of Indians Collect- 
ing, which were to fall upon every Post, for we beared from 
every Fort, the attack was to be upon them, that I threw in a 
large Convoy of Provisions with no great Escort into Fort Pitt, 
being well satisfied no such Nmribers could collect at that season 
and I must own that I shall not believe the Indians of Detroit 
will commence their Hostilities, till it shall be certified that they 
have done it. If they do, it must be with Design to abandon the 
Country and go to the Mississipi. 

As you will send a large Body of Savages with Col°. Brad- 
street, it only remains to supply Colonel Bouquet with another 
Corps, if He can assemble a sufficient Body to make the proper 
Attack. He is now employed on that Business, but I have not 
beared what success He has had. 

I hope the reocupying of the Posts, will not take up much 
Time, there will not be a great deal to do to them, and I shall 
curtail their Numbers, by Possessing very few, and the Business 
of Peace or War must be fixed with the western Indians before 
that undertaking can be executed. Colonel Bradstreet will no 
Doubt be glad to discharge the greatest Number of his Indians 
the Moment He perceives there will be no further use for them 
with Him. And I shall write to Him on this subject, but on this 
Head it will be impossible to say any Thing p)ositively, as it 
must depend so much on Chance and accident, and at such a 
Distance, as must be determined upon on the spot. The shewing 
a Body of Indians and Canadians with Him at Detroit, might 
have as great an Effect as any Thing we could do to fix Them 
in their Disposition for Peace, and make those Savages hearty 
and desirous to cultivate our Friendship with Sincerity. 

The Negro you have sent down, may easily be disposed of 
in the West-Indies, and if the Indian you speak of was sent after 
Him, it would effectualy prevent them from doing further 
Mischief. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 425 

I understand by your Letter of the 3^. Ins', that it is only part 
of the Delawares who have proposed Peace, Those who have 
been lately drove from their Habitations on the Branches of 
Susquehanna who have engaged their Friends the Senacas, to 
interpose in their Behalf. Those villains have received more 
of our Favors and done us more Mischief than all the Indians 
together. The Terms of Peace I send them are, That they 
shall deliver up the Ringleaders of the War, and the Murderers 
of Clapham,^ & the Traders, to be put to Death for their Crimes. 
That they deliver up all White Men, & Negros whether Prison- 
ers or adopted, French or English. That they renounce their 
Alliances, with any other Indians than the Six Nations. That 
they renounce in Favor of the Crown all Rights and Claims 
which they ever had, to the Lands on the East side of the Ohio, 
from the Head of that River to the Sea. (In this Case the 
Claims of so many Tribes to those Lands might be reduced to 
those of the Six Nations) That, if they have fallen on any of 
our Traders & plundered them, they shall repay the Losses of 
such Traders, at a certain Number of Skins P^ year. 

You will be pleased to add such other Articles as you see 
Necessary. Some of those concluded with the Senacas may be 
proper here. Viz'. The Reciprocal Justice & satisfaction prom- 
ised betwixt the English and Indians and such others as you 
Judge convenient. Hostages must be immediately given for the 
Performance of the Articles and a sufficient Number of Them, 
to be well treated, but Care to be taken, that they do not escape, 
and they should be secured till the Articles are fullfilled. These 
People should not neither be suffered again, to settle themselves 
so conveniently to annoy us. I must acquaint you, that I have 
in view when Peace is established, to make a strong settlement 
about or near Fort-Pitt, to accomplish this the King should have 
a large Tract there to be granted out in small Lolls. It's highly 
Necessary on many Acc'^ that we should become formidable 
on the Ohio. It must become the chief Communication with 



^Colonel of Pennsylvania provincial troops. 



426 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Mississipi. The Lands yielded to the King for his sole use 
in that spot, should be explained, that He may give it to be 
cultivated to whom He pleases, I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 
Sir William Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED : New York, May 1 6^^ 1 764 
Genrl Gages Letter 
2 



FROM JAMES RIVINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 223—25 are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of May 17th to Mr Rivington 
about news and reading matter, including A New Histor]) of the World 
by Guthrie & Gray, and the bad effect on the Indians of the delay of 
the Connecticut troops, (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 2:808; Q, 2:469) ; 
one of the 1 7th to General Gage, touching the effects on friendly Indians 
of the delay of Colonel Bradstreet's expedition, the sentiments of the 
western tribes and the Senecas, the machinations of the fugitive Delawares, 
the necessity of attacking the Delawares and Shawanese at Muskingum 
and Scioto plain, the possibility that the Cherokees will afford an asylum 
to the Shawanese, and the justice of furnishing a surgeon to the Mohocks; 
one of the 1 7th from Daniel Claus, Caghnawagey Village, on the depar- 
ture of 60 Caghnawagey and Aughquisasne warriors, the excuses of the 
Caneghsadageys, Arundax and Alkonkins to avoid going on the warpath. 
Governor Burton's measures to prevent the Michilimakinak and other 
western Indians from coming to Montreal, two parties of friendly 
Swegachy Indians, and the difficulties of Claus's position, inclosing a list 
of chiefs in the Caghnawagey party; Jacob Roome's bill, the 17th, New 
York, for pipes bought by William Darlington for Sir William Jonston, 
receipted ; a letter of the 1 8th from William Darlington, New York, about 
a letter forwarded on the Harriot packet to the Lords of Trade, articles 
sent in charge of Garrit MarseHs to the care of S. Stringer, and presents 
from Mrs Darlington, inclosing Mr Marsh's receipt ; one of the 1 8th 
from James Phyn, Schenectady, about goods sent, goods expected and 
his desire to merit continuance of business orders; Duncan & Phyn's bill. 



Post-War Period. 1763-1774 All 

the 18th, Schenectady, to Sir William Johnson for jjoods ; (Mr Marsh's) 
receipt, the 18th, New York, for £1661, Ms, 9d lo he dehvered for 
William Darlington to Sir William Johnson; a letter of the 21st from 
John Glen Ju'r Schoncctady. about the boat which is being made for 
Johnson and pork which will be sent up on the following day; one of 
the 21st from De Couagne, Neagara, giving the Senecas' explanation of 
the killing of a man of the 80th regiment, with accounts of the presence 
of Shawnous and Dilleways in the Ginnesee country, and praising Captains 
Montore and Johnston ; one of the 2 1 st from Cornelius Glen, Schenectady, 
regarding a voucher for provisions received by Captain Grant; one of 
the 22d from John Glen Jun'r Schonectady, about pork sent up in charge 
of John Hassord and pork and flour sent to replace provisions furnished 
to Captain Grant; one of the 22d from the same, Schonectady, about 
Indian goods sent off with Mr Van Eps, ammunition, transportation for 
a Seneca squaw, provisions, the delay of Colonel Bradstreet's expedition, 
food and lodging for the Caghnawagie Indians and accouterments for 
the troop; one of the 22d to Governor Burton, per Lieutenant Donnellan, 
late of the Royal Americ-ins, mentioning the return of Captain Johnson, 
the destruction of Delavv'are towns and villages by Captain Montour and 
preparations to furnish a force of Indians to accompany the expedition, 
and approving Burton's measures to suspend trade with the western Indians 
and keep them away from Montreal; one of the 22d to the Earl of Hali- 
fax, describing the effects of recent operations of friendly Indians against 
hostile nations, speaking of the coming conference at Niagara and dis- 
cussing the true policy in Indian affairs, (printed in Doc. rel. to Col. Hist. 
N. Y. 7:632-33); one of the 24th from Colonel John Bradstreet, an- 
nouncing that the Connecticut troops Avill soon arrive and expressing pleas- 
ure at the prospect of being joined before reaching Oswego by the Canada 
Indians; one of the 24th from George Wray, Albany, about powder and 
musket shot sent to Johnson and ammunition delivered at Montreal, for 
which he has taken Captain Hare's receipt; one of the 25th from James 
Phyn, Schenectady, notifying of goods sent up and inclosing invoice, also 
giving information, brought by Henry Hambach, lately "sent Prisoner to 
the Illinois," of the defeat of an army by Indians about 1 00 miles above 
New Orleans; one of the 25th from John Macomb, Albany, reminding 
of an unanswered letter, in which he requested a business favor; Duncan 
& Phyn's invoice of goods sold to Sir William Johnson, the 25th, Schen- 
ectady. 



428 Sir William Johnson Papers 



ELIPHALET DYER TO SUSQUEHANNA & DELAWARE COMPANY 

A. L. S. 

London Ma^ 25'^ 1764 

[ 

1 of [ ] 

to you therefor, as well as for the many Useful! [ ] 

therein contained, which Shall Indeavour to have [ 
best Manner am Able. I have lately wrote you by [ ] 

Bound to Boston, in which are returning one Mr Jarviss of 
Middletown, as also M"". Hubbard of Guilford two GenIP 
[ ] to whose care have Committed the Same ; therein 

is really con[ ] thing that then Occurrd, Needfull to 

Communicate, & In[ ] Since has happened worthy of 

Notice, I doubt not but you [ ] Six or Seven 

months, the time I have been in England [ ] to 

Accomplish & bring to pass much more than I have done ; Indeed 
[ ] Sensible I could have had the Affair finished 

& ready to [ ] home by this time, but then it must 

have been conclusive [ ] us; I want to return to 

my Native Country & family much more [ ] you can 

possibly desire, but though I am far from Saying, or pretend to 
Say, we ever Shall Succeed, but of this am Certain that it is 
Patience & Perseverance alone that afford hopes, you are Sen- 
sible that most Inoppertune was the Season in which I came 
here, the Indians [ ] in Tumult, & Commotion, the 

People on Susqh & Delaware killed, & drove of those lands, 
we were in persuit of, and all I could hear about [ ] 

was to our Utmost disadvantage, to which I could make no 
replye or none of y^ Comt^^ undertook to write me y^ least word 
in y^ affair till was disuaded by every one that Appeard the least 
friendly, not to applye in any publick way as yet but in Private 
with Such men of Note to whom could gain Admission, which 



^Several lines burned ofF. 



Posl-War Period, 176'3~J774 429 

method have been ever Since persuing; but it may be Esteemed 
a Very great Priviledge to have Six minutes with the great here, 
once in Six Weeks; I have been used to driving as much as most 
any with us, but here there is no Such thing, am Oblidgd to take 
quite different method; but hope not without Some Success, that 
is I beHeve the affair is rather gaining ground; it Never has been 
lookd upon here, as whimsical romantick. Moon Shme and the 
like, but a Very Serious affair, in which many here wish our 
Success, & it is as True many doubt of it, though Others think 
it not altogeather Improbable. As I was in hopes we could have 
procurd Some good evidence of with regard to Sr William 
Johnsons sending those Indians on their Message to the Gov- 
ernour & assembly last May to which purpose was Encouraged 
by a letter from M"" Gray Sometime Since, waiting for which as 
also for Other reasons mentioned in my letters to y^ Comtees 
before this Occasiond me hitherto to delay entering the Petition 
but as their now Seems but little hope of recieving any further 
Evidences in the Affair am determind if not Strongly Advised 
[ ] the [ ] 

the King in Council, or [ ] it take its Course, 

[ ] formed will be, that as to y^ Claims of M"^ Penn 

[ ] on his grant, & the Grant to the Governour & 

Company [ ] Colony of Connecticut! that is as to 

ye Affect & opperation [ ] grants to y^ lands in 

Question will most probably be [ ] to the Attorney 

& Solicitor generall for their Opinion; [ ]s to the 

Expediency of forming a New plantation, and [ ]ment, 

for the Benefit of the purchasers & their Associates, [ ] 

Very much referr"^ to the Board of Trade, tho must inform you 
that however Success full we may be in the general [ ] 

& design Yet no free Charter Government at this [ ] 

can be Expected, Neither as I am Informed is there the 
[ ]st hopes of having a Grant free of Quit Rents; 

wether [ ] should think those Incumberances would 

be Such as [ ] render the Affair not worth pursuing 



430 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shall leave with you to determine. I hope Still may be able 
to return by the fall, either by having Accomplished the business 
I came Upon, or Otherwise in Answer to my last by Cap* Dever- 
son I may be permitted to return, & leave the affair with M"^ 
Counsellor Gardiner to persue as therein proposed; as I hope 
not to be Oblidged to tarry over Another winter, as it would be 
Very Tedious to me as Also Expensive to the Companys but 
by yours I think am not to Expect any more Money if so it is 
Very certain what I have allready had will not Carry me over 
Next winter as I think you Cannot desire me to wait for & 
Expect my wages on my return which by Next Spring would 
Amount to £300. And Am Advisd that even the Expence 
Attending the Petition it Self when fully heard &c will not be 
less than two or Two hundred & fifty pounds beside my Expences 
living here &c but however were I to See an Apparent Advan- 
tage, Should not Omit pursuing it meerely for the want of a 
little Cash. Gent" as this letter is rather a repetition of what 
have wrote before am loath to be Tedious but hope Soon to be 
Able to give you Some more Material Intelligence and am 
Gent" with due respects your 

Very Obed' 

Hum'*' Serv' 

Eliph^ Dyer 
To the Comtees of the Susq^ & Delaware Companvis 



FROM ALEXANDER DUNCAN 
A. L. 5.1 

Fort Onkirio 26^^ May J 7 64 
Sir 

I take the opportunity of the Indians that are returning to 
You from Detroit to acknowledge the receipt of your Favour 
of the 28''^. Ultimo which I received by Capt" Montour, he 
Sailed from hence in One of the Vessells on the 1 7*^^ In'. Capt" 



iJn the New York Historical Society, New York City. 



Pod-War Period, 1763-^1774 431 

Jacob with Six Indians followed him a few Days after & they 
all got Safe to Niagara. 

We have no News here. Col. Campbell with Part of the 
l?'"^ Reg', and about 250 Provincials are encamped on the other 
Side the River, forty of the large Boats are arrived, but every 
things Seems now to be at a Stand occassioned by Col: Brad- 
street's Illness I imagine. 

I am very glad I am likely So Soon to have the Pleasure of 
Your Compy. here I ever am with great Regard & Esteem 

Your most Obedient 

humble Servani 

Alex*^ Duncan 
Sir William Johnson 

ADDRESSED: To 

Sir William Johnson Baronett 
&'^. Sc'^. &^. 

Johnson Hall 

INDORSED: May 26''^. 1 764 

Major Duncans Letter 

TO THOMAS GAGE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 225-26, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of May 26th from Baynton, Whar- 
ton & Morgan, Philadelphia, inclosing a letter, brought by Captain 
Hammet from London, and asking payment for goods sold for the account 
of Mr Croghan; one of the 26th to General Gage, saying Johnson will 
send vouchers for expenditures of his subordinates if desired, discussing the 
expedition, the policy of punishing the hostile Indians about Scioto and 
removing such as live in the neighborhood of the settlements, mentioning 
a negro, a German and a Delaware in the Albany jail, who are likely 
to be released, and showing that McKee's account should be paid; one 
of the 27th from William Darlington, New York, advising of articles 
sent up on Lukas Van Veghter's sloop and shrub sent per Garrit Marselis; 
one of the 27th from J. T. Kempe, New York, acknowledging friendly 
action in the matter of certain costs and mentioning the Kayoderasseras 
patent, and court business which will call him to Albany; one of the 28th 



432 Sir William Johnson Papers 

from Witham Marsh, Albany, informing of his arrival, after a seven days' 
passage from New York, v\^ith a servant, a box of dollars and a bundle of 
paper currency, mentioning litigation about records, the gout, and offering 
felicitations on the birth of a granddaughter; one of the 28th from Duncan 
& Phyn, Schenectady, acknow^Iedging an order for goods and promising 
to "rival the Dutch" in meriting such favors; one of the 28th from Lieu- 
tenant Colonel William Eyre, New York, concerning neglect which he 
has suffered from Sir Jeffery (Amherst) ; one of the 28th from Colonel 
John Bradstreet, Albany, asking that the Indians for the expedition may 
be ordered to Oswego and Niagara, and giving assurance of a vigorous 
forward movement; and one of the 28th from P. Silvester, Albany, in- 
forming that he has been appointed by Mr Marsh to officiate for him as 
town clerk, clerk of the peace, etc. and asking Sir William's favor in 
his present incumbency and his hope of being principal in case of a 
vacancy. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.i 

A^en; York May ZS^K 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have received your Letters of the 11^^. and /7'^. Ins*. Agree- 
able to your Desire about the Boat, I now write to Major 
Duncan at Oswego, to prepare you such a Boat as you demcind. 
You will be pleased to write Him Word, at what Time you 
would have it. All our Carpenters are up the Country, and our 
best Boats that were made New last year are at Fort-Ontario. 
You will also receive herewith an order for such a Party of men 
as you shall think Necessary, at the several Posts of Communi- 
cation. I suppose you would not venture on the North Side, 
till Matters are accomodated with the Messessagoes, you may 
remember they have Three of our People Prisoners, whom they 
took last autumn from Fort W™ : Augustus 

It has been long my Opinion, That we must at length yield 
to the immoderate Thirst which the Indians have for Rum, and 
let them have it. It should however be put under some Restric- 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 433 

tion. They should not be permitted to have it at the Trading 
Posts, but to carry away Home, what Quantity they pleased. 

An order is gone to supply you at Albany upon your Demand, 
with the Tents & oil Cloaths, but I am not certain that there are 
any of the latter in store. 

Hie Connecticut Troops will probably have passed you before 
this can get so far, unless detained by contrary winds, so that 
I think Nothing can delay the operations; but what it shall be 
found Necessary to be done on the Carrying Place of Niagara 

If the Western Indians recommence Hostilities they must have 
received Supplys from the Mississipi, and be encouraged by the 
French at the Ilinois; those of Detroit are heartily tired of the 
Commotions. I can't think they could pluck up spirit from the 
Perception of any Delays; which have been Internal, and out 
of their sight; for they must have seen Numbers of People mov- 
ing up. Vessels Building, and a great stirr over the Carrying 
Place. The Indians who see our eagerness to Trade with 
Them, must perceive it can never be our Interest to destroy 
Them. And as They have never seen that we used any 
Endeavors to extirpate Them, I should think They can't now 
give Ear to Idle storys of that Nature. 

The Indians on the Muskingham & Scioto have been quiet a 
good while, at least Nothing has happened lately on the Fron- 
tiers. They have beared that Major Loftus was going up the 
Mississipi and it's surmised are gone with other Savages perhaps 
some of those of the Detroit to waylay the Convoy, The Tonicas^ 
and other Indians below have saved them the Trouble, by attack- 
ing the Convoy about 75 Leagues from New Orleans, a few 
men killed & wounded. They could neither land or defend 
Themselves in their Boats. Major Loftus is returned to Pen- 
sacola. He must follow the French Method of paying Tribute 
to the Tribes who live on the Banks of the River He has not 



^The Tunica, or Tonikan, Indians who dwelt on the Mississippi north 
of Pointe Coupee, La. 



434 Sir William Johnson Papers 

numbers to force his Passage, or would it answer our Purpose 
if He had. If the Indians of Detroit and others should retire 
to the Ilinois, and be determined not to let us take Possession 
of that part of the World, They may certainly give us Trouble 
enough. 

Col°. Bradstreet may appoint a surgeon for the use of the 
Indians, as He has a greater Number of the Faculty up with 
Him, than I hope He will have occasion to make use of. I will 
mention this Service to Him. 

The Assembly of Pensylvania is sitting, and seem now inclined 
to raise Forces. I have not yet beared that the vote is actualy 
passed, but have great Reason to hope that it will be passed very 
soon. You will say that it is high Time 
I am, with great Regard, 
Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble Servant, 

Thqs. Gage 
Sr. W": Johnson Bar'. 

INDORSED: May 28**^ 1764 — 
Genr' Gages letter 
with orders enclosed 



' TO JOHN BRADSTREET 

Cop})' 

Johnson Hall, May 29'^ 17^4 
Dear Sir 

Yours of yesterday" I this moment rec^. and am glad to find 
the Connecticut Troops are not far off. 

There are a good many Indians already at Niagara, & the 
rest I shall order to assemble there, & at Oswego, in 15 days 



^In Library of Congress, Force Transcripts. 
^A letter that was destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 433 

time, which I imagine will be as soon as they will be wanted. 
The lowness of the waters at present will prevent the Conn, 
getting up sooner. I can have them there before if you choose 
it; as they are waiting for a call this good while, but I beleive 
it will be best, not to have them at Oswego until a couple of days 
before you think you will be able to leave that place, for several 
reasons. I shall be glad to know, how I am to be provided with 
battoes & men to carry up my stores when I go also the present 
and CI — for the Warriors, I shall be very glad to see you here 
as you go up. And am 

Sir your most obedient 

Humble Servant — 

W". Johnson 
Col. Bradstreet. 



FROM SAMUEL STRINGER ETC 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 226, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: one of May 29th from Dr Samuel Stringer, 
Albany, mentioning goods from Philadelphia and from Mr Darlington 
(in New York), trouble with the quartermaster's understrappers, a patient, 
and a daughter born to Mr and Mrs (Guy) Johnson; one of the 30th 
from Colonel John Bradstreet, Albany, about Indians for his expedition 
and boats for Johnson's journey; one of the 30th from John Glen Jun'r, 
Schonectady, concerning goods sent and goods to be sent up, provisions 
to be sent to Cognawagie, Cherry Valley and Justice Franks for the use 
of Indians, the departure of Captain Tice and his company, and the com- 
ing of the remainder of the Connecticut troops; one of the 30th from 
Captain Daniel Claus, Montreal, to inform that messengers of different 
nations have been dispatched from Caneghsadagey to Michilimakinac, 
he has rebuked the warriors at the former place for refusing to join John- 
son and Governor Burton means to punish those who have tampered with 
their fidelity, Assaregoa is leading a war party to Oswego, Menards is 
qualified for interpreter, and Claus has drawn in favor of John Leake. 



436 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO JOHN BRADSTREET 
A. L. S.i 

Johnson Hall 3/^' May 1764 
Sir 

I am just favoured with yours of yesterday concerning the 
Number of Battoes I shall want &^^. 

As the goods, stores Sc"^^. are not yet all arrived, I cannot 
ascertain with exactness how many will be necessary, but I 
apprehend three Hundred Boats will be sufficient, and I should 
be glad to have that Number sent to Fort Johnson by the S''^ 
of June, so as they may be loaded and Sent forward before my 
own Departure. 

I acquainted the General that I should require an officer, and 
about 30 Men to accompany me, if I had that Number now they 
might mann the Boats, otherwise I shall want some other Hands 
at least till I know where I am to have y^. party. 

I have sent off orders to the Indian Officers, & the different 
Nations, and I doubt not they will be all in readiness at the time 
appointed & to a considerable Number. 
I am 
Sir 

Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 

W". Johnson 
Coll. John Bradstreet 

TO WILLIAM EYRE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 227, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of May 31st to Lieutenant Colonel: 
William Eyre on the destruction of Delaware settlements along the 
branches of the Susquehanna, bad results of the tardiness of the Con- 



^In the collection of Willis T. Hanson, Jr., Schenectady, N. Y. The 
draft was destroyed by fire. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 437 

nectlcut troops, and the advantage to public interests of allowing Eyre to 
visit England; one of June 1st to General Gage, informing lliat lie has 
directed the Six Nations to join Colonel Bradstreet at Oswego and 
Niagara, that 60 Caghnav/aga Indians have arrived, and that many 
prisoners have been delivered up by Indians, representing good results 
which he expects from a conference with the Indians at Niagara, asking 
that an escort be given him, orders be given to engineers to run lines at 
Niagara, according to the preliminary articles (agreed to by the Senecas), 
and English medals be furnished for Indians who now possess French 
medals, and mentioning Lieutenant Colonel Eyre's desire to visit England ; 
one of the 2d from John Glen Jun'r, Schenectady, about a certificate for 
Hendrick Nellis, provisions for two Indians going to Stockbridge, the 
arrival of the Connecticut troops, bateaux for Johnson, and provisions 
which he sends to Justice Franks, to Justice Fry for Captain Wells at 
Cherry Valley and to Cognawagle for the Indians; one of the 2d to 
General Gage, regarding intelligence of French perfidy at Detroit, an 
answer from the Hurons to Johnson's message and expenses which he is 
incurring for the public service, partly on his own credit. 



TO JOHN BRADSTREET 

Johnson Hall June 3^. 1764 
Sir 

Yesterday the Indians I sent Express to Detroit some time 
ago, returned & brought me several dispatches from Major 
Gladwin so late as the H*'^ ult. also several belts from the 
Shownees to me expressing their favourable disposition, but 
nothing from the Ottowas, many of whom have retired up the 
Miamis river' farther particulars I must defer until we have an 
interview. 

The Indians with Monsur Johnson" &c. arrived at Niagara 
the 22<^. Ul*. & several have since followed them. Col. Brown- 



^In Library of Congress. Force Transcripts. A draft in the New 
York State Library was destroyed by fire. 
-The Maumee. 
•''Henry Montour and John Johnston, captains of Indians. 



438 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ing's relying on the late treaty made between me & the Seneca's 
sent a Serjeant & one private to enquire about deserters at 
Chenussies, they were not to be found in that Castle — but the 
Chenussies promised to go in quest of them, & after treating the 
Soldiers well brought them down under an escort to Niagara, 
least they should fall into the hands of some of the straggling 
Delawares & Shawnees. This behaviour of theirs seems to 
have a good appearance. 

I am Sir 

Your most obedient 

Humble Servant 

W^ Johnson 
Col. John Bradstreet 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. S.i 

New York June 3i J 764 
Dear Sir, 

Your Favor of the 26'^ May is come to Hand, together with 
an Ace', signed by M*^. Kee, and a Certificate of Major Glad- 
win's for the services performed by Abraham Jones Gunsmith, 
at Detroit; which I return you herewith; and will endeavor to 
explain my Letter of the 16'^ May, as well as I can. Your 
general Acc'^ go on as usual, no alteration in them; But it is 
directed, that the Vouchers or Receipts, for the Pay given to 
Interpreters, Assistants, smith's &c^. should be lodged with the 
Commander in Chief; to be transmitted Home with his Acc*^. 
This is the Meaning of the Memorandum I sent to you. This 
Method may appear as odd to you, as I must own it does to Me, 
but so I found these Matters, regulated on my taking the Com- 
mand; and I further find that it is expected such Regulations 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 439 

should be observed by the Demands made at Home from S^ 
Jeff: Amherst, for the vouchers mentioned In the Memorandum 
sent to you. If these People are at a Distance, out of your way. 
They may give their Receipts to the Officer Comm'^s. vv^hich with 
the Necessary Certificates may be immediately forwarded here, 
and They May draw on you for the Money which will as you 
observe save some Delay. 

The Warrant is ordered to be made out and I hope there will 
be Time to send it you by this Opportunity. If not you may 
expect it immediately. If you could Manage so as to get the 
Receipts for S^ Jeff : Time enough for the next Packet, I should 
be glad to send them by that Opportunity 

I don't find that the Lands about Fort-Pitt have been regu- 
larly taken up by any Body. The Indians have made Grants, 
but without proper Permission first obtaind from the King or his 
Governors: Nor do I find that those Indian Grants have been 
ever confirmed. 

You will receive herewith a Letter inclosed to me from 
Colonel Bouquet, which will no Doubt inform you, That the 
Assembly of Pensylvania has voted 1000 Men. This Resolve 
is very late indeed, but we Must do what we can, and turn it as 
much as possible to our Advantage. From hence we may hope 
to visit the Muskingham and Scioto, from the Side of the Ohio, 
but the Indians required to join Colonel Bouquet, will not be 
wanted so early as we could wish. Whatever you Judge Neces- 
sary to be got in readiness for those Savages Might be purchased 
at Philadelphia, at an easier Rate than up the Country. If you 
would send me a List of what you Judge Necessary to be pro- 
vided for them, to be transported up to Fort Pitt, I would send 
orders to have Them purchased. 

I should be glad to know if there is any Evidence to be 
produced against Eice the German, if He had been delivered 
up at Oswego, and could have been proved a spy or Deserter, 
we might have tried Him by a Gen'. Court-Martial. I shall 
desire Col°. Elliot to send down the Negro and the Indian, and 



440 Sir William Johnson Papers 

I think it would be best to send both ofif for the West-Indies. 
I don't imagine the Judges would release them, as they are 
confined as Prisoners of War. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 

Thqs. Gage 
The Savages have lately 
killed some women, & taken away 
two Children. At the Head of 
Swetara. From the Situation of that 
Place, it's thought They are some of the Indians 
of Susquehanna. 

T: G: 
S«. W'«: Johnson Bar'. 
INDORSED: Genr' Gages Letter 
June3< 1764 

AN ACCOUNT 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 227, is entered Johnson's account with 
Duncan & Phyn, Schenectady, — £1724, 10s, 4d, dated June 5th, 
which was destroyed by fire. 



FROM RALPH BURTON 
A. L. 5.1 

Montreal June })" 6th: 1764. 
S«. 

By Lieu' : Donnellan^ I was f avord with your letter of the 22*^. 
of May^ I am much obhged to you for all the intelligence you 
are so good as to give me. 

I hope the Cacknawaga's, Who set out for Fort Johnson are 
arrived, a second Detatchment of them set of for Oswego 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City. 
^John Ormsby Donnellan, late of the 60th regiment. 
^The draft was destroyed by fire. 



Postwar Period, I763-/774 441 

yesterday, this Castle have behaved well, those of the Cana- 
sadago Castle, vv^e shall never have any good of, so long as 
those Priests of S*. Sulpice, have such Property there. 

I have had a Message from the Messasagoes, to Make Peace, 
but I did not choose to hear them, but refered them to you; I 
told them of the Congress you were to have at Niagara, Where 
they Would be heard, they begin to be pitthed; this total stop 
to Indian Trade, distresses them greatly. What those Messa- 
sagoes are so keen about making Peace for, is, to Trade at Fort 
Wm. Augustus which until affairs are settled would not be 
prudent. 

they have brought in a Man and Woman, they took from 
Oswegatge last Fall. 

I am at present very much occupied as such hope you will 
excuse the brevity of this Scrole. 

I most sincerely wish your Congress may have all the good 
effects you can desire. 

M" Burton begs her best respect to you. 

and I am S"" with 
great respect and esteem 
Your Most obedient 
humble Servant 

R Burton 
Gov. OF Canada 
To S'' William 

Johnson Bar: &c &c. 



AN ACCOUNT CURRENT ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 227, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: Sir William Johnson's account current, June 7th, 
Schenectady, with Duncan & Phyn, from November 26, 1763; and a 
letter of the 8th from John Glen Jun'r, Schonectady, regarding tents, 
poles, etc. and sails and oilcloths for the bateaux. 



442 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM FRANCIS BERNARD^ 
A. L. Sr 

Concord June 8, 1764 
S« 

The Bearer of this M"^ Bennet sets out on a Mission to the 
six Nation Indians as a Catechist near a year ago; but being 
from home when He set out I had not an opportunity of recom- 
mending him to you as I had proposed; and therefore take this 
Opportunity of doing it, as his Zeal for the Christian Rehgion 
is highly Commendable. I procured for him an allowance from 
the London Society for propagating the Gospel in New England, 
and he has Since received an allowance from the Church of 
England Society for propagating the Gospel; both which I shall 
endeavour to get continued. I hoipe you will see the Success 
of his Service in the Six nation Country & shall at all times con- 
tribute all in my power to promote it. 

I am, with great regard, 
S"^ Your obedient 
humble Servant 
Fra. Bernard 

The Honb'^ Si* WiLLIAM JOHNSON. 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. 5.3 

Johnson Hall June 9^K 1764 
Dear Sir 

I have been favoured with you kind letter of the 25'^. Ult''.*, 
and as I am in five or Six Days to set out for Niagra the Subject 
of the former letters must be deferred till my return which will 
be about the end of July, or the middle of August. 



^Governor of Massachusetts. 

-In the New York Public Library, New York City. 
^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. 
^See Collections of the New Yorif Historical Society, 1876, Colden 
papers, p. 329. 



Posl-War reriod, 1763 1774 443 

With regard to trade I should think that nothing can have a 
better effect on the Indians than the prohibition of it for some 
time, which will make their wants the greater, & consequently 
point out to them y*^. inconveniency & loss they sustain by a War 
with us, which they have not as yet sufficiently felt, at the same 
time it will be expected by all the Nations who make Peace 
that Trade be opened as usual and I shall promise them it on 
my return Home. 

To prevent the Frauds committed in Trade, and Secure the 
Traders Lives & Propertys I would recommend that all Trade 
be prohibited in the distant Indian Towns, or att the Small 
Posts, and Permits only granted for Detroit, Niagra, and 
Osswego. — Michilimackinac is a good place for Furrs, but is 
not yet reestablished, but as for the other little Posts S*. Joseph, 
Miamis, h'^^. scituate a great way ulp Rivers, and Surrounded 
by numerous Tribes of Indians, even should they be reoccupied, 
I cannot think them any way safe, unless we entirely adopt the 
French Maxim of purchasing y^. Indians favour, and I am 
convinced that those Posts cannot be maintained even with 10 
times the Numbers of the late garrisons, unless the Ind^ are 
perfectly contented & approve of them, w^. they never will do, 
but on the terms I have mentioned, so that the Traders at the 
Small Posts, or in the Indians Country are liable to be murdered 
& plundered, whenever a few 111 natured or dissapeted Indians 
are disposed to quarrel tempted by the sight of the goods or 
Irritated at the Frauds so often committed, I know the Traders 
are desireous to run any risque from the great gains in that part 
where they cannot be duely controuled, but I think they should 
not be permitted to go where they please, as the Indians think 
nothing of comeing to the Posts I have mentioned, besides 
whenever a few Indians are Tempted to commit Robbery or 
Murder they expect no forgiveness and it commonly happens 
that a whole Nation will engage in the Quarrel, and induce 
theirs to take their parts, and this requires but little persuasion 
from the prospect of so much plunder as may be found amongst 



444 Sir William Johnson Papers 

the Trading People. If the Trade is carried on at y^ principal 
Posts before mentioned, the Persons & Propertys of the Traders 
will be much more secure, the Traders will be more cautious 
of committing Frauds under the Eye of a Commanding officer 
of some Rank & the Objects of temptation, which so strongly 
excite many of the Indians, will be in a great degree out of 
their power. 

The Traders should be strictly restrained from holding any 
Meetings, or sending Belts to any Indians, this some of them 
have done to invite Indians to them, and have invented Storys 
and & mentioned the names of Persons in power the better to 
obtain their End. neither will many of them Scruple to tell the 
Indians things of a dangerous tendency whenever they find it 
necessary to expedite y^. Sale, or encrease the prices of their 
goods, this, tho serviceable to a few Individuals, is of a dan- 
gerous tendency to the public & therefore all that kind of inter- 
course between Traders & Indians should I think be strictly 
prohibited, as well as all abuses in Trade on pain of being 
banished from the Posts, forfeiting their Recognizance, & not 
permitted to trade hereafter, the former part may be executed 
by the Officer who can transmit the Traders name, & the nature 
of his Offence, so as he may suffer Accordingly & be debarred 
all future Trade. The Recognizance Should I think be pro- 
portioned to the Number of Boats, so as Each Trader may 
suffer according to the Circumstances & the extent of his Trade, 
I settled the Profits in 1761, at 50 W'O. at Osswego, 70 at 
Niagra, 100 at Detroit & so on which I then thought verry 
moderate, and I beleive something Correspondent thereto, and 
the other Matters regulated on the footing before mentioned will 
be a great means of preventing abuses, and securing the Peace 
of the Frontiers. I heartily wish this, or some such plan may 
be adopted by the Neighbouring Governours, for without their 
concurrence the Trade can never be secured from Risque & 
Fraud, I think Fort Pitt is the best & only place for the Trade 
of Pennsilvania, Permits as formerly to the Indian Towns ren- 
dering the Trade liable to all the dangers I have mentioned. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 445 

If anything Material occurs on my Way to Niagra I shall let 
You know it, being with great sincerity 

Dear Sir 

Your most Sincere Welwisher 
& verry Humble Servant 

W'^. Johnson 

The Hon^''^ 

LiEu^^ Gov«. Golden 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 228, is listed this paper which was de- 
stroyed by fire: a letter of June 9th to General Gage, showing the need 
of an escort, and the necessity of placating the Indians about Detroit by 
liberality, the correction of wrongs and abuses and frequent renewal of 
engagements, suggesting that Indian trade be confined to Oswego, 
Niagara, Detroit and Fort Pitt, and traders be obliged to give bonds for 
honest dealing, mentioning Major Loftus's repulse (on the Mississippi), 
suggesting the payment of tribute to the Indians for a post in the Illinois 
country, in accordance with a policy pursued toward barbarous African 
states, and announcing purpose to set out about the 14th. (An extract 
is printed in Collections of the Illinois State Historical Library, 10:263, 
ed. C W. Alvord and C. E. Carter. 



TO JOHN BRADSTREET 

Johnson Hall, Jan. [June] 10^^ 1764 
Sir, 

On my requisition of an officer & 30 men to accompany me 
to & from Niagara, the general has sent me an order to take 
them as they can be spared from Post to Post; but as this is 
both troublesome & liable to disappointment from the weak- 
ness of the garrisons, I have wrote him that I shall take eight 
of the 55'^ from my own garrison, & settle about the remained 
with you. I must therefore desire the favour of you to enable 



Un Lib*ary of Congress, Force Transcripts. 



446 Sir William Johnson Papers 

me to take a few from each garrison until I have got from 
25 to 30 with an officer. It is necessary I should have a guard 
in order to make some appearance with the Indians, but more 
so for my own security, as many of the straggling Delawares, 
Mississagars &c. who all know of my intended journey, & are 
greatly irritated against me, might be induced to waylay me, & 
in case I should find it necessary to go in a vessel with the 
hostages, I hope one of them will be found on my arrival 
at Oswego. 

I am very sorry to hear of your indisposition & wish you a 
speedy recovery. I am hopeful of seeing you before my de- 
parture, which will be on the 14th Inst. 

I am Sir, your most obed^ 
hum' serv'. 

W™ Johnson. 
Col. John Bradstreet. 

from thomas gage 

A. L. S.' 

New York June I O^K 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I have received your Letters of the H'. & 2^. Ins'., and hope 
Colonel Bradstreet will be ready by the Time the Indians get 
to Niagara; as I should be sorry they were kept any Time 
inactive. Cap'. Claus will have informed you of the meeting 
held at Caghnawaga by the Indians of that Castle who have 
joined you. Gov^ Burton was very well pleased, at the Recep- 
tion They gave Him. 

You will perceive by a former Letter that orders had been 
sent you for the Officers in the several Posts to furnish you with 
an Escort. If you want any Escort constantly with you, 
Oswego or more prolperly Niagara can best Supply them, as you 
will see all the Posts in general are very weak. 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 447 

Orders shall be given at Niagara for an Engineer to assist 
you in running the Lines, agreeable to the late 7 reaty with the 
Senacas; and it can't be so properly done as in your Presence. 

Your Friend Lieu* Col°. Eyre, has made frequent Sollicita- 
tions to go Home, and I wish it was in my Power to grant his 
Request. Much Noise is made at Home on Ace*, of the great 
Number of Absent Officers. And his Corps has very few 
present or any other Person here of Rank to preside over the 
Branch of Engineers. 

I am affraid the Medals can't be got ready by the Time you 
desire. I have been these two Months getting a Dye made for 
Medals, to send to the Southward. I beHeve its Now finished. 

The Reverse is not the King's Arms, but represents an English- 
man and an Indian in Friendly Conversation. I suppose these 
would do for you as well as the old Pattern. I imagine when 
the Dye is once made that it can't take much Time to run the 
Medals. They are larger than yours, & I will see what can 
be done for you immediately. 

I now come to Your Letter of the 2^ Ins*, inclosing Dis- 
patches from Detroit. Major Gladwin only acknowledged my 
Letter of the 9**^ of Jan'^y. which you was so good to forward, 
I understand by the same Indians, w'ho are now returned to 
you. The Letter I sent, concerning the Meeting at Niagara, 
agreeable to what had been Settled betwixt you and me, was 
of the 23"^. of March. An Extract of which for your further 
Information, I transmit herevsdth. All I learn from Major 
Gladwin is that the French have been at the Bottom of this 
Indian Insurrection. That the Hurons had made Peace that 
the Chippewas and Pouteatamis He was just informed were 
comeing in to make their Submission, and that the Outawas were 
gone a little above the first Falls of the Miamis River where 
they intended to plant their Corn. 

We have been overwhelmed lately with Ace*', but your War- 
rant is at length made out & will be transmitted to you by this 
Opportunity. The Pay for yourself, and officers, and Assist- 



448 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ants must be put in a separate Warrant by itself, and for these 
the Vouchers were demanded which I have before mentioned 
to you, and explained in my last. I am with great Regard 

Dear Sir 
Your most obedient, 

and most humble Serv'. 

Thqs. Gage 
P: S: 
I have told Col°. Bradstreet, 
that He might open my Dispatches from 
Detroit. If they fall in your way, you will 
do so likewise for the sake of Dispatch, and your 
quicker Information of what is doing there. 

T. G: 
Sr. Wm^ Johnson Bar*. 

INDORSED : N York June 1 0*^^. 1 764 
From Gen^ Gage 



FROM JAMES RIVINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 228, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: Major General Thomas Gage's warrant June 
1 0th, New York, to Abraham Mortier for payment of £8895, 8s, 
1 1 |/2d New York currency to Sir William Johnson on account of sundry 
expenses and presents to Indian nations ; a letter of the 1 1 th from James 
Rivington, New York, on prospective changes in the British ministry. 
General Monckton's expected vindication, distribution of prize money 
from the Havana campaign, military changes (with mention of Lord 
Clive), the handsome establishment designed for a bishop of Albany, 
the land tax and stamp duty impending over the colonies, and their dis- 
tressing condition ; one of the 1 2th from James Phyn, Schenectady, re- 
garding provisions and sundry articles which he will send ; one of the 1 4th 
from Lieutenant Colonel A. Prevost, New York, about his petition for 
land, under the King's grant, near Kaatt's Kill ; asking Johnson's aid to 
prove that the Indian title is relinquished, on the back, a memorandum 
in pencil concerning Indians — apparently written at Niagara ; and Daniel 
Claus's account (copy) of the interview between messengers, sent to the 



Fosl-War IWioJ, 1 70 i 1774 



449 



Lake Huron nations, and Chipway and Skagliquanc deputies whom they 
met at Lake Nipisin, and information of the consent of the deputies to 
proceed to Niagara instead of Montreal, also of the repentance of the 
lately hostile Missisagas and their surrender of two prisoners, the 15th, 
Montreal. 



RELINQUISHMENT OF EXECUTORSHIP 
D. S.' 

/5'/'. day of June 1764 
We the Subscribers being nominated and appointed Executors 
of the last Will and Testament of David Schuyler late of 
Connajohary in the County of Albany deceased: do hereby 
Severally renounce and relinguish our Right to the Executorship 
of the said Will: As Witness our hands and Seals this 15'^. 
day of June 1 764 — 



W". Johnson 

CUN RAT MATTER 



Witness — 
Nicolas herchmer 

her 
Cathren + mather John Johnson f 

mark J 

Peter Schuyler . 
Johannes Stein Johannes de garr 

alida Schuyler 

Signed & Seal*^. by Johannes 
De garrmo & ab"": Yates Jun"^ in 
the Presence of 
Peter Veeder-Baste gamor 



Ab"> Yates Jr 



^In the New York Public Library, Ncav York City; in the handwrit- 
ing of Guy Johnson. 

15 



450 Sir William Johnson' Papers 



TO HENRY BOUQUET 

L. 5.1 

German flaiis June 18^^, 1764 
Sir, 

I received your favour of the 3 1 ^'. ult°. on the day I left home 
being now thus far on my w^ay to Niagara, in order to meet 
those Nations v/ho are disposed for peace, being now surrounded 
by several Indians I am prevented from \Mxhhiii as fully as I 
otherwise should, but I shall be heartily glad to correspond with 
you as well as to give you my Sentiments on every Subject neces- 
sary towards promoting the success of your operations. 

I am of opinion that 1000 Men will be the smallest number 
you can think of to answer the purpose of your Expedition; it 
is not probable that the Enemy you have to encounter can collect 
an Equal Number in one body, but then it must be considered 
that Experience, Activity, and a perfect knowledge of the 
Country will give a much smaller body of Indians great advan- 
tage over us; that they can make an attack without much loss, 
and retreat when they fail of success without the risque to which 
we should be exposed in the same situation. 

The delays which attended the raising men for the Service 
has given our Enemys great consequence as well as retarded 
your design, the reasons therefore you assign against an Expe- 
dition by Water appear very material to me: Altho' I am 
informed by the Indians that they pass up and down the Musk- 
ingam and Scioto at all Seasons, but whether the Size and figure 
of your Boats will permit you to run that hazard is difficult to 
determine, and I am sensible a retreat against the Stream of 
Ohio will greatly expose you if drove to that necessity; other- 
wise I sho"^. think that an Expedition up the Muskingam, & from 



^In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21650, fo. 270; London, 
England. 



I'osl-lVar IWwd, 1763-1774 451 

thence by Land along a good road to Scioto would appear the 
best. 

Your account of the openness of the Woods and Description 
of the Country over the Ohio agrees with mine and I should 
think the same practicable with Troops, hardy, active, & Experi- 
enced in the Woods; to get the Generality of men so qualified 
is very difficult, h without such no Expedition can be carried on 
thro' the interior parts of America with any prospect of success. 

I have conferred with Colonel Bradstreet, concerning his 
Expedition and I am of opinion that his making some attempt 
by way of Sandosky would greatly contribute to your Success, 
if you were at the same time ready to cooperate with him, but 
that I fear is now too late to Expect; At all Events there are 
many Villages at present about the Muskingam and I dare say 
your first attempt will be there to prevent their obstructing your 
retreat. 

Many of the Indians about Ohio may probably have changed 
their Scituation very lately, I know their attention at present is 
to our atterrtpts by the Lakes, but on my arrival at Niagara which 
will be in about 1 or 12 Days I shall be enabled to know 
further concerning the designs and Scituation of the Enemy, and 
also do all in my power to send you a body of Indians under 
proper Officers by way of Presqu' Isle to Fort Pitt : with regard 
to provisions I am sensible of the difficultys you will have in 
transporting them at the same time I know that the Indians will 
not be content with it according to any certain allowance but 
will require it as often as hungry. 

As I have presents and Cloathing with me I shall supply them 
at Niagara least it could not be purchased and got up in Suffi- 
cient time to Fort Pitt. 

I have this moment received a Letter from Niagara acquaint- 
ing me that about a Week ago a party of 30 Friend Indians who 
were coming in to joyn the rest I sent there, on passing an Out- 
post sang their Song and discharged their pieces as is always 
customary; but the Sergeant who commanded mistaking them 



452 Sir WilUani Johnson Papers 

for an Enemy fired upon them and dangerously wounded three 
of the Indians ; this is very unlucky, and I fear from the natural 
Jealousy of the Indians I shall have enough to do to convince 
them it was a mistake. 

On my arrival at Niagara I shall speak to the Indians that a 
good party may proceed to you, but as the certainty of their 
Rout, Numbers, and other particulars will depend on many cir- 
cumstances, I must deferr any thing more on that head until my 
arrival there; v/hen I shall acquaint you with every thing neces- 
sary for your information as well as do all in my power for 
promoting the success of your Expedition. 

I am, with much Esteem 

Sir, 
Your most Obedient 

Humble Servant 



W". Johnson 



Colonel Henry Bouquet. 

INDORSED: Sir William Johnson 
dated Johnson Hall 
]&K June 1764 
Received the 3^. July 



TO JOHN PENN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 229, are the following papers which were 
destroyed by fire : A letter of June 1 8th, written at Gennan fiatts, to 
Governor Penn, acknowledging letter, approving the Governor's offer of a 
bounty for scalps, discussing the adventures of David Owens among the 
Shawanese and touching on the difficulty of holding the Indians in the Eng- 
lish interest ; Sir William Johnson's account of the 2 1 st with Duncan & 
Phyn; a letter of the 22d from Daniel Claus, Caneghsadagey, describing 
the difficulty of persuading a party of Ottawas, who had come to Car- 
rillon, to attend the congress at Niagara, also the conditions which make 
for peace with the Ottawa nation in spite of Pontiac, discussing the char- 
acter and position of chief Bedannowan, and of several chiefs at Canegh- 
sadagey, and asking aid in obtaining his half pay. 



Posl-lVar Period, 1763-1774 453 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 

In the Harvard College Library is a letter of the 24th from General 
Gage (printed in the CoUecliom of the Illinois State Historical Library, 
10:268-69, cJ. Clarence W. Alvord and Clarence E. Carter), dealing 
with Johnson's need of a guard in his journey to Niagara, the conditions 
that govern Indian trade, prospects of a successful movement of troops up 
ihe Mississippi to the Illinois country, the opposilion and Lad character 
of the Shawanese and Delawares. 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

Copy)"" 

New York, /"ne 26^K 1764 
Dear Sir 

Mr Watkins, a volunteer setting out from hence to join the 
army under the command of Col. Bradstreet. I profit of that 
occasion to send you the 60 medals I mentioned in my letter of 
the 24*'^ Inst, to have had struck off agreeable to your desire. 
The Mould was made for Medals for the Indians in Florida &c. 
& tho' not quite as large again as that you sent to me I fancy it 
M^ill answer v/ell enough. I can not say much for the work- 
manship of them nevertheless they are finished by the best hand 
that could be found here. 

I am, with great regard. 
Dear Sir, 

Your most ob'dt 

Humble Servant, 

Tho's Gage. 
Sir W"" Johnson Bar't. 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 229, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of June 29th, written at Oswego, 
to General Gage, reporting the movements of Indian parties, the killing of 



^In Library of Congress. Force Transcripts. 



454 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

a soldier at the carrying place, the accident to an Indian band on the road 
to Fort Schlosser, the sudden death of the Redhead, of Onondaga, inci- 
dents of French poHcy in the West, and suggesting how the army may 
cooperate with the Indian alHes; the last will and testament of Witham 
Marsh, making William Johnson, Robert Leake and Peter Silvester 
executors. (Draft; the will is in the office of the Court of Appeals and is 
dated June 29, 1 764) ; bill, July 2d, Philadelphia, of Alexander McKee 
as assistant agent and John Meaner as interpreter against the crown, with 
Henry Bouquet's certificate of correctness; a letter of the 2d from (Mr. 
Rivington), New York, giving the finding of the court-martial which ac- 
quitted Major General Robert Monckton of the charges brought by Collin 
Campbell Esq., and mentioning ministerial and military changes in Eng- 
land, the passage of a bill extinguishing paper currency in America and 
the appointment of a new chief justice for the province of New York; 
Gerardus Duyckink's bill the 5th, New York, to William Darlington 
for goods. Also William Ustick's and Tillman Cuyler's accounts; Til- 
man Cyler's account of the 5th (New York), of goods bought by Wil- 
liam Darlington; Wilham Ustick's account, the 5th, New York, of 
goods bought by William Darlington; a letter of the 7th from William 
Darlington, New York, about articles sent by Garrit Marselis, to the 
care of Dr. Stringer (at Albany), to be forwarded to James Fyns 
(Phyn) in Schenectady and thence to Fort Johnson; one of the 9th from 
Lieutenant Colonel WiUiam Eyre, New York, regarding his desire to 
visit England, General Gage's contemplation of a conference with In- 
dians at Niagara, the governor's trip to Albany, and Mr. Duncan's in- 
terested motives. 



FROM THE LORDS OF TRADE 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:634-36, is a letter of July 
1 0th from the lords of trade, outlining a plan for the regulation of Indian 
affairs commercial and political, through the division of North America 
into two districts, the restriction of trade to certain Indian towns or army 
posts and the settlement of a trade tariff, and asking from Johnson esti- 
mates of the cost of establishing and maintaining this plan, as well as a 
report on the extent and value of l;he Indian trade, together with his 
opinion concerning the magnitude and collection of such duties as this trade 
will bear. Written at Whitehall. This letter is also in the Maryland 
Historical Society. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 455 



A PLAN FOR MANAGING INDIAN AFFAIRS 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 230, is entered a plan, comprising 43 arti- 
cles for the regulation of trade and maintenance of justice between white 
men and Indians, with lists of tribes in the northern and the southern 
district (printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hisl. N. Y., 7:637-41). It was 
inclosed in a letter of July 10th from the lords of trade to Johnson, 
printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:634-36. The manuscript of 
the plan is preserved. 

FROM JOSEPH TRACY 

[Norwich, Jul]) 11, J 764] 

A. L. S. 

I understand by Your Letter [ J 

that you are Desirous to know the heads of the [ ] 

the Colony of the Colony of Connecticut & the Mohegan 
[ ] and have been Desired by M^ Mason & the 

Indians, [ ] Your Honour, with the Transactions, 

as I have been for [ ] Number of years Particularly 

acquainted therewith, Sh[ ] to do it as Breifly as the 

Length of the Case will admit [ ] Follow's (Viz) 

In the first Settlement of this Colony Old U[ncas] was Cheif 
Sachem of this Tribe of Mohegan Indians, and at Wa[r with] 
A small Tribe of Indians^ that Lived in A Place now Called 
[ jtown on the West side of Connecticut River: 

& took & Destroy'd [ ] all & went Imediately to 

Hartford & there made Report to the Eng[lish] People that 
was Settled there, that he had Conquer'd his Enemy & wou [ ] 
Give them the Township if they would Settle it, which Extended 
on the East side of the River 8 Miles & Joynd to L^nc:\s's 
Hunting Lands [ ] "was A Tract of 16000 Acres 

(Reserv'd by him for that purpose) [ ] this the 

Pequots A Tribe of Indians made War against the Settlers in 
[the] Colony, & Uncas Assisted the English with One thousand 
of his men & Made an Intire Conquest of the Pequots, upon 



^The Nipmucks. 



456 Sir William Johnson Papers 

which Uncas Demanded his Share in the Lands so Conquer'd 
& they set him out New London, Groton, Lyme, Saybrook, 
Kilhngswoth, & West Haddam, which Townships Uncas, soon 
after Sold to the M^ John Winthrop of New London Father 
of the Late Gov^ Wintrop (but still Reserv'd the Foremen- 
tioned Tract of Hunting Lands & other Large Tracts for his 
own use) upon this M^ Winthrop went Home & Representing 
to King Charles the Second that they had Conquer'd & Pur- 
chas'd A Large Country here Cbtain'd A Charter AD 1653^ 
for so much as they had Conquer'd or Purchas'd, (but Uncas 
still Remaind in AlHance with them & Claim'd & Posses'd A 
Large Tract of Land which they had not as yet Purchas'd of 
him) & M^ Winthrop was Appointed Governor & Maj^ John 
Mason was Appoint [ed] Deputy Gov^ as M^ Mason was the 
Commanding Officer & had been greatly Servicable with 
Uncas,s Assistance in Destroying the Pequots' in Consideration 
of which his Majesty sent Uncas A Bible to shew him the way 
to Heaven & A Sword to Defend him from his Enerr.ies, which 
they have in Keeping to this day; Soon after [ ] 

Uncas whose Claim [ Fraudelent?] Purchases being 

made [ ] [ ] name their Gaurdian, 

soon after this Uncas [ ] General Assembly, saying 

we are all Grown old [ ] [ pre] vent our 

Children, s Quarreling when we are dead we [ ] 

[ ] to send out men to settle bounds between us & 

you to P[revent] [ ] Controversy hereafter. Accord- 

ingly the Gen": Assembly [sent] [ ] GoV^. Treat' 

Maj^ Tolcott* & one other Gent", to Settle said bounds which 



^The charter of Connecticut was granted April 20, 1 662. The date 
in the manuscript is indistinct but is* probably 1658, the year indicated 
later in this paper, 

^In a battle near the Mystic river. 

^Robert Treat, founder of Newark, N. J., Governor of Connecticut 
from 1683 to 1687 and 1689 to 1698; also Deputy Governor at differ- 
ent periods. 

*John Talcott, of Hartford, Conn. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 457 

they Settled & Recorded on the Colony Records, soon after 
Uncas Died & Oeneco his son Succeeded in his Room, And 
made AppHcation to the General Assembly & Desired them to 
Establish & Confirm Maj^ Samuel Mason Son to the foremen- 
tioned Maj'', John Mason as their Guardian, that no Deed 
Given by the Indians might be Counted Good in Law but what 
Maj^ Samuel Mason Acknowledged also that said Oeneco & 
his Son Mawmet might be Established Heirs of all said Uncas.s 
Lands in the Colony of Connecticut all which the Assembly did 
Establish and Confirm as they Requested, and soon after Sold 
& Gave to Eng'ish Twenty Townships but still Reserv'd to 
himself one Tract of 8 by 4 Miles which was his Planting Lands 
and Also that which is now the whole Township of Colchester 
Containing 25 by 8 Miles; & 2 Miles in width & 9 in Length 
on the North bounds of Lyme which was his Hunting Land 
Some time after this some Gentlemen (Representing to the Gen- 
eral Assembly, that the Indians had no more Right to the Lands 
than the Wolves & Bears that Posses'd them) GoV^. Winthrop^ 
& Govenor SoltonstalP Obtained A Grant (without any Pur- 
chase from the Indians h Contarary to their Consent) Of 1 1 00 
Acres of said Planting Land for themselves & 600 Acres more 
to Maintain A Free School & 200 More of new land for the 
Settlement of A Preast at New London & the Assembly soon 
After Grated the whole of the Township of Colchester to A 
Number of Proprietors without any Purchase from the Indians, 
On the Proprietors Attempting to Settle the Township, the Next 
Year, Maj^ Mason (their aforesaid Guardian) sent up his son 
Capt". John Mason with 20 Indians to Forbid their Settling on 
said Land, Upon which there was A small Scurmish & the 
settlers took 4 Indians & put them in New London Jail & went 
on to Settle said Township whereupon Oeneco sent A Complaint 
to her Late Majesty Queen Anne Informing that he had Given 



^Fitz-John Winthrop, Governor of Connecticut from 1698 to 1707. 
^Gurdon Saltonstall, Governor of Connecticut from 1 708 to 1 724. 



458 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& Sold to the Inhabitants of Connecticut Twenty Townships 
Reseriving to himself & Tribe the Aforementioned Tracts of 
Hunting & Planting [ ] which Contain [ ] 

[ ] the General Assemb.lj'^ had Granted [ ] 

[ ] inhabitants of this Colony, Her Majesty heard 

[ ] [ ] to be Carried through the Law at 

the Crown's [ ] [ j Gov^ Djdley^ of 

Boston with Nine other Gentlemen [ ] [ ] 

Court at Connecticut to hear and Determine the Cau[ ] 

which Gov^ Winthrop & his Council Granted out A Warrant 
[ ] Gov^ Dudley & Counsils holding any Court in 

Connecticut [ ] " that King Charles had Granted 

them A Charter & therefore [ ] Anne had no Right 

to order any Court in Connecticu!:" But [notwith] standing 
Gov"^. Dudley & Counsil went on & Gave Judgment, that the 
Above mentioned Hunting & Plainting Lands should be 
Ret[urned] to the Indians, upon which The Gov''. & Comp: 
of Connecticut Appointed A Committee to Acomodate Matters, 
with Cap^ Mason (their Gaur[dian] to the Indians) and 
Oeneco, Accordingly they agreed that the Indians should hold 
their Planting Lands & that the Inhabitants should hold all the 
Hunting Lands, in Consideration of Two Hundred Pounds 
(for which sum the said Committee Gave Oeneco A Bond) 
and Oeneco Gave them A Deed of said Hunting Lands, But 
when the Commi[ttee] made Report to the Assembly of what 
they Done, the Lower [house] Accepted what they had done, 
but the upper House Frown'd upon it & sent it out of Court, 
upon this the Committee, Tore their Hands & Seals of from 
both Deed & Bond & Left the Matter as before. Soon after 
this Cap*. Mason Recv'd A Wound which Disabled him for 
Several Years, but on the Recovery of his Health took a Voiage 
to London to Get out Execution on the aforesaid Judgment but 
on his Arrival there he found the Gov^ & Comp: had Obtain'd 



^Joseph Dudley, Governor of Massachusetts from 1702-1715, 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 459 

A Review, Wliereupon His Majesty Appointed the Gov^ of 
New York h his Counsil & the Gov^ of Rhode Island & his 
Counsil or any five of them to Revevv^ said Judgment about this 
time the Moheagan Indians vvere Alarmed with A Rumor 
(supos'd to be Spread by some Freinds to the Government) 
that the Mohawks were about to Come and take their Country 
upon which they Desir'd the Goverments Assistance, & were 
Aswer'd by Govenor Wolcott that if they would Acknowledge 
Benjamin Uncas for their Sachem, they would Protect them 
otherwise the Mohawks might Kill them all, upon this they 
Imediately began to Build A Fort for their Defence, but on 
being Inform'd it was only A Trick to Frighten them. Cut it all 
down & Destroy'd it [ ] [ ] 

Gov^ Wanton^ of Rhodisland with [ ] [ ] 

& Held said Court, but the day before the Cou[r't ] 

[ ]tioned Benj". Uncas Gave A Deed to the Goverment 

[ ] [ ] Claim upon their Giving him A Gold 

Lac'd Coat & Hatt & Dis[ ] [ ] the Cheif 

Sachem, but Contarary to the Consent of the Tribe [ ] 

Unanimosly Protested against it saying that this Ben: 
Uncas [ ] not the Right Heir, that his Father was A 

Bastard & not the [Heir?] of old Uncas & therefore Call'd 
him, Piquium, which is to say in English [ ] was half 

Dog, upon the opening of the Court the Goverment Bro^ 
[ ] this Pretended Sachem (Alledging that the Tribe 

had no Right to [ ] anything in the Case) and he 

Confessed Judgment against himself & the Court Refused to 
hear the Council for the Tribe upon which Co[io:] Courtland' 
& Daniel Horsmander ' Esq"" Protested agains said Court Pro- 



^William Wanton was Governor of Rhode Island from 1 732 to 1 734; 
John Wanton from 1 734 to 1 740; Joseph Wanton from 1 769 to 1 775. 

-Philip Van Cortlandt, member of the New York Provincial Council 
from 1 730 to 1 748. 

■^Daniel Horsmanden, member of the New York Provincial Council 
from 1 733 to 1 747. 



460 Sir William Johnson Papers 

ceeding, & said it was A Trick & Draw'd of & Left them, but 
Gov''. Wanton and his Counsil went on & Gave Judgment in 
Favour of the Goverment against the Indians, whereupon the 
said Tribe of Indians sent A Complaint to his Majesty King 
George Informing him of the Proceedings of the Court where- 
upon said Judgment was Declar'd to be [ ] Error, 
and His Majesty Appointed the Govenors of New York & New 
Gersy and their Counsil or any five of them again Revew said 
Judgment Accordingly Cadwalder Colden^ Esq''. Daniel Hos- 
mander Esq''. & Colo: Courtland from New York & Doct*. 
Rodman^ & Robert Hunter Morris^ Esq^ From New Gersey 
Came to hear the Case whereupon the Council for Connecticut 
made this Plea (Viz)., That King Charles y^. 2"*^: had Granted 
Connecticut A Charter & therefore King George had no Right 
to Appoint any Court in said Colony, but on the Courts Desiring 
them to sign their Plea they Desir,d Liberty to Consider it till 
next morning, The next Morning they Bro*^. A small Peice of 
Paper into Court four inc^. inches wide wrote on in words to the 
following Purport (Viz) "I Uncas Sachem of Mohegan Do 
ulpon Mature Consideration make over all my Lands but my 
Planting Lands to the Govenor & Magistrates on Connecticut 
River & was Dated A D 1640," (Eighteen Years before 
Connecticut Charter) & their Council Further said " that Maj^ 
Mason Came into the Gen". Assembly A D 1664 & told them 
he had Bo^ all the Mohegan Land & would have them take 
the Jurisdiction Right (but they made him this Answer, If you 
have Bo^ it you may take it & Settle it your self wee will 
have no Concern with it)" and therefore said they the whole 
of the Mohegan Country was Coney'd [ ] 
[ ] mcnt in favor of the Goverment [ ] 



^Cadwallader CoMen, at different times Lieutenant Governor of New 
York, was a member of the Provincial Council from 1721 to 1776. 

"John Rodman was a member of the New Jersey Provincial Council 
from 1738 to 1756. 

^Robert Hunter Morris, was a member of the New Jersey Provincial 
Council from 1 738 to 1 764, 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 461 

[ ] upon the other two (Vix) Danil Horsmand [er ] 

[and Robert] Hunter Morris Esq^ Protested against said 
Judgment [ ] Protest home with the Judgment ; Their 

being A Clause [ 1 [ ] Commission that 

Either Party that was Agreiv'd by the Judg[ment ] 

have an Appeal home to his Majesty & Privy Counsil which 
[ ] Finally Decide die Controversy, Accordingly M^ 

Samuel M[ason] Gaurdian Appeal'd to his Majesty & Counsil 
& went to Lond [on ] Petitioned for the Money to Carry 

on the Case with According [ ] the Act of Queer! Anne 

abovementioned & the Granted him a [ ] £957 . . 12 . . 7 

For what he had Expended in Said Case & to Finally Finish 
said Case which is the last money we neade to expend to releave 
of which Money they Ordered £371 . . . . to kept to [ ] 

Finish the Case & not to spent for any other use & M^ Mason & 
his Attorney M^ Ashley Gave Bonds for the Performance 
thereof & P[ ] into A Bankers hands till said Tryal & 

the day was Apointed for the Tryal but M"". Mason's Death 
was Twelve day before said day Apointed (which was 
October sixtenth A. D. 1756) Prevented it, from Coming 
th[ ] To any Tryal and the Gaurdianship being Intail to 

Cap*. M[ason] and his Mail Heirs M^ Ashley wrote to know 
who was the Ma[ ] Heir of Cap' Mason, that Vv^as now 

Surviving which this M^ John Mason that is now Going to 
England^ in Behalf of said Tribe no more but Remain your 
most Obedient at command 

Joseph Tracy 
INDORSED: Letters and Papers respectg 

the Dispute between Connecticut 

& the Mohegans 

Enf^. in Ind". Rec^^^ Vol. 9. 

Page 185 



^For a letter dealing with this dispute, see Robert Clelland to Thomas 
Fitch, December 26, 1 764, in Collections of the Connecticut Historical 
Society, 18:313-15, Fitch Papers, 2. 



462 Sir William Johnson Papers 



HENRY BOUQUET TO THOMAS GAGE 
Extract^ 

Philadelphia, ]ul^ 12, J 764 

I have a Letter from Sir William Johnson on his Way lo 
Niagara, where he proposes to give presents to such of the 
Indians as can be prevail'd upon to join me, The Consequence 
of which would be a New Application to me at Pittsburgh: 
But from Appearances I dont expect to see one of them, and 
those gone with Col°. Bradstreet will be too much tired to enter 
into another Expedition. 

Sir William thinks the Enemy Indians very strong upon the 
Muskingham & Scioto, and does not think I can prudently Act 
in that Expedition with less then a Thousand Men which I shall 
not have after leaving small Escorts for Convoys, and Gar- 
risoning Slightly the Forts, I shall do my best to answer the 
Purpose of the Expedition. 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 
A. L. S.- 
London July I2^K 1764 
HoN°. Sir 

the Lords of Trade has had y*^. State of Indian affairs & that 
of M^ SteWerts under thire Consideration for Near Six weeks 
past and have form*^. a plan for y^. futer Manidgement of y"^. 
Departments & the Indian Trade on which a Duty is to be Lay*^. 
of 5c ^ which is to Defray the Expence of Indian affairs you 
are to have three Deputys & M^ Stewert two att 300 -P 
annum Each you are to have an Interpreter & Smith att Each 
post of Trade & M^ Stewart y^. Same & there is to be a Com- 



iln British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21637, fo. 46, London, 
England. 

-From a copy in Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield, 111., made 
by C. E. Carter before the fire; original destroyed. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 463 

misery apomted att Each post to Inspect Trade you are to have 
Seven thousand pounds ~t} annum alow"^. you for presents to y*. 
Indians & other Expences M*". Stewert five thousand I Need 
Say No More on this Subject as you W\\\ Receive a Copey of 
the Plan from thire Lorshipes by this Packett 

thire Lordshipes Say that y^. Commander in Cheeffe will fur- 
nish you with what presents is Nesesary att present for y*. 
Indians & hopes that y^. Expedition under y^. Command of Co". 
Broadstreet will putt an End to y^. Indian Warr after which 
they hope the Duty on y^. Indian Trade will be More then 
Sufisent to Defray y^. Expence of your Department, they Make 
very Light of y®. Indian Warr. and give very Little attension 
to y®. affairs of y^. Colenys in Gineral, M^ Penn has Don 
Every thing in his power to gett a Large present Sent you for 
y®. Indians & has offerd to Joyn his preporsion in itt butt None 
of the present Ministry wold agree to Give Six pence Towards 
that Service Except My Lord Halifax, who is y^ Sincear frend 
and aprove all y®, Meshers you Recomm*^ as to the Rest I Loock 
on what they Say as Meer froath & by Many questions w^. 
they have putt to Me they Seem to be Jelous of y^ being a 
popler Man in Amerrica which they Seem to think att present 
Dangrouss, In short they are Determined To Trust No power 
in y^. hands of any person in Amerrica they won't Suffer y^. 
Commander in Cheefe for the futer to fill up any Commisions 
In aMerrica the Cheefe Study of the pople in power hear att 
present is To Lay Heavy Taxes on the Colenys and tis Talkt of 
Laying an Internal Tax on them Next Cesion of parlamenl 

the Lords of Trade has att Last Consented to Make a 
boundry between the Indians and us and has Made itt an 
Artickle of thire plan & Refer'd itt to your Honour to Setle 
which was very hard to Gett them into fer they wold have Chose 
to Lockt on all the Indians Cuntry as Conquerd & Ceaded to 
us by the Last paice on w*^. Acount No Subject is to purchess 
any Land from the Indians as fermerly the Kmg only and when 
he purchess the Lands is to be Granted by the Lords of Trade 



464 Sir William Johnson Papers 

& No More then twenty thousand acres to one person fer w^. 
Grant there is to be paid hear a sume of Money besides y^. Feess 
to y^. Governer. 

I Refer"^. a Memorial to y^. Lords of Trade for the Con- 
firmation of y^. Lands y^. Six Nations gave Me formerly which 
they Refused to Grant att which Time M^ Pownal Menshon"^. 
y"". honour haveing A Grant from y^. Mohocks thire Lordshipes 
Examined Me fer a Considerable Time how you obtaind itt & 
Wondred you had Nott Menshoned itt in your Leters to y^. 
Board as they had Neaver herd of itt before on w^. I tould them 
that I understood you had Wrote to M^ Pownal to Lay itt 
before y^. Board w^. itt Seems he had Neaver Menshoned before 
and Lord Hillsborrough was of opinion was then two Late as 
they had Made a Rule of Granting Butt 20000. a to one Man 
and Seem'^. of opinion that No Indian Agent Should Make any 
Contracks with Indians fer Lands or be Concern'^, in Trade, 
Sence that M^ Pownal Desier^. Me to aquaint you that he had 
nott been able to gett y^ Grant Confirm*^, butt hoped he Shuld 
gett itt Don as Soon as a boundry was fixt with the Indians 
Butt I Can ashure you that there is Lit^e Dependence to be 
putt in what What he or his Brother Says they are Greatt 
Indian Politicions & pretend to know as Much of Indian affairs 
as you Do and as there has been So Many Changes att y^. 
Board Lately they are Imensly Ignerant and as Indiferent about 
itt as they are Nott Cartian butt another Change will be this 
Next Cesion of parlament I Came two Late to England to aply 
to the Last parlament for y^. Losses Sustained Privous to y^. 
War Seven hundred thousand p'^. of y^. Mony ariseing from 
y^. Sales of y^. Ships Taken from y^. french on that Acount 
was apropriated before I Came there is About £40000 Remain- 
ing which is y^. only Chance I have of being Reimburst what 
I Lost and that must be by aplecation to parlem^ w*^. M^ Pen 
will undertake for Me as I Cant Stay My Self 

tho Gineral Amhirst has been Gineraly Condemd for his Con- 
duct in Indian affairs his plan fer Chestiseing them is followed 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 463 

oweing I Blive to y^. Litle attension paid by y"^. present Ministry 
to amerrican affairs as they Study Nothing butt to keep them 
Selves in power 

I have Don Every thing in My power Respecting the Mohocks 
Complaints About y^". Cayaderrussera patten and that of y*. 
Corperation of albany and tliire Lordshipes has att Last Agreed 
thet if y*^. asembly in New York v/ill Nott Disanul them pattens 
by an act of asemb'y that they will have itt Don hear by an act 
of parlament 

the Board of Trade was going to apoint the Comiserays to 
Inspect y^ Indian Trade in y^ Department hear Till I Lett 
Lord Hillsborrough know that those Comisereys Should be per- 
sons aquainted with y^. Indians Customs and Maners & that I 
thought you Should have y*. apointment of them as they were 
to act Imeidatly under y^ Direction To which he agreed and 
Said itt was proper you Should have y^. apointment of y^ own 
offisers in Such a Depertment Butt Said that in all other Depert- 
ments of his Majestys Service in Amerrica y^. offisers Should 
be apointed hear by his Majestys Ministers which wold allways 
give them that Influence which they ought to have in this 
kingdom. 

M^ Penn Desiers Me to present his Complem'^ to y^ Honour 
& Says he will Write you by Me Plese to Make Mine to M-". 
John & Cap'. Clause Cap'. Johnson 6c y^. Ladys & blive Me 
with Greatt Sincerity y^ Honours 

Most obeident and 

Humble Servant 

Geo: Croghan 

To the Honourable SiR WiLLIAM JOHNSON Bar' 

P. S. 

M^ Allan before he Saild for Phill. Last Month Deliverd 
a State of y'^. Services to M*". GrinvilP y^. Lord high Tresuerer 
Butt there had been Nothing Don in itt Nor Do I blive you will 



^George Grenville, prime minister, chiefiy responsible for the stamp act. 



466 Sir William Johnson Papers 

have any allowances Made you fer y"". Extronerey Services 
Except you was to Come hear y^ Self, y^. pople hear think you 
are Rich aNouffe and they heat to hear of any amerrican being 
Either popler or welthey 

INDORSED : London July 1 2*^. 1 764 

From Geo. Croghan Esq'. 



A CONFERENCE WITH FOREIGN NATIONS 

[Niagara, Jul^ 9-14, 1764] 

[ ] 

Proceedings with [the Indians ] 

arrival at Niagara July [ ] 

Monday July 9'^ 

Several Ottawas of M [ichilimackinac] who had been for 
some time attending Sir W™ Johnson [ ] waited on 

him this Morning. & spoke as follows 
Brother, 

We heartily Wellcome you to this place & we [ ] 

that this Young White Man here present may act as an Inter- 
preter for us in all our transactions with you 
Brother 

We have long waited your arrival, & have been repeatedly 
told you would be here in a little time, we are now most heartily 
Glad to see you, & as a proof of our Esteem [ ] 

bind you and our people together so fast that no people can ever 
separate us. 
Brother, 

We intreat you will compassionate our poverty, & the losses 
we sustained by neglecting our affairs in order to bring the Eng- 
lish prisoners in safety last year to Montreal. 
Brother. We have now done for the present but tomorrow we 



^In handwriting of Guy Johnson mostly. 




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Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 467 

shall open our minds more fully to you & acq' you with all the 
news amst us. 

Gave 3 Strings. 

To which Sir Wm Johnson answered — 
Breth" 

I am glad to see you all here & to find you appear so well 
disposed, I shall make use of the Young man you have recom- 
mended, & hear w'. you have to say tomorrow; — Y^ behavior 
last year was very good, & I am glad you was well rewarded 
for it, notwithstands wch after affairs are settled here [ ] 

I find you continue to act properly, I shall consider your Wants 
& afford you some Supply. 

Gave 3 Strings 

[ ] 

[ ] onondagas & [ ] 

[ ] on S'^ occasion.^ 

The Nipissins & Ottawas waited on Sir Wm. They said they 
were come now to see him that they had [ ] with 

nobody on the way who understood or Could treat with them. 
That at Oswego they were directed to attend him at Niagara 
as the Person transacting Ind". affairs & were glad to find the 
Young Man their Interpreter present. 

Sir Wm answered them — That he was glad to see all those 
who had been instrumental in Saving the L[ ] of the 

Garrison of Michilimackinac, & who were resolved to [ ] 

as friends to the English, that he should be glad to know whet 
[her] they came on their own Private affairs, or were Deputised 
by their Nation; If so, he was ready to hear them. 

They answered. 

That the afternoon being far spent they would deferr declaring 
their business till the next morning when they would attend him 

he replyed 

That he should be glad to see them early tomorrow, & hear 
what they had to say; but Expected they would speak from 



^ A meeting held on the 1 0th. See Johnson Calendar. 



468 



Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 



their hearts, and not their Lips as many Nations had done; 
thereby incurred our displeasure. 

Then Gave them Pipes, Tobacco, & a Dram, after which 
they departed. 



[ 

Wilham. 

Present^ 
Sir W"^ Johnson Bart 
G Johnson Esq^ D. A. 



] 



for Ind" affairs 



Ottawa 
Chiefs 



Showwannicabo 

Thagaiasse 

Sowwongibbey 

Ogeverassin 

Wabikakeck 

or White Hawk 



a Chipe[ 

War[ 

Are: 



] 



] 



Bildannavan 

Cashkokey 

Teckamus 

Otchinggwas 

Peammassad 

Showwannisse ^ 

Otchibauscasigon 

Speaker addressed Sir W'". as follows 
Brother, 

We take this time to assure you that all those Indians now 
here are your friends, & well disposed [ ] their hearts, 

as for me You know I live amongst your people near Montreal. 
As a proof of the good will of the Ind^ present, whereever they 
met with any of your blood they brought it safely down to you. 

Then Bildanwan the Chief of the Ottawas arose & said. 
Brother, 

When we saw you yesterday you told us that we should speak 
honestly & from our hearts to you without Concealing any thing, 
which gives us great pleasure & we therefore beg you will now 
listen to us. We are become very poor, having no Trade or 
Goods, Which reduced some of us to great necessity last Winter 
& we fear, some of us may starve the next, unless supplied. You 
desired we should acqt you with the Cause of our coming & we 
shall conceal nothing from you ; we hope you will by your usage 



^A meeting held on the 1 1 th, according to the Johnson Calendar. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-/774 469 

to us, render your Enemys Jealous, & uneasy at the treatment 

we receive. 

Brother 

[ ] great Want [of amunition ] without 

which we cannot subsist [ ] having Expended all 

which was formerly [ ] We are also without Knives, 

Axes, or [ ] Necessary Articles, &. therefore We 

are come to see [ ] hoping you will consider our 

distresses. 

A bunch of black Wampam 
Brother 

You have desired us to open our hearts, & we d[o ] 

we shall hide nothing from you, but honestly [ ] 

you with everything we know. We are [ ] pressing 

want of many things, & desirous to return home soon, we there- 
fore beg you will allow those who have Furs to trade them off 
& also to purch[ase] some Rum in order to take home We are 
the more urgent as we see that the Traders are [ ] 

up their Goods, for which reason we should [ ] to 

trade imediately We have been long [ ] home & 

did not meet with your Speech till [ ] near Montreal 

from whence we were s [ ] by the Gov^ who told us that 

you would supply [ ] & fill our Canoes. We now beg 

you [ ] as where we can have Rum to Comfort us, as 

we are in [ ] Want of it. 

A bunch of black & White W [ ] 

To which Sir Wm answered them. 
Brethren, 

I have heard what you said, & Shall ans[ ] in the 

afternoon. In the meantime I m[ ] Explain to you 

what I meant by desiring you [ ] your hearts. This 

was to know what v/as the [ ] of the present War & 

who commenced it so as to en [ ] know how I should 

treat with the Ind^ whom I [ ] meet at this place 



470 Sir William Johnson Papers 

To which the Ottawa Cheif Ans^. that he knew nothing [ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] sent were aHke well [ jched [ ] 

he[ ] 

Sir Wm dismissed them with pipes [tobacco] 
& a dram^ 
[At Noon Two Canoes of Ind\ from St Mar^s [ ] 

the Ind\ imediatel]^ Waited on Sir Wm when the Cheif of the 
ChippaWaes SpoJ^e as follows.'] 

[Brother] 
Bretheren 

You let me know the other Day that You were in great Want 
of Amunition & Everry other arti [cle] necessary for y^ hunting, 
or Subsistance. As I have Several times Since my arrival here 
told You the reason of y*". Sufferings [ ] by the bad 

behaviour of the Drunken foolish Ind®., I need not [ ] 

further on that Subject, than to advise You to Assist all in 
you[r powjer to bring them Wicked People to a Sense of their 
Error As [soo]n as that is done, Trade will imediately flourish, 
& not before, [ ] the mean time. As You have given 

me so many assurances & Proofs [of] y^ good intentions, I shall 
order You a little Amunition, for y^ Journey, & some Cloathin3 
for y^ Familys, 

A Belt 
Bretheren, 

I am oblidged to You for opening y^ hearts to me. As that 
is the way Brothers must always do, otherwise they cannot be 
called true Brothers, Nor their freindship last long. 

As to Y^ request for liberty to trade w^ Purrs & Skins you 
have here, it is You see granted, entirely on Ace", of Your good 
behaviour towards our Prisoners, & y^ peaceable disposition. 



^ At this point a gap occurs in the proceedings. The speech which fol- 
lows is evidently addressed to Ottawas and Nipissings. 
"Erased in the manuscript. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 471 

this indulgence should convince you of our regard for all well 
disposed Indians, when you see Trade denyed to all others. 
As Soon as y". have finished Trading, I purpose giveing You a 
proof of his Majestys bounty & Esteem for Good honest Indians, 
I shall likewise give you Some Rum to carry home with You, 

A Belt. 
[Bretheren] 

[I now meet you in conseq\ ] this morning, and 

I Expect i;ou rvill tell m[ ] desired concerning the 

rise & Authors of the War.] 

[I have attended to all you Said this morning, & I am 
[ ] pleased at your behavior last year, for n>hich I 

J^now you [ ] well paid. I am sorry for the wants you 

say you [ ] especially as I cannot help you, or indulge 

you with Trade [ ] present it being contrary to the 

Kings orders to admit of [ ] till the War is over with 

our Enemys] 

[You see what dificultys you labour under on ac[ ] 

of the bad behavior of our Enemys this should for ever convince 
Y[ ] that to Quarrel with the English, will be Your 

Ruin, & You ma [ ] assured that whatever Nation, or 

Nations shall rashly attempt to disturb [ ] must 

unavoidably be ruined in a little time: neither can any Trade be 
[ ] our Enemys are punished, so that 'tis your interest 

to be aiding in re[ ] who have occasio[ ] of Trade, 

after which you will be allowed an open Commerce] 

[If therefore you will now send out some [ ] Young 

Men along with the Army, they shall be very well [ ] 

& besides as a proof of his Majesty s bou[nty] shall give your 
familys a handsome present, to mainta[in] them until the Trade 
is once more opened.] 

[As you are a Sensible people I Expect youll comp[ly] with 
this, & that you will have no objection to sending your young 
men agt a bad people who have deprived you of Trade & would 
lessen our Esteem for Indians: You J^now how Treacherous[ly] 



472 Sir William Johnson Papers 

they surprised our Fort at Michilimackinac, If that was Yet in 
order tve could have goods there & Supply^ pou at a reasonable 
rate witht mal^ y^ou taj^e such long Journey^s, hut we have at 
present no place of security) for Goods at that place, so that till 
we are once again in poss". of it you must he greatly distressed, 
I have therefore no doubt but you will chuse that we should settle 
again] 

I ] 

[ ] Conference^ with the [ ] 

[ ] in the presence of the Six Nations [ ] 

Present 
Sir Wm Johnson Baronet 

G Johnson Esq"^ D. A. for Ind" affairs 
Lieut Coll Browning, "1 & Se\K other 
L^ Coll Campbell J officers 
Speaker 
Brother Wawaghiyagey 

The Menomenys & Folsavoins have sent me with this Calumet 
of peace, to inform you that they are on their Way to see you, 
There are three Nations Viz', the Osages, who cannot see you 
this Summer. We must now desire you will let us hear what you 
have to say so as we may be able to give them an Acct of it. 

TThey delivered the Calumet which was Smoked out of by all 
present. 

The Speaker of the Caghnawagas then declared that the 
affairs of this day were over, & that tomorrow they should pro- 
ceed to business. Upon which they adjourned till tomorrow 

[ '] 

Present" 



^Held on the 1 2th, as shown by the Johnson Calendar. 
"^A space is left in the manuscript. The Johnson Calendar shows that 
Johnson was speaking to Ottawas, Chippewas and Nipissings, and that the 
day was July 1 3. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 473 

Sir Wm addressed them as follows 
Brethren; 

I am glad to see all those of your people, who [ ] 

well disposed, & I shall be well pleased to meet the sev' [ ] 

who have sent the Pipe of peace and shall treat with them 
acc[ ] [us I am come here to receive [ ] Sub- 

mission & Enter into a Peace with all Nations who [ ] 

heartil]^ sorrxi for whais past & disposed to maJ^e proper 
concess [ ] ] 

Gave 3 Strings 
Brethren, 

The unjust War Commenced by many of the Western & 
other Nations leave me little reason to Expect that we can rely 
more upon their Sincerity, and the great King finding all other 
methods ineffectual has been obliged to send an Army with a 
large body of good Ind"^ under an Experienced Officer, now at 
this place, in order to bring all Obstinate Nations to a Sense of 
their folly, at the same time as Some Nations made propos 
[ ] last fall of peace & Reconciliation, I was directed to 

meet them here, and I am now ready to hear what they have to 
offer. I Expect that You will first declare who were the Pro- 
moters of the War & the causes they assigned, for so high a 
breach of their Agreement. 

A belt 
Brethren 

You all doubtless begin to see the consequences of a Quarrel 
with the English, by the Loss of an Extensive Trade w^hich 
you might have Securely enjoyed but for the Treacherous 
behavior [ 

[ ] any goods to go into a Country [ 

[ ] cause why you have no Trade is still remaining [ 

[ ] permit none until all our Enemys are reduced [ 

It is therefore the Interest of all you who want [ 



^Several lines missing. 



474 Sir William Johnson Papers 

who have sensibly felt the dearth of Goods; & who have wisdom 
[ ] to see to whom it is to be attributed, to engage unani- 

mously [ ] agt our Enemys, & as sipeedily as possible to 

bring them to a just punishmt, or a proper knov/ledge of their 
Error. If any of Your Young Men will as a proof of their 
innocence in the War & of their Esteem for us, Joyn heartily, 
at this time & accompany his Majestys Troops, & the Ind*. now 
here, they shall be well rewarded, & I shall likewise send home 
your old people with a handsome present as a proof of his 
Majestys Esteem, & I hope this proposal will be the more 
agreable to you as it is the best oplportunity you Ever can have 
of convincing us of your own Sincerity, and of Revenging your- 
selves on account of the Trade of which our Enemys have 
deprived you. 

A Belt 
Brethren, 

Several of your people here present have strongly represented 
their Great Wants, on acct of the Stoppage of Goods, & Set 
forth their Good behavior last Year in Escorting the Garrison 
of Miccilimackinac to Canada, for this the English are very 
thankfull & I am glad the Ind^ were very well rewarded at 
Montreal Notwithstanding which I would Willingly indulge 
them in their late demands. If it were in my power, but that cannot 
be at present, his Majesty having strictly forbid it 'till our 
Enemys are Subdued. What you suffer by this prohibition sho^. 
Convince you of the ill consequences of Quarrelling with the 
English who Command all the Doors into your Country, & with- 
out whose Consent you can receive no Supplys ; as we shall never 
suffer any goods to be transported into an Enemys Country. I 
am sensible of the [ ] 

[ ] asking as no Traders [ ] 

[ ] is a post for the Security of the goods [ ] 

[ ] you would be glad to see the English [ ] 

place, as you might then have your wants supplied [ ] 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 475 

Delay & trouble of a long Journey. If I Judge aright [ ] 

that measures may be taken accordingly. 

A belt 
Brethren 

I have taken notice of what you said [ ] morning^ and 

am well pleased to hear you [ ] preserved my Words at 

the reduction of this place so carefully As your happiness and 
Security depends upon your good behavior to the English I 
Expect you will always have it in View [ ] a due observ- 

ance of your several Engagements you may enjoy the benefits 
resulting from their Friendship. 

A belt 

To which ^the Chief of the 

Chipeweighs answered. 
Brother 

Hearken to what I have now to say; I have been away at 
St Marys where I have resisted all the Sollicitation of your 
Enemy s who sent me three belts of Wampum which I disre- 
garded. I have been this Summer at La Baye where I told 
your Enemys that I was coming to you but they disregarded 
me. had I known what was intended ag*. you, You sho*^. not 
have Suffered the loss you did ; for my part I always endeavoured 
to preserve peace & have become a great Sufferer & very poor 
by the War. I know noth^ of the War, nor can I fix it w**^. 
certainty on any Nation. As it is now too late & we want to 
consult together we must deferr say? anything farther till 
omorrow. 

1 

] over the North Side of the Lake [ ] 

] to what past but I have always loved peace [ ] 

] poor ; I have attended to w*. you Said & am [ ] 

] know y*^ Resolutions. 

Gave a bunch of Wampum 



'See A Conference with Chipewas, July 13, p. 478. 
-A space left in the manuscript. 



476 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Then the Chief of the Ottawas — Bindanowan — spoke 
Brother, 

You must not imagine I am acquainted with the Cause of 
the War as I Hve so distant. I only heard a Httle bird Whistle 
an Acct of it & on going to Michilimackinac I found your people 
killed. Upon wch I sent our Priest to inquire into the Cause of 
it. On the Priests return he brot me no favorable acct, but a 
War hatchet from Pondiac wch I scarcely looked on, & imedi- 
ately threw away. I Expected that the Priest wo^ have brot 
me a more particular acct from Pondiac but he brot nothing but 
what I have ment"^. 
Brot. 

As It is now late we shall retire & Consult on an Ans^. ag* 
Tomorrow 

Present as before ^ 
A Chipeweigh Chief spoke as follows 
Brother, 

Hearken to what I have to say. We [ ] Ignorant 

people, & know nothing of v/'. you asked us 

Gave [ ] 

Brother 

We resolved to wait your arrival here, & to attend to [ ] 

said. 

We are not of the same people as those reside, ab*. Mich [ ] 

We only heard at a distance that the Enemy were killing 
[ ] on which we covered our heads, as I resolved not to 

suffer [ ] to engage in the War I gathered them together, 

& made [ ] 

In the Spring on uncovering my head I perceived thai 
[ ] had again began a War & that the Sky was all 

[ ] in that quarter w" I tho^ all was peace. 

Gave a Beaver blanket. 



^ This meeting was held on the 14th. 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 All 

Brother, 

All our Young people on hearing of the renewal of hostilities 
were determined on peace & Rejected the Wamp"", sent by y^ 
Enemys after which we took all the prisoners from amongst 
them. Perhaps you may doubt the truth of wh I have said but 
be assured it is from my heart, & that the Great Spirit wo"^ dis- 
cover [ ] falsehood if we used any. We have lived by 
ourselves tv/o days Journey from Tronto. 

Then 1 8 Young Warriors of the Chipeweighs who were to 
Joyn the Army seai;ed themselves opposite S^ W"*. after which 
a Chief stood up & said 
Brother, 

Hearken to what I say, We have attended to your desire of 
Yesterday, & in consequence of it, here are 18 of my people 
who shall Joyn the Army, the rest not being here. We flattered 
ourselves that you wo"^. Give us a taste of your Strong Water 
v/hich we are very desirous of. We would also desire to have 
McCarty with us as an Interpreter, as he understands our lan- 
guage well. 

They deferred anss w*^ regard to the post at Michel'^, till the 
rem'r] of the Warriors Arrived. 

] 

] have hearkened with [ ] 

] said & I am well pleased to hear of your [ ] 

] tow^* the English. I recommend to you [ ] 

[ ] in the same Sentiments as the only means of [ ] 

[ ] & plenty to your people. 

I thank you for Your readiness in furnishing us with 1 8 of 
your people, they shall be well taken care of, & have the Inter- 
preter you desire, & I am hopefull the Example you have set 
will be followed by all the Well disposed Indians in your parts. 
Agreable to y''. desire I have sent for Liquor that yo*". Young 
Men may dance the War dance. 

As many of the Western Ind^ are on the road & will be 
here to night, I shall deferr saying any thing farther 'till their 
arrival 



478 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Then delivered them some Rum of which the Warriors &c 
drank a Glass & then danced the War dance. 

After which the Chipeweighs said, That they hoped Sir W™. 
wo^. rem^ his promises about Clothing the old people, that they 
were in a Great hurry & wanted to return, that their Canoes 
were insufficient to carry them home 

Then the Chipeweighs Said TTiat it gave them the most 
infinite pleasure to hear of Sir W'"^ coming, that on his arrival 
the Lakes became placid, the Storms ceased & the Whole face 
of Nature was changed. 

Sir W'". ans^. them, that their demd^ & his promises sho*^. 
be duly noticed. 

P. M. The Menominays & Ottawaes of La Bay Arrived & 
waited on Sir W"". to acqt him that 197 of their people were 
at the Carrys place, & wanted boats to bring them to him, Sir 
W"™. thereupon ordered Eight boats to bring them down. 



A CONFERENCE WITH CHIPPEWAS 
A. D} 

July 13^1^ 1764 [Niagara] 
Brother 

First spreading out a Bever on y^. floor, the Speaker w'^. a 
[Calumet in] hand spoke as follows 

I beg y^ attention, while I speak [ ] I am now to 

speak to you on behalf of all y'^. well dis [ ] Chippawaes 

liveing at & about S'. Marys, Lake Superior [ ] & tc 

tell you that they Sent this Calumet of peace to You to S[moke] 
out of, & keep by You, that all the Chippawaes who may 
[ 1 to You may know we are Brothers, & have smokeo 

out of [ ] Pipe. 

Brother 

We are to assure You that on y'=. breaking [ ] of 

this War We present were so much shocked at it y*. we were 



^The first part in Johnson's handwriting. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 479 

afraid & ashamed to lift our heads, as the Earth, Trees &. 
Waters seemed all in motion & angry, & more so as we found 
that the Cheifs who ought to suppress such, were fomenting it. 
then laid down y^. Calumet on 2 Blankets 

Brother 

We are a poor & foolish Peo!ple, You are wise & Y"". 
Speeches good, Wei have on our way hither cleared the road, 
& Settled everry thing, so that the Trees are not tossed about & 
blown down therein as of late. We left home in a great hurry 
in order to come & hear what you would say to us, so that we 
might bring y"". words to our Nations, we have now shaken hands 
with you, and as soon as we hear you shall return. 

Brother 

we are peaceably inclined, & wish to live long, we have no 
evil thoughts, they are chiefly taken up in thinking of y*. Darling 
Water made by Man. then said he would add nothing further 
worth entering, only talk on Trade. 

Brother 

we are Indians, & very poor being in want [ ] 

necessarys of life, & unless allowed Trade & Amunition [ ] 

& our Familys must inevitably suffer, wherefore hope [ ] 

be allowed us, We were formerly told by y^ People that they 
could, & would always Supply us with goods for our furs & we 
now beg it may be so, as we have nothing ill in our hearts 
towards You. 

Brother 

we again beg to have liberty to trade as formerly, & that you 
will let the Rum run a little as our People will expect on our 
return to taste y^ Water w'^ they like above all things. 

threw down a Bundle of Bever Skins 

Brother 

what I have now said are y^. Sentiments of all our Nation, 
so that Should there more Chippawaes arrive here dureing y"". 



480 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



Stay, they will have nothing else to Say, as we now speak for 
y^ Whole. 

the Speaker then took S^ W"*. by y^ hand & told him he 
had nothing further to say. then S^ W"*. told them he had 
heard what they were charged with, should consider of it, & 
give them an Answer in y*=. Afternoon.^ 

Then the Chief of the Chipeweighs shewing [ ] 

Brother 

This is the belt you gave us on the [ ] this 

place. I am now to assure you that [ ] have taken 

good Notice of it, & notwithstanding all the [ ] & 

Menaces of your Enemys, have strictly preserved your 1 ] 

in our Hearts. 

Brother, 

We have long laboured to preserve peace & [ ] very 

busy in promoting, but on my imagining I had heard you 
Whistle, I imediately set out to meet & hear what you have 
to Say. 

Sir W'". then told them he had hearkned to what they said, 
should take it into Consideration & return them an Answer in 
the Afternoon, in the presence of the Sachems of the 6 Nations 
who were come upon Peace & would be Desirous to hear what 
passed. To this they agreed & said they had another Speech 
& a Beaver blanket to deliver the [Mohocl^s] Six Nations. 



^The remainder is in Guy Johnson's handwriting. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 



481 



NATIONS AT THE GENERAL MEETING 
A. D.' 
The Several Nations who attended this General Meeting 

July 1 764. 

Mohawks 

Oneidaes 



Tuscaroras 

Onondagaes 

Cayugaes 

Senecas 

Coghnawageys 

Ganughsadageys 

Chippawaes 

Ottawaes 

Menomineys 

Sakis 

Outagamies 

Puans 

Christineaux 

Hurons 

Toughkamawimons 

[Alkongins] 

[Nipissangs] 



I Nanticokes 
I v^anoys 
I Mohicanders 
' Algonkins 
Nipissengs 



y 



The 

Six Nation 

Confederacy 



The Western 
Confederacy 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.2 

New York Jul}) IS^K 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I was last Night favored with your Letter of the 29'*^. of 
June from Ontario, and find you had collected a very consider- 



^In Johnson's handwriting. 

-In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 

16 



482 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

able Number of Indians, which I hope Colonel Bradstreet will 
make the best use of, and I make no Doubt that his knowledge 
of the Indians and of the Troops, will lead Him to take every 
prudent Measure to prevent any Misunderstandings from im- 
proper Behavior or indiscreet Expressions. 

It's probable that the Artillery Man was killed by some of 
the Delawares, whom it is reported are encamped not far from 
the Chenussio Castle. I suppose, those, who were drove from 
the Susquehanna in the Spring, we had before advice that they 
wanted to come in a Body against the Carrying Place, but were 
prevented by the Senacas. If true, those Nations have in some 
Measure shewed themselves our Friends, tho not hearty enough 
to attack our Enemys, or they would not have remained 
encamped so near Them. 

The Firing upon our Friendly Tribes, was an unlucky 
Accident and I fear will have occasioned a good deal of Trouble, 
to set Matters right. 

I conclude you have seen all the News from the Detroit, some 
Chippewas and Pouteatamis had sued for Peace, but the 
former's Behavior don't shew them much in Earnest. They had 
exposed a Prisoner to sale, and shot a Frenchman for defending 
his Hog, at the same Time demanding Peace. Major Gladwin 
detained two of them, till they brought in the rest of their 
Prisoners. They belonged to the Chippewas of Michillimaki- 
nak, who have not yet thought fit to sue for Peace. The 
Ottawas are very sturdy, and threaten to extirpate the Hurons 
for making their Submission. Neither The Wiandots of San- 
dusky or Pouteatamies of S*. Josephs have demanded Peace, 
and unless some of the Tribes get a Severe Blow, I fear the War 
will continue. 

M^ Watkins an Ensign of the 30*^. carried the Medals from 
hence some Time ago, and should have nearly joined you by 
this Time. I hope you will be able with Colonel Bradstreet 
to find Means of sending proper Messages to the Indians of the 
Illinois; They were well inclined to receive us, till that Villain 



PosUWar Period, 1763-1774 483 

Pondiac got amongst them. I don't hear that either the Indians 
of that District or those of the Ouabache are ill disposed of 
themselves; and would remain quiet unless they are terrified by 
the rest, and forced to take up Arms. I have received Advice 
of the Shawnese & Delawares getting Supplys there from the 
French, which they paid for with Skins. The French gave 
them Nothing Gratis. Colonel Bradstreet will doubtless make 
an Attempt upon the Scioto and the Musf^ingham, and give the 
Indians a fair opportunity to shew their Sincerity. Our Affairs 
should absolutely be finished this Campain, which a good blow 
upon the Delawares &c*. and particularly on the Tribes of that 
villain Pondiac would certainly bring about. 

I hope you will be able to send some Indians to the Assistance 
of Colonel Bouquet, as I apprehend Colonel Bradstreet will 
have drawn all the Service He can get from them on the Lakes, 
before they will be wanted at Fort Pitt. If they join Colonel 
Bouquet towards the End of September, they will probably be 
in Time, you know how late the Province of Pensylvania was, 
in granting their Quotas of Men. Their Levies have come in 
but slowly; but they hope to be compleated, by the End of this 
Month. The Transportation is so long and difficult, that they 
will be scarcely able to move from Fort Pitt, till the End of 
September. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 

Thqs. Gage 
S«. W-^. Johnson Bar*. 

Niagara 
INDORSED: July 15'h. 1764 

Genr'. Gages letter 



484 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

Nen> York July 16'K 1764. 
Sir, 

I have just received Letters from Montreal to inform Me, 
that several of the Western Nations were comeing there to treat ; 
that a Messenger had been Sent to acquaint them that they Must 
all Repair to Niagara, where a Congress Was to be held. They 
accordingly all turned back, except the Ottawas: who came 
down to the two Mountains ; but were not Suffered to land upon 
the Island of Montreal. And were Sent up the S*. Lawrence 
River in their Way to Niagara, So that I conclude. You have 
them near you by this Time. I suppose the Nations who turned 
back, were the Folles Avoines, and the Sakis and perhaps Some 
of the Sioux. These last I take to be a better sort of People 
than the Ottawas. 

I have Hkewise got a Letter from Pere Jaunai, the Missionary 
of Michillimahinak ; who does not give the best Ace**, of the 
Disposition of the Savages there. I suppose He Means the 
Chippewas Who are the worst People and greatest Thieves that 
Inhabit the Lakes. I am with great Regard 
Dear Sir, 

Your Most obedient 

humble Servant 

Tho^ Gage 
Sir W". Johnson Bar*. 
Niagara 



^In the Kt\\! York Public Library New York City. 



Posl-War Period, 1763-1774 485 

DRAFT OF TREATY WITH THE HURONS OF DETROIT 

[Niagara] Jul]) I7^'\ 1764 

[ I 

[Detroit] entered into by Sir Wm [ ] 

[ ] of the said Nation. Article [ ] 

The said Indians [ ] to put an imediate 

Stop to [ ] in which any of their 

Nations [ ] engaged themselves, and 

they [engage never] to attemp' disturbing the 

Agreed pubHc [ ] tranquillity hereafter, or 

conceal [such] attempts of any other people, but 
[will use] their utmost endeavours to preserve 
inviolable the Peace they hereby enter into, and 
so hand it down to posterity. 

2d. 
That any English who are prisoners, or Desert- 
ers, Negro's, Panis, &c who may be amongst the 
Hurons shall be delivered up imediately to the 
Commands officer of the Detroit, and that they use 
Agreed «t11 possible endeavo[urs] to get those who are in 

the hands of the Neighbouring Nations, Engaging 
nev[er] to entertain any Deserters, Fugitives or 
Slaves, but should any such fly to them for pro- 
tection they are to deliver them up to the next 
Commanding Officer. 

3d. 

That they will never hereafter maintain any 
friendship with any of his Majesty's Enem[ies] 
or treat with any people who shall attempt to 



^In Guy Jobnson'.s handwriting. The definitive treaty nf which this docu- 
ment is a draft is printed in Doc. Rel to Col. Hist., N. Y., 7:650-51. 
Some words missing in the draft are supplied from that source. 



486 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Agreed commit hostilities on the English, but sh[all] 

oppose their designs, and treat them as com[mon 
enemies, ] [ ] 

may [ 1 but if any matter 

of G[rievance arises] they are either thro the 
C[hannel of the] Commandant of Detroit, or by 
[personal] application to Sir Wm Johnson [to 
represent] their Complaint. 

4th 

TTiat the Hurons do acknowledge [the] right of 

Agreed his Brittanic Majesty to all the Lands above their 

Village on both sides of the Strait to Lake S^ Clair 

in as full and ample manner as the same was [ever] 

Claimed, occupied or Enioyed by ihf! Fisnch. 

5 th 

TTiat the Hurons do to the utmost Secure the 
Strait or passage from Lake Erie to the Detroit, 
and do use their utmost endeavors to Guarranty 
the same & protect our Vessells, Boats, or People 
Agreed who may have occasion to go to or return from 

Detroit either by Land or by Water, and Lastly 
That they do now, or at any other time at the 
requisition of the Commandant of Detroit or of any 
other his Majestys Officers, furnish Such a number 
of their Warriors as may appear necessary for the 
protection thereof or the annoyance of the Enemy. 

In Consequence of the perfect Agreement of the 
Hurons to the foregoing Articles; Sir William 
Johnson doth by Virtue of the Powers & authorities 
to him given by his Majesty promise [and declare 
that all hostilities on the part of His Majesty against 
the Hurons shall cease, that Ipast] offences [shall 
be forgiven, and that the] said Ind* [shall enjoy 








MAP OF DETROIT RIVER IN 1 764 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 487 

all their] Original Rights, [and privilidges and 
also] be indulged with a free [fair, and open trade] 
agreable to such Regu[lations as His] said Majesty 
shall di[rect] 

Given at Niagara the 1 7 July I 764 
INDORSED: Treaty of 

Peace with the 

Hurons of Detroit 

before 

Sir W"*. Johnson Baronet 

at Niagara July 1 7'^'. 1 764 



A MEETING WITH THE MENOMINEES 
A. D.\ 

[Niagara, July 17, 1764] 
I ] 

I 1 

[ ]ning of y"= [ ] [ ] 

glad to See You [ ] now y"". [ ], for 

our parts w[ ] of trouble this time past to keep 

[ ] & to save your People, We s[ ] 

Winter by means of the bad Ind^, [ ] pitty our 

condition, having come so far [ ] 

A Black Belt 
Brother. 

These of our Nation liveing this side of the Fort at La Bay 
also hope You will take pitty on their Scituation, & consider 
their Wives & Children & [ ] hope the great Spirit 

above now hears us talk together Brother when these foolish 



^In Johnson's handwriting partly. On the back of the manuscript is a 
drawing representing the Detroit river and places of interest in 1 764. 
iSee p. 



488 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Ind*. began hostilities ag*^ you We at La Bay thought of what 
you said to Us when we first saw You & Shall never forget it, 
Brother we are highly pleased to See You & to find You are 
come to Settle peace with those who are so disposed, these two 
Belts we give You to let you know we have 2 Council Fires in 
y'. part of the Country. 

A Black Belt 
Brother, 

By this belt we assure you that our Young Men are all of one 
way, & that their hearts hang Just the same way with their old 
People, being of one mind together, We hope therefore you'll 
pity us & let us go home chearfully in peace, & that you'll keep 
this belt to rem^ them. 

A belt 
Brother, 

We are just the same as the Ottawas, & Went together to 
Montreal, We hope you'll consider us both alike, & notice us 
accordingly. 

Gave 2 packs of Bear 
Brother 

We hope you'll consider us & believe we are very poor, & 
in great Want of Cloathing as our Young Men has a few 
Beav^ Skins we hope you'll pity them & suffer them to sell them 
to the Traders. When we parted with our Bro^ at La Bay 
[ ] tinue Good & that he wo*^ be glad to see us again 

& Reward us, & we hope you'll not [ ] suffer us 

to want the thing you know we like, w*^'^. we have tasted here, 
& that you'll let us have [ ] Refresh us on our 

Journey We promised our Breth". to bring them good Words, 
& we hope for [ ] that we may be able to tell them 

w'. passed — Gave a pack 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 



489 



EQUIVALENTS TO GOVERN INDIAN TRADE 
A. D. S.i 

[Niagara, July 18, 1764] 



I 



] Size D° 

] Small D° 

] Ruffled Mans Shirt 

] Iplain D°. for a Man 

]s of Roll Gartering 

A [ ] Ps. of Good Gimps. . . 

[ ]00 Black Wampum 

a pound of Virmillion 

a Steel Trap 

Kettles "fe^ pound 6' 

Gilt Trunks V)^. largest 6 in a nest ] 
40 c ^ nest to be sold according h 

to size j 

a Bed Gown lined vv'^. Calicoe for a 

Man 

a Small D« 

4 Ells Ribbond 

A Good Knife 

a gallon of Rum 

a Silver Arm band of y^ largest. . . . 

a Size Smaller 

a pair of Silver rist bands of y^ best 

Sort 

a pair of Silver Ear bobs 

12 Silver Broaches 

2 large Silver Crosses 



[ 



1 large [ 

1 s [ 

1 large [ 

1 Middling [ 
1 D«. 
1 Do. 

1 large Bever 

2 Middleing Do. 
I large D^. 



2 large Bevers 
1 Do. 

1 p"^. Bever 

1 Racoon 

1 Bever 

3 Do. 

2 Do. large 

2 Middling Bever 

1 Bever lap 

1 large Bever 
I Do. 



'In Johnson's handwriting. 



490 Sir IVilUam Johnson Papers 

a Hair Silver plate for Womens Hair 

y^. largest 3 D°. 

Smaller D« 2 D^. 

Silver gorgets for Men 2 D^ & a lap 

W. J. 



EQUIVALENTS IN BARTER 
D. S.' 

Niagara, Jul^ /^'^ ^764 

By Colonel John Bradstreet commanding all his Majestys 
Forces on the Western District &c, &c. 

Notice IS hereby Given to all Indian Traders, that on a 
Representation of Sir William Johnsons liberty is granted them 
to Trade v/ith the distant Indian Nations now here, and none 
other, for all kinds of Merchandize, except Arms and Amuni- 
tion vv^hich they are strictly foi'bid to sell, give, or in anywise 
allow the Indians to get from them, on pain of being treated 
as Enemies to their King and Country. 

The Merchandize hereby permitted to be bought and Sold 
to be at the hereafter nam'd prices. 

And to avoid impositions on either side, an Officer with two 
Indian Traders will attend the Time allow'd for the Trade 
above mentioned which is to be begin to morrow morning at 10 
o'cloc': end end on the 20'^ in ti:'e Evenin?. 



A Stroud Blanket 2 yards 2 Bevers 

A large French Blanket 2 mids D°. 

A S^con'^ Size ditio 1 large D°. 

A small Ditto 1 mide D°. 

A Roll of Gartering 1 ditto 

A Mans Ruffled Shirt 1 large D°. 

Ditto plain . ; 1 mids D«. 



^In 'American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 491 

P*. good Gimp 1 ditto 

300 Wampum ] Large D«. 

1 Pound Vermillion 2 mid^ Ditto 

A Steel Bever trap 1 large Bever 

Kettles p"" B Six Shillings 

Gilt Trunks 6 in a nest 40/ p"" Nest 

to be Sold accords, to size 
A Bed gown lin'd with Callicoe for 

a grown person 2 Bevers 

A Small Ditto 1 Large Bever 

4 Ells ribband I lap 

a good Knife I Racoon 

A Gallon of Rum 1 Bever 

The largest silver arm band 3 D**. 

Second size Do 2 D*'. 

A pair of Silver Wrist Bands 2 mid?. Bevers 

A pair Silver Ear Bobs 1 Bever lap 

1 2 Silver Broches 1 Bever 

2 large Silver Crosses 1 D°. 

A Silver Hair plate best Sort 3 

A size smaller 2 

A Silver Gorget 2 and a Lap 

Given at Niagara July 1 9*^^ 1 764 
Jn** Bradstreet 

DEFINITIVE TREATY WITH HURONS OF DETROIT 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 231, is a treaty between Johnson and the 
Hurons of Detroit, with seal and signatures, dated July 1 8. It is of the 
same purport as the draft above. Most of the original was destroyed by 
the fire, but a copy is printed in Doc. Rel. to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:650-51. 



492 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



NEWS FROM THE CHENUSSIOS AND REQUEST OF THE 
CHIFPEWAS 

A. D} 

[Niagara, Jul]) 2h'? 1764] 
[ 
[ 

end [ 

Morning, to Kanaghiyadua [ 
Your flesh & Blood from them [ 
mentioned a Day for our being at [ 
must beg you will not insist on our [ 
to that Day; as we have many People [ 
but You may Depend on above 80 of the Warriors [ 
90 Women & 4 Prisoners being here y^. day after to morrow [ 
rest or last we cannot ascertain y^. days but expect [ 
will without doubt come as soon as possible after re[ceiving 

y^ Message. there are some of y^. Delaw[ares] or Squash 

Cutters party also comeing, & have given those Prisoners now 

comeing to the Chenussios. 

NB : there are above 30 already arrived. 

they say that 3 Deserters on hearing of the Agreement made 
to deliver up y^. Prisoners run away after De Coaugues visit 
there. — that there are two Deserters Yet there, one of them a 
Drummer, who I suppose to be Sherlock. 

they are impatient to sett of, so as to reach their Camp this 
night. — w*^ an Answer. 

Sunday 22"^. 1 764 The Cheif Warrior of the Chippawaes with 
2 others came to tell me that he never stayed So long before 
after taking a resolution to go to War, that he and his party 
being 20 were quite tired lying by here, therefore begged I 
would point out to them the Enemy I would have Struck, that 
they might imediately go by themselves ag*'. them or in Com- 



^In Johnson's handwriting. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 493 

pany with any of our People, & that they did not doubt of 
bringing in Soon Pris"^ & Scalps, Brother I should be verry 
sorry you would make peace with the Senecas Shawanese or 
Delawares, but le' us go & Strike them as they are a bad 
People & the occasion of all our trouble should you make peace 
with them it will not last long, neither will it be agreable to Us, 
& those who might escape now, we can pick [ 

[ 

[ ] promise to You, for I am [ 

[ ] Warrior, w^. that Man knows [ 

[ ] M'^Carty — were it thro Fire [ 

[ ] Perform my promise. — Brother I am [ 

[ ] doubt my words, but I am the Head Warrior o 

[ ] & one who never turned back, or fled from my 

Enemy [ Folljavoins & Tawaes have dissuaded one of y^ 

Volunteers from [ ] with me, w^. I think does not look 

freindly — [ ] and that the fallovins & Tawas told 

them we only wan [ted] them to escort y^. Army, not to kill y^. 
Enemy, by y^. smallness of the Belt given lo them — Brother 
I am much conerned to see y^. Great Man^ who is to command 
the Army behave this Day so cross to y^. Young Man who is 
to accompany us, it is not good for a great Warrior to be cross 
to his Warriors, it discourages them. 

then repeated y^. above, & added that without M'^.Cai*^ 
(with whom they are long acquainted) they would be at a loss 
to speak to their Broth [ers] therefore begged he mighf: accom- 
pany them. 



^Colonel John Bradstreet. 



494 Sir William Johnson Papers 

JAMES DOW' TO HENRY BOUQUET. 
Extract- 
Niagara, 22^. July 1764 
. . . CoHonel Bradstreet Arryved here the 6**^. Sir 

William Johnson the 7*^ 

S'. William told me you had applyed to him for 
some Indians but he was Sorry that he could not send you some 
as he had ordered them all this way 



INDIAN INTELLIGENCE' 

[ ] 

that y^. Bearer give [ ] 

come to a resolution w'. to [ ] 

Occasioned by many evil idle [ ] 

He resolved to wait there, until he [ ulu] 

mate resolutions, w^. are these, that y^ [ ] 

Warriors agreed to come to Niagra with 1 02 [ ] 

& keep 20 in their hands until they see how [ ] 

go at y^. Meeting, then the Squash Cu[tter ] Party 

desired that he would go to Niagra with y^. [ ] and 

endeavour all in his power to make up ma[tters] with the Eng- 
lish, whom he had so much injured, to w^. he answered posi- 
tively, after being 3 times requested that he would not come to 
y*. Meeting, On w^. his party told him that as he was by his 
Obstinacy going to destroy them all, they would not look upon 
him any longer as their Cheif, but as an old Woman, And should 
you offer to run away or look towards Ohio we will certainly 



^A lieutenant in the 42d regiment. 

-In British Museum. Additional Manuscripts 21650, fo. 353, 
London, England. 

^The date of these memoranda, which are in Johnson's handwriting, 
is missing. They plainly belong to the close of July, 1 764, and must 
have been written at Niagara. 



Postwar Period, 1763-1774 495 

destroy You, — on w^., they desired that the Chenussios (in 
whose Arms they are) would Speak for them, & make up Mat- 
ters for them w*. the EngHsh — then they spoke to Squash 
Cutter, & told Him that by his Obstancy (in case y^*=. Uncles 
could not make up y^ breach for them) their Women & Children 
would be destroyed? & they last, altho they were determined 
to dye hard w'^. y^ Ax in their Hand. — the Chenussios will be 
here in ab*. 4 days, they are detained by some news they have 
had lately from y^. Shawanese I doubt it is otherwise. 

The old Cheif from Loretta told me in meeting that y^. Otta- 
waes who arrived Yesterday told one of his People y'. the 
Sandusky Ind'., Shawanese & De'lawares were to sett of for 
Chenussio as they passed that place on a call from y^. Senecas 



INFORMATION CONCERNING WHITE PRISONERS 

I 

that 4 of her children [ 
of which they killed 2 [ 
Mischief were Delaware [s 
[ ] this Spring removed to [ 

used to beat the Prisoners & us [ 
Chenussios used them better. [ 
are very poor & live upon Roots, That they [ 
desirous of Peace & talked of delivering up 5, or [ 
they have. That one is a Mulatto, & a Blacksmi[th 
makes Axes &c for them. That they have many Old People, 
& Children amst them, that they are much afraid, & sent to the 
Chenussios for Assistance. That the Delawares have all Arms, 
A Large Lusty Negro at Chenussio. That Sherlock was 
there when she came away, & that the Chief would not Give 



^Undated ; evidently recorded at Niagara about the end of July, 1 764. 
In Guy Johnson's handwriting. 

"Several lines burned off. ^ .i;i^ 



496 Sir William Johnson Papers 

him up. That tho' he spoke very favorably of the EngHsh at 
her departure, yet, she often heard him say he'd rather kill Eng- 
lish than any other people. That O'Brien & Vaus, both 
Deserters, ran away from Chenussio ab*. 2 Months ago least 
they sho'^. be delivered up, & they have not Since been heard of. 
That Gaastrix's Son is now here with the other Chenussios. 
That the Delawares used often to talk of S^ W Johnson, & 
Express'd great fear of him, & that they were Very uneasy on 
acct of the Capture of Bull & his party ; 

That the Corn of the Chenussios wo^. be fit for plucking in 
abt a Week. That abt 20 prisoners rem^. at Chenussio who 
were taken many years ago. That a Woman & 5 Children 
taken last fall at Leckawecssin rem", yet at Chenussio. That the 
Delawares lye on the plains the other side of the River (wch 
is navigable for Canoes, when the Water is high^ 

[ ] 

[ ] Children are yet amst [ ] 

[ ] — that his Mother [ ] 

[ ] poor she was not able to come [ ] 

[ ] Miles. That the DeK live upon [ 111 

that they have many Rifles. [ thley have some Negro's." 

Eliza Carter 1 y". old born at Killinsworth N England 
taken last fall, her Mother was killed, & She & her Sister taken 
by the Delawares, — bought by a Mulatto at Chenussio for 5^. 
The Mulatto used her very well. — That 2 Women taken last 
War are married there — The Chenussios used her well, but the 
Delawares often beat her & knocked her down. — That the 
Mulatto is a Black Smith & Works for the Indians — That her 
Brother is still behind. — That the Chenussios have behaved 
Roughly to the Delawares, but the Delawares are afraid to 
come to the Meeting — That some of the Prisoners perished 
thro' want amst the Delawares, who are very poor. 



^Information given by Abigail Chapman. See Johnson Calendar, p. 
232. 

'Information given by John Duncan, 



Post-War Period, 1763-/774 



497 



[Benjamin] 
[Shepjhard Gonsagy 
near Minisink 



[ 

by [ 

brot fir[st 

to Shan [ 

Chenussio [ 

Ab'. 100 figh [ting 

the Squash Cutter fled, least he [ 

delivered up. Many Young W[ 

Prisoners who are unwilling to 1 



eave 



[ 



] 



The Delawares desirous of peace 
but fearfull to come before the English 
live Chiefly on roots they get out of the 
Water &ca The Senecas much buried 
in Council but Desirous of peace, they 
are determined to deliver up the pris- 
oners; he [ ] but 2 Deserters, 
one being run away, the Delawares 
used him 111, but the rest used him well 
particularly the Mulatto. 

Sarah Carter, 13 Y". old taken in 

Pinsilvania by the Delawares last fall 

— her Mother was killed & her Sister 

of 8 years old & Brother of 5 years 

old is yet amst the Ind*. She says that 

the Chenussios have Corn Enough, but 

the Delawares are Starving having 

Dug up sev'. English dead bodys & Eat 

them. That the Senecas say they are 

for peace the Delawares for War. That she was much beat & 

Abused by the Indians. That the Senecas are much more 

Numerous than the Delawares. That there are about 40 



] [ 

] pannic. That [ 

] to meet the English. 



That [ 



498 Sir JVilUam Johnson Papers 

poverty abt afortnight ago, but [ J 

by the Enemy. That they were now [ ] 

[Chejnussio. That the Delawares buried the [fathejr of one 
of the Boys now given up, after having given him Poison. 
That they are much Exasperated agt Sir Wm for Setting the 
Ind*. against them, & that they only send away the Prisoners 
now to get Bulls party back. That she escaped to Chenussio 
from the Delawares, & that the Chenussios paid 5* for her Sister. 
That many of the Delawares have TTiree or Four horses a Piece. 
That one of the Delawares has 1 Cows & many others have 
2 apiece. 

Abraham Baldwin of Waywamuck on Susquehanna aged 10 
Years, taken last fall, as also His Father who was burned and 
his Mother Starved to Death. No Brothers, Sisters, or rela- 
tions. He says that the Delawares used him ill, the Senecase 
very well, that the former have but little Ammunit". Many 
Horses & Cows. That the Delawares are for War, The Senecas 
for Peace. That the Senecas say they'll bring in all the pris- 
oners, but two Young Girls whom they want for Work. That 
Sherlock is a bad man & Goes about painted & threatens to kill 
the English for WTiipping him, & was often heard to wish for 
a War. 

Isera Frim born in Bolton Connecticut — ab*. 1 5 Years old 
was taken at Lackawack in pensilvania, last Fall. 
INDORSED: Information of 

some Prisoners delivered 

up by the Chenussios, 



Posl'War Period, 1763-1774 499 

A CERTIFICATE TO A MENOMINEE 

D. S.' 

Niagara, August /, 1764 

By the Honourable Sir William Johnson Baronet His 
Majestys sole agent and supermtendant of the affairs of 
The Northern Indians of North America Colonel of the 
six United Nations their allies and dependants &c*. 

To ^ Ogemawnee a chief of the Menominys ^ 

Nation. 

Whereas I have received from the officers who Com- 
manded the Outposts as well as from other persons an account 
of your good behaviour last year in protecting the Officers, 

Soldiers &c*. of the Garrison of ' La Bay " and 

in Escorting them down to Montreal as also the Effects of the 
Traders to a large amount and you having likewise entered into 

the strongest Engagements of Friendship ^ the English 

before me at this place, — ' I do therefore give you This 

Testimony of my Esteem for your Services and Good behaviour. 
Given under my hand & Seal at Arms at Niagara the 
first day of August 1 764 

Wm. Johnson 



^In the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Draper Manuscripts, 
file 95. 

'Space in the original. 

^Original mutilated. The missing word is evidently " with." 



500 



Sir William Johnson Papers 



MEETING WITH CHENUSSIOS 



[Niagara, August /, 1764] 

[ 

[ ] their unaccountable behavior [ 

Engagements, & detaining us here so [long 

they should loose no time as usual, but [ 

at once, whether they would or would not [comply 

fulfil their engagements that we would [ 

any longer time here to no purpose nor be trif [ 

then they Answered by Serrih[ 
Brother As You are so pressing to [know 
Sentiments, we shall acquaint You with them, altho we have[ 
as yet had time to draw our breath, being but just [arrived 
first if you consider that we have few or no old Sachims qua[li 
fied to transact business of this importance, you will y^. readier 
excuse our delay, we are however now prepared to fulfill our 
promises made to You last Spring, & make peace on a Solid & 
lasting footing. We have now brought You all y^ Flesh & Blood 
being Nine and a Deserter, except a Young Womp.n Who 
cryed & roared when asked to come, & begged to Stay a little 
longer, and a little girl, whom they will any time deliver up, 
also a Child — that there were 2 Molattoes there half Indians 
who came several years ago from the Southward, whom they 

look upon as Ind^ Brother I will let you tomorrow know 

our Sentiments more fully, as You know mention things to me 
w^. those who were at y^ House in y^. Spring did not, therefore 
I shall enquire this night about it, & let you know more tomorrow, 
on being asked w'. business the 3 Delawares had to Chennussio, 
they said they came with 2 black belts to let y^. Six Nations 
know that they lived at Gasgughsagey & would remain there. 



*In Johnson's handwriting. 
^Several lines missing. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 501 

N. B. the Six Nati*. Sent to Collect all their People from them 
parts, on their taking up y^. Ax ag*'. y^. Shawanese & Delawares. 
they say the Delawares begged of them to make peace for 
them, and that they will tomorrow let me know everry thing, 
on My chargeing them with many evil reports heard of them 
lately w*^. did not look like a peaceable disposition, they Said 
it was Just so with them, but that they being fully determined 
to settle all matters in y^. best manner did not regard any reports 
& they would this Evening talk to all their Young Men & pre- 
vent [ im] prudency's happening hereafter. 

A BILL AND A DRAFT 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 232, is listed Hugh Boyle's bill against 
Captain John Butler, dated Niagara, August 1 st ; also Daniel Claus's 
draft on Johnson for £200, New York currency, in favor of Welles & 
Wade, dated Montreal, the 2d. Both destroyed by fire. 



FROM GEORGE CROGHAN 
A. L. S. 

[London, August 4, 1764] 
By the Berror Doctor Brown C[haplain ] the Renown*^. 
Mohocks I Send your [ ] an Ink Stand w^. I Begg 

your Except [ ] with a fwe Trinketts fer Molly & the 

Chil[ ] 

As I Expect to Imbark fer New York [ ] Ten Days 

I will Defer Writeing you any thing on Busness and Must Refer 
you to Doctor Brown^ fer the News and Dear Say he will be 
able to Intertain you with Every thing that is New as he has 
been Much in Company with the Bishops who Dip Deep in 
politicks. 



'^Rev. Thomas Brown, deputy chaplain of the 60th (Royal Ameri- 
can) regiment of foot, and from December, 1760 to November, 1761, 
from May 15, 1762 to May 15, 1763 and from 1764 to 1767 in 
charge of St. Peter's Church, Albany, N. Y. 



502 Sir IVilliam Johnson Papers 

yesterday I was in Company with a Gentleman of lerland 
who is Latly a Rive^. from DubHn, he See your Brothers^ about 
twenty Days ago & Says they are boath Well & harty Plese 
to Make My Complements Agreeable To all the famely & 
Blive Me with Greatt Esteem & Regard. 

your Honours Most 
obeident & Most 

Humble Servant 

Geo: Croghan 
PS: Gineral Webb Desires Me to 
presents his Complem**. to you & 
I Blive there is Nott a Man in y^ 
army that has Been in amerrica Wishiss 
you better. 

TO THOMAS GAGE 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 232, is listed a letter of August 5th from 
Johnson at Niagara to General Gage, stating apprehensions now set at 
rest by the arrival of the Chenussios, cessions made by those Indians, 
terms of agreement with the Delawares, strength and assurances of the 
Indians assembled at Niagara, the number that will accompany Colonel 
Bradstreet, Pondiac's position, and the only practical policy toward the 
Indians. Destroyed by fire. 

ARTICLES OF PEACE WITH CHENUSSIOS 

In Doc. Rel. to Col. HisL N. Y., 7:652-53, are printed articles of 
peace between Johnson and the Chenussios and other enemy Indians, by 
which the latter agree to surrender two head men of the Delawares, a de- 
serter, all prisoners and two hostages, at the same time extending the 
cession of the April preceding, so that the Indians cede to the crown a 
strip of land four miles in breadth on each side of the Niagara river, 
extending from Lake Ontario to Lake Erie; dated Niagara, the sixth 
day of August, 1 764. 



'John and Warren Johnson. 



Post-lVar Period, 1763-1774 503 



JAMES DOW TO HENRY BOUQUET 
Extract^ 
Niagara the Blessed, 6'^. of Augl. 1764. 
I have just time to informe you. That S^ WiUiam Johnson 
his made pease with those rascalls at last, which I am Sorry for 
yett by a letter from the Delawares and Shawness, they seem 
raither to be impudent, and I wish Collonel Bradestreet could 
come with them, and I should be extreamly happy to meat w'. 
you on the other Syde of them. They have delyvered up a 
good many Prisoners, and to appearrance seems to be sensible 
of the wrong they have done — 

The Indians consum here every day neare Three 

thousand Rations, on day they had Four, 

FROM JOHN DONNELLAN ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 232, are entered the following papers, 
which were destroyed by fire: Caleb Graydon's receipt, August 10th, 
Carlisle, to Alexander McKee for £16; and a letter of the I 1 th from 
Lieutenant John Donnellan, Quebec, mentioning new appointments for 
the province (of Quebec), also the low state of trade, offering to render 
any possible service in London, asking to be favored with news and ad- 
vising Sir William to send his son to England for a stay of a year or two. 



BRADSTREET S ARTICLES OF PEACE 
Contemporary Copyr 

[Camp on Lal^e Erie^] 
Afternoon August 12'^ 1764 
At the request of the Savages [ ] morning 

saying they were sent by the Hurons [of] Sandusky, the 



' In British Museum, Additional Manuscripts 21650. fo. No. 388, 
London, Lngland. 

- Inclosed in a letter of Gage to Johnson of September 2, 1 764, q. o. 
''At L'Ance aux Feuilles, near Presqu' isle, now Erie, Pa. 



504 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Shawnese, the Delawares, and [ ] call the five nations 

of Indians inhabiting [the Scioto] plains the banks of the Ohio, 
Presqu' Isle [ ] recieved from them the following 

Speeches. 

First — A Long Compliment with a String of Wampum. 

Second — A String of Wampum begging leave to speak and 
be heard. 

Third — We ask in the name of the whole of the above 
Nations, where this Army is going and what are your Intentions. 

A Belt. 

Fourth — On receiving certain intelligence you was coming 
against Us, with an Army, we immediately call'd in all our 
Warriors, who were out against your frontiers, and determined 
to meet you on this Lake, and beg for Mercy and peace, which 
we now do, in the name of, and by the Order of the Nations 
above mentioned, the whole being truly Sensible of their past 
folly, and unjust behavior to the English without cause. 

A String of Wampum. 

Col°. Bradstreet answers to the Above. 

First — I thank you for your Coniplement. 

Second — You have my leave to speak openly and freely. 

Third — The reason for marching the Army this way, is to 
revenge the insults and injuries done to the English on those [ 

[ 
[ 

[ ]lting us all [ 

[ ] truly repenting of your late ins[ 

[ ] bad Conduct towards the English without any provo- 

cation whatsoever ; but I am surprised to find [ ] begging 

peace so soon, after your causing such an im[per] tinent Letter 
to be wrote, as that you sent by Small Man^ to Fort Pitt, 
Detroit &ca Notwithstanding which, as you implore Mercy and 
forgiveness, I shall grant you peace on the following Conditions, 



'Major Smallman, who had been a prisoner among the Indians. 



Posi-War Period, 1763-1774 505 

provided that you are fully empowered from the Nations above 
mentioned, and that the Chiefs of those nations will ratify it, 
and that you also name the Chiefs — 

Answer — We are fully empowered to conclude and sign 
a peace, if we can obtaine One, the Chiefs of the Above Nations 
will certainly ratify it, and their names are as follows — 

For the Shawnese — Scobaleche, the great War Chief. 

Delawares — the whole of the Chiefs. 

Hurons of Sandusky — Sastaregie Chief of the Warriors, 
and Ourselves of the five Nations of the plains of Scioto &ca &ca 
Ayashota, Decaynetanyetoo, Trisnenockshoree, 
Alcyweyuncta, Oncyakiacta, & Ananinqua. 

Terms on which Peace is granted. 

First Article — All prisoners shall be delivered uip at San- 
dusky — directly, Enghsh, French and Blacks without reserve 
or excuse of being married, or any otherwise connect'd with you, 
and should there be any unwilling to leave you they must be 
Obliged to come. 

All the Chiefs [ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] the principle [ ] remain 

as hostages for the [ ] Engagements they 

hereby enter into as [ ] of my not marching 

immediately upon [ ] against your Castles 

as I at first intended [ ] Other four with One of 

my Officers, and an [Indian ] belonging to this Army, 

must proceed, with th[ ] dispatch, to the nations 

above mentioned, to acq[ ] the Chiefs with the peace 

granted, and what is [ ] from them, as I am deter- 

mined not to lose time or [ ] suffer myself to be imposed 

upon. 

Fourth — That this peace may last for ever, the Nations 
abovementioned must entirely relinquish their Claims to the Forts 
& posts, the English now have in their Country and that the 
English shall be at liberty to build and erect as many Forts 



506 Sir IVilliam Johnson l^apers 

or trading houses, as they may find necessary for carrying on 
trade between them, and the Savages without interruption, and 
they shall grant as much Land round the Fort, as a Cannon 
can throw a Shot over, for raising a proper supply of provisions 
for the use of the Garrison and traders, which Lands they are 
to renounce, and look on, as the property of the English for ever. 

Fifth — That I shall be at liberty to send in safety from this 
Army to your Castles, Six English, Six Canadians and Six 
Indians, to see that you bring away all the prisoners you have. 
Which prisoners you are to furnish with Horses and provisions 
during their Journey and to treat [ ] 

I ] 

[ ] 

[ ] for the [ ] 

[ with] Me an equal number of [ ] 

[ ] till the return of the Above English, Canadians and 

Indians. 

[Sixth] — That if hereafter it should happen, that any person 
belonging to the above Nations shall kill or plunder an[y] of 
the English, the person, or persons so offending, shall be immedi- 
ately given up, and delivered at Fort pitt there to be tried for 
the offense conmiitted agreable to the Laws and Customs of 
the English, with this difFerence only that one half of the Jury 
shall be Indians of the same nation as the Offender, 

Seventh — You cannot be ignorant of an Army marching 
against the Above Nations by the way of the Ohio, but in con- 
sideration of your truly repenting of your late bad Conduct 
towards the English, and the engagements you now enter into, 
and the promises you also make of your future good behavior, 
I shall send and prevent their proceeding against you. But you 
may be assured, sihou'd you ever be guilty of the like bad 
behavior, you will never be foi given, but on the Contrary, you 
shall be cutt off from the face of the Earth. 

Eighth — That if any of the nations or tribes herein men- 
tion'd should separately violate Dhis peace, and disturb the pub- 
lick tranquility, the Others shall consider 'Emselves as bound 



Post-War Period. 1763-1774 507 

to punish the Offenders, by carrying on War, either separately 
or Jointly, with the EngHsh and their Allies, against them till 
they are brought to reason, as well as any other Nation now at 
War, or may be at War against the [ ] 

f . ... 1 

[Ninth] — To avoid being imposed upon [ ] 

ratifying this treaty, and so took the [ ] against the 

Above Indians, I Do allow Twenty [five days] from the date 
hereof, for the arrival of the Chiefs [ ] Above 

Nations at Sandusky with all their p [risoners ] and 

should they fail herein, what has been [ ] consider 

as void, and they may expect to [ ] Warriors, 

instead of Brothers and Friends. 

[Ten]th — By the power invested in Me, by his Excellency 
Maj"^: General Gage, Commander in Chief, of all his 
Maj [ ] Forces in North America &ca &ca The 

Above are the terms, on which I grant peace to the nations 
heretofore mentioned, that is to say, the Shawnese, the Dela- 
wares, the Hurons of Sandusky, the five Nations inhabiting the 
plains of Scioto, the Banks of the Ohio, Presqu' Isle &ca &ca 
&ca 

Given under my hand & Seal on the Day & at the place above- 
mentioned 

Jno: Bradstreet 
(L:S:) 
From the powers we have recieved from the Chiefs of the dif- 
ferent Nations we represent, that is to say, the Shawnese, Dela- 
wares, Hurons of Sandusky, the five nations inhabiting the plains 
of Scioto, the Banks of the Ohio &ca &ca, We Do in the name 
of the whole of them Nations, together with our Selves most 
gratefully accept the terms, abovementioned, and granted, and 
We do also most solemnly bind ourselves, & them to the true 
performance of every Article in every respect [ 

] 

[ ] 



508 Sir William Johnson I^apers 

[ ] got up and took [ ] 

[ ] saying they were glad, they were come to [ ] 

See us and hoped they wou'd continue so. If they [ ] the 

first breach of the Above peace, they were [ ] to 

their Concluding, they wou'd immediately mak[e a] gainst 

them 

INDORSED: Aug*. 12'^ 1764 

Copy of the Peace made 

by Coll Bradstreet with the 

Inds of Scioto &ca 

Ent^. in Ind". Rec^^ Vol. 9 — 
Page 211 
GJ 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York August 15^^: 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I am this Day favored with your Letter of the S"^ Ins*: from 
Niagara. It's unlucky that the Troops were so long detained 
upon the Carrying Place, on Account of the Chenussies ; and the 
Numerous Tribes of Savages who were there; and to whose 
Fidehty it was not safe to trust a small Body of Troops. The 
Conduct of the Chenussies by no Means Surprizes me; Their 
Reception of the Delawares, who were drove from the Susque- 
hanna was a plain Indication of their Insincerity. And no 
Doubt, that the Partys who have annoyed the Carrying Place 
came from that Quarter. Had they been from any other, The 
Indians with us would not, perhaps, have let them go otf so often 
unpunished. I wish they may be yet sincere, when the Rod is 
removed; and should be glad to hear that they had delivered 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Post-War Period, J 763-1774 509 

up the Murderers agreeable to their Treaty ; and to see the King 
of the Delawares, as He is called, and the Head Warrior of 
that Nation, lodged in our Hands. Till then, we ought to be 
upon our Guard, and put No Faith in their Speeches and 
Declarations. 

None of the Deputys at the Congress from the Western 
Nations belonged to any of the Tribes who took up Arms, except 
the Hurons And perhaps some of the Chippewas. I under- 
stand these last were from the Falls of S': Mary, who disap- 
proved at the Beginning of the Surprize of Michillimakinak. 
I don't find that either of the Ottawas of Detroit, Pouteatamis 
or Wiandots, or Chippewas of the Bay of Saginam have sent 
their Deputys, and these were the Actors in, and Contrivers of 
the Tragedy. Major Gladwin in a Letter to Colonel Brad- 
street of the 12^^ of July says, that the Wiandots of Sandusky 
had sued for Peace, and sent in five Prisoners, and in another 
Letter of the 28'^. of the same month, says in the Postcript; 
that He was just informed, that the Ottawas from the Miami 
River, were comeing in with three Prisoners. This is all I have 
beared of the Intentions of those Nations and Colonel Brad- 
street gives this for Reason of his not attacking them. Colonel 
Bradstreet is probably before this Time at Detroit,^ as I under- 
stand He intended to go thither directly, without Making any 
Attempt against the Shawnese and Delawares, either by way 
of the Cayohoga Creek or the Sandusky River, agreeable to his 
Orders. For He tells me, that from very good Information 
He finds it impossible to get to the Scioto River by Water but 
from Presqu Isle or Shataqua and so round by Fort Pitt. 

It is certainly Necessary to secure the Duration of a Peace 
by every prudent Measure, as soon as ever a general Peace 
shall be made. But I fear we shall have no general Peace 
with the Savages, unless the Shawnese and Delawares who have 
been the Promoters of the War, and still seem to set us at 
Defiance, receive a Blow. And unless that is done the over- 



^ Bradstreet reached Detroit on August 26th. 



510 Sir William Johnson l^apers 

tures made by others and the bringing in of a few Prisoners 
are only to amuse us whilst the storm theatens them. I wish at 
least that we may not find it so. 

Colonel Bouquet is at Carlisle, and part of his Army in 
motion from Fort Loudoun. I hope you will be able to supply 
Him with a Number of such Indians as He can confide in, by 
the Time He mentioned to you. 

I send an Express with this Letter, and other Dispatches for 
Colonel Bradstreet, hoping they may get uip with Him, before 
He leaves the Detroit. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient 
humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 
P: S: 

I shall have the Pleasure to write 
to you again by the Post, which will I hope 
meet you safe in your own House. 

T: G: 
Sir W^'. Johnson Bar': 
INDORSED: N York Aug. 15* 1764 
From Gen' Gage. 

FROM DANIEL CLAUS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 232-33, are listed the following papers 
which with the exception of Duncan & Phyn's bill were destroyed by 
fire: a letter of August 15th from De Couagne, Niagara, repeating re- 
quest of Chipewa deputies for free trade, and informing of Colonel 
Browning's order for inspection of venison and his statement that there are 
no more provisions to be dealt out to the Six Nations; Thomas Lottridge's 
draft, the 15th, Niagara, on Sir William Johnson for £200, 10s, 7^d 
in favor of Thomas Walker, indorsed by Walker to the order of Welles 
& Wade; Sir William Johnson's account of the 15th with Duncan & 
Phyn — £3316, I Is, lYl^'^ Duncan & Phyn's bill for rum delivered at 
Niagara; a letter of the 16th from S. B. Hertel, Montreal, expressing 
thankfulness on account of a place given to his son and congratulating on 
the conclusion of peace. (In French) ; one of the 16th from Daniel Glaus, 



Fost-lVar I^eriod, 1165-] J J4 511 

Montreal, expressing satisfaction at the result of Johnson's labors at 
Niagara, mentioning the affairs of the Caghnawageys and asking to be 
relieved of the care of Indian matters, and speaking of legal action con- 
templated against Mr. Donnellan on account of his Quchtc Delineated, 
and action begun against De Charme (Jean Marie du Charme), a 
Canadian trader who engaged in trade at Michilim'c ; one of the 1 8th 
from Richard Preston, London, thanking Johnson for kindness to Achilles 
Preston, a brother, deprived of a lieutenant's commission for a slight 
offense, and asking intervention in his brother's behalf; one of the 19th 
from James Phyn, Schenectady, explaining why an order for rum was not 
filled, and offering to make any purchases desired, on an intended trip to 
York; one of the 22d from Baynton, Wharton & Morgan, Philadelphia, 
asking reimbursement, through New York agent, for money advanced to 
Mr. McGee (Kee), Indian deputy, offering to supply goods and request- 
ing payment for goods previously shipped, indorsement by Johnson, re- 
cording payment made September 8; one of the 22d to General Gage, 
mentioning indisposition occasioned by hardships of the journey and dis- 
cussing his dealings with the Indians at Niagara. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. S.' 

Johnson Hall, August 23^. 1764 
Dear Sir 

I arrived here four days ago from Niagra after having settled 
aff^airs with the different Nations, as well as could be expected 
— the Nations who attended from the Westward were the 
Hurons, Ottawaes, Chippaweighs, Sakis, Puans, Reynards, 
Menominy's, & in short all y^. Cheifs of the Westeren Nations, 
except about 300 under Pondiac at the Miamis River," and the 
Potawatamies who did not choose to trust themselves down, the 
whole amounted to upwards of 2000, includeing those of the 6 
Nations who accompanied me they were the largest Number of 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft was 
destroyed by fire. 

-The Maumee, on which Fort Miami was situated. 



512 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Indians perhaps ever Assemjbled on any occasion — the 
Shawanese & Delawares of Ohio did not attend, they are now 
up the River Sioto watching our motions, but I imagine that the 
transactions at the Congress will soon bring all to reason in case 
we are not able to effect any thing against them. Most of the 
Westeren Nations were well recommended by Major Gladwin 
& other officers, they dwelt much on their good treatment of 
the garrisons of La Baye & Michilimacinac y^. latter taken by 
the Enemy Ottawaes & Chippaweighs, I therefore renewed & 
Strengthened the Covenant Chain with them, and they have 
promised not only to get all the Prisoners out of the Enemys 
Hands but also to procure restitution for the Traders losses, they 
have likewise agreed to the reestablishing a Post at Michili- 
macinac. 

The Hurons accounted for the cause of their engageing in 
the War, delivered up three Prisoners which were all they had 
& have subscribed to a Peace; — but we were greatly delayed 
by the Chenussios, & other Enemy Seneca's, who did not arrive 
for a considerable time, occasioned by reports w^. had been pro- 
pagated amongst them, that we intended some Treachery, they 
at length came with 14 Prisoners & 2 Deserters, w*^. they Said 
was all they had, but there are Several Prisoners amongst the 
Delawares liveing near Chenussio, for the delivery up of whom 
as well as of their King, & Head Warrior called the Squash- 
cutter the Chenussios have engaged & given two Hostages for y'. 
purpose these Delawares abandoned their Settlements on the 
Capture of Capt". Bull & his party, & their Villages having 
been distroyed by the Party s under Montour &*=*., they have 
since resided with the Chenussios, & requested their Interest with 
us to make peace, but I refused to treat with them, 'till ail the 
Prisoners, &: their 2 Cheifs were first delivered up, which I 
expect will shortly be complied with, the Senecas have likewise 
given up to his Majesty all the Land from Lake Ontario to 
Lake Erie 4 Miles in Depth on each Side of the Strait for the 
use of the Several Garrisons which is more that Double the 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 513 

Quantity their Deputys agreed to last Spring, the Isleands, (one 
of which is verry large) they insisted on my acceptance of, to 
shew their esteem, & make my mind easy (as they called it) 
after the Delays I had met with. 

The behaviour of the Senecas cannot fail, operateing 
Strongly on the Shawanese & Delawares, as well as all the 
Nations for they are a people of much power, & Influence over 
the rest; so soon as Matters were settled with the Senecas, Co". 
Bradstreet proceeded with the Troops accompanied by about 
500 Indians, but the lateness of the Season, & the disposition of 
the Ind*. in general will I beleive leave little to be done 
offensively, & Co". Bradstreet is well convinced of the absurdity 
of attempting to go to extreames with them. Justly observeing 
that we cant always keep an Army on the Frontiers, and that 
tho he might be able at present to establish a Post, it remains 
entirely at the Indians discretion whether we shall keelp it or not, 
it were to be wished the World had been earlier convinced of 
this Truth, I hope now they have profitted by experience. The 
Indians who have made peace & those who have renewed their 
engagements have been verry SoHicitous for Trade, & it was 
Judged adviseable to let them purchase with what little Furrs 
they had, such thing as they wanted (amunition excepted) I 
told them repeatedly their loss of Trade must be charged upon 
the Enemy, and that 'till they were punished, or brought to a 
proper Submission, they must not expect it as before, however 
I know nothing will contribute more to keep them at peace, than 
the letting them have a Trade carried on by Honest Men, and 
of this I think nescessary to acquaint You as Passes are to come 
from You by the Kings Proclamation. 

Last night all the Cheifs of Conojohare came to acquaint me 
that they were often verry 111 treated, but particularly so of 
late, by one Cobus Ma^be, who resides on part of their clear 
Lands, without any Title, notv^athstanding their repeated desire 
that he should remove, and I have (since his Majestys Procla- 
mation was published here) at y^- earnest request of the whole 
17 



514 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Castle, Wrote him several times to leave s*^. place bu* to no pur- 
pose. In short several of the White People in that Neighbour- 
hood use them vastly 111, by turning their Cattle into the Indians 
Corn fields, and beat their Women & Children when Driveing 
them out, this has been often done, but more so of late in the 
absence of their Young Men, which the Sachims fear may prove 
of bad consequence if not redressed, & prevented for the future; 
As I am directed to see all Persons removed who occupy 
Indian Lands without Just Title, I must request You will 
acquaint me how this Ma'^he, or any others on the like footing 
are to be removed, or that You will please to give the necessary 
orders about it. 

The great Number of Indians who Attended at Niagra, and 
the infinite variety of their affairs. Demands &^*. afforded me 
scarce time for the least refreshment dureing my Months Stay 
there, & prevented me from answering several letters which 
imediately required it, as well as from haveing the pleasure of 
corresponding with You dureing that time. 

I am 

with the most perfect Esteem 
Dear Sir 
< Your Most Obedient 

& Most Humble Servant 
Wm. Johnson 
The Honr^'^ 
Cadwallader Colden 
INDORSED: August 23< 1764 

Letter from Sir William Johnson 

giving an account of the peace 

concluded at Niagara, and of the 

Complaint of the Connojohary Indians 

ag^ Cobus Maybe who refuses to go off 

their Lands. 

Sept. 4 — Read in Council. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 515 

TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 

A. L. S.i 

Johnson Hall, August 23d. J 764 
Dear Sir 

I have wrote you pritty fully as of this Date concerning my 
transactions at Niagra: this letter is therefore on the Subject of 
y^. Land which I was oblidged to defer till my return. 

I now agreable to 5'our directions in one of Your favours of 
last April write to y^ Son to depute a Surveyor to run the lines, 
after wK it will give me particular pleasure to See You at this 
place, when I doubt not everry thing may be settled to Satis- 
faction. 

You will please to give me notice when I may have reason 
to expect You, that no Delay may possibly happen. 

I am with all possible regards 
Dear Sir 
Your most Obedient 

& most Humble Servant 
Wm. Johnson 
The Honr^i^ Cadwallader Colden Esq^ 

Lieut. Gov*, of New York 
indorsed : 23^ August 1 764 

Letter from Sir W"". Johnson 

A BILL FOR RUM 
D. 
I ]Sir William Johnson 

Bought of Duncan & Ph^n 
6 Barrells Com. Rum Delivered at Niagara At an Avan 
[ ] each BarrelU containing 32 Gall is 192 Gall at 

3/6 Bari 30/ 35 :2 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft was 
destroyed by fire. 



516 Sir William Johnson Papers 

FROM WELLES & WADE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 233:34, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of August 28th from Welles & 
Wade, Montreal, about regulation of Indian trade, goods lying at 
Niagara, accounts of the late Captain Lotteridge, Johnson's draft in favor 
of Mons. Le Charme, and drafts on Johnson by Captain Claus and Thomas 
Lotteridge (inclosed) ; one, undated, from the same, touching Governor 
Murray's appointments, the petition of Quebec merchants for Indian trade 
privileges and Mons. Le Charme's illicit trade at Michilimackinac (Com- 
pletion of preceding) ; one of the 29th to Lieutenant Governor Burton on 
results of Congress at Niagara and 'the right policy with Indians ; one of the 
30th to the Earl of Halifax, explaining the value of the Seneca cessions, 
making an " humble offer " to his Majesty of several islands granted to 
Johnson and upholding the policy of conciliation toward the Indians. 
(Printed in Doc. rel to Col. Hist. N. Y., 7:647-48) ; one of the 30th 
from Daniel Claus, Montreal, concerning a present to the Canadian Indians 
who went to Niagara, Indian criticism of Colonel Bradstreet's conduct 
of his expedition, the Nipisinks' distrust, the complaint of the Arundax 
and Skaghquanes as to regulations governing travel, injuries suffered by 
" Domestick Indians " from the soldiery. Governor Murray's favoritism 
and purpose to intrude on Johnson's department, the two Du Charmes 
and the character of the offense with which one is charged; one of the 
30th to the lords of trade, stating transactions at the Niagara congress, 
the results, and the grounds of a solid peace (printed in Doc. rel. to Col. 
Hist. N. Y., 7:648-50) ; and Major Alexander Duncan's pass, the 30th, 
Fort Ontario, to 1 1 Messisagoes to go to Johnson Hall, with a note 
added September 4 by John Luke, of the 55th, regarding the arrival of 
the Indians at Fort Stanwix. 



TO HENRY BOUQUET 
L. S. 1 

Johnson hall Sepf- 1st 1764. 
Sir, 

Imediately after my return from Niagara I set about getting 
a proper party of Indians to accompany the Troops under your 
Command I accordingly now send the bearer with a party of 



^In British Museum. Additional Manuscripts 21650, fo. 471, Lon- 
don, England. 



Fost-JVar IWiod, 176^-1774 517 

both the Mohock Castles who are to be Joyned by several Friend 
Ind». on and about the Susquehanna that have received directions 
to Joyn them as they pass. 

It did not appear agreable to those w^ho accompanied Colonel 
Bradstreet to Separate at that time, and I was besides appre- 
hensive that you would be a good deal delayed before you could 
leave Fort Pitt, which does not agree with the disposition of the 
Indians, who do not chuse to remain abroad in a fixed place 
for any time. If Col Bradstreet can make a good push into the 
Enemy's Country, it will take off the Enemys attention, and the 
number of Indians who have accompanied him will Sufficiently 
alarm them, — The Bearer and his party are trusty Men, and 
will do what they can, a Gentle Treatment and some notice 
shewn them will always prove a means of keeping them hearty 
to the Cause — The unexpected delays I met with at Niagara has 
prevented my sending as many as I otherwise might, and time 
would not now permit me to collect them from some parts, as 
I hope this will find you ready to proceed. 

I have Settled Affairs with by much the Greater part of the 
Western Indians, and made peace with the Senecas who have 
delivered up Several prisoners &c made a large Cession of Ter- 
ritory to his Majesty, of the Land between Lakes Ontario, and 
Erie, and also delivered up two of their Chiefs as Hostages for 
the delivery of the Two Chiefs of the Susquehanna Delawares 
with all the prisoners amongst them, these Delawares having 
begged the interest of the Senecas, on being driven from their 
Settlements by the partys I sent out last Spring. 

I heartily wish you a Successfull Campaign and I am. 
With Esteem Sir Y^ most Obedient 
Humble Servant 

W". Johnson 
Col. Bouquet 
INDORSED: Letter from Sir WiUiam 

Johnson dated Sept^ 1 ^'. 1 764. 
Received the 8'^ Dec"", 
near Ligonier 



518 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson — hall. Sept'. hK 1764 
Dear Sir, 

Since my last I have been favored with your Letters of the 
1 5*. and 1 6*^. ult''. — and I should have wrote a few lines to 
Coll. Bradstreet, but that the Express did not call upon me. 

The Chenussios had received the Delawares, some days 
before the return of their Depy^ from hence last April, 
they certainly wish them well, and would endeavor to support 
them but It appears clearly that the Scalp taken on the Carrying 
place was done by a party of Ind^ from Scioto who came to 
watch our Motions. — a Remarkable pewter Axe being found 
by our Indians with marks which sufficiently shewed to whom 
it belonged, and this was the only loss sustained from the arrival 
of the Indians whom I sent to Niagara, to this period. As to 
their Sincerity I believe it can be relied on whilst its made worth 
their While, but I will not take upon me to say that a people 
who have been strongly prejudiced against us will conquer their 
aversion without we take steps to remove it, & whether this is 
necessary or not I submit to you. There is the utmost reason 
to think that the Chenussios intend to deliver up the Two Dela- 
ware Chiefs, & pris"^* in the possess", of that people otherwise 
they wo^. not so readily have given hostages; at all Events we 
can secure them till its performed, & I can hardly think they 
w^. lose 2 of their people for the Delawares. 

I had Deputys at Niagara from all the Western Nations, 
except the Porptervatamis, they feared to come down & akho 
the Ottawas, with Pondiac did not attend, there were notwith- 
standing most of the Chiefs of that Nation, from different 
Quarters, & from Villages the most numerous of any, many of 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass. ; in the hand- 
writing of Guy Johnson. 



Posi-War Period. 1763-1774 519 

whom undoubtedly were last year against us tho' we could not 
point them out with any Certainty and I apprehend that Pondiac 
will follow the Example of the rest, as also all the Shav/^'^. & 
Del^ whom I w*^. rather wish severely punished [ipc/i must prove 
a disappoinimcnt to the Arm}), if C. Bradstreet is obliged to 
accept of their submission^] This is the Game they will always 
play, when they are tired of carrying on the War, & alarmed 
at the resolutions of the Friend Ind^, for they know we can 
send, but cannot keep a force on the frontiers, and they are too 
much out of our power to receive a blow of consequence, the 
farther we push into their Country, the more are we in their 
power, so that whilst there are Outposts, Convoys, Traders, &ca 
at such a distance they know we must pay for their security or 
Expose them to the utmost hazard, and they the readier commit 
hostilities from the bad character in which we were described 
to them, the Contrary of which they apprehend has not yet 
appeared. 

I am truly sensible of the reasonableness of your sevl plans, 
and of the vast trouble you must have to concert measures for 
effectually checking such a people. It is my constant Study h 
the utmost of my ambition to contribute thereto. [/ am sensible 
I could preserve peace, but {as ^et) uncertain whether my 
measures for that purpose will prove Agr cable to his Majesty}] 

From the accts we received at Niagara, Col Bouquets Expedi- 
tion was not Expected to take place for sometime, for which 
reason the Ind^ did not appear desirous to part least they might 
meet with a long delay, & that I knew did not agree with their 
disposition. I have sent to the Ind* of Susquehanna to Joyn 
the Armj'^ at Fort Pitt & have got a party of Ind*. from hence 
to follow them which w*K what Coll°. Bradstreet has with him 
will I imagine be full Sufficient [/ am now endeavoring all I 
can to Send a few that way, but I apprehend if it is in Col Brad- 
streets power to maJ^e a motion against them, it will create a\ 



^Crossed out in the original. 



520 Sir William Johnson Papers 

suffict diversion to answer Col Bouquets purpose, but from all 
I hear the Shawanese and Delafvares appear verij desirous of 
peace, & probably ere now have made some proposals, and^] 
I have just received a Letter from Lt Col. Browning acquaint- 
ing me that some Chipeweighs who had been under Pondiac, 
arrived at Niagara a few days after I left it, & earnestly 
requested a peace, of him, on finding they had been too late to 
attend the Congress. 

L'. Col Eyre has made me a Visit, he appears very anxious 
to go to England for some time, and I believe is unwilling to 
solhcit you too much upon that head, tho' he hopes you may 
shortly indulge him with that favor, his Sentiments on Sev'. 
Articles relative to the State of America & on Indian affairs are 
such as might I imagine be of some Service now at home, and I 
should referr to him accordingly on some subjects, if he could 
obtam y"^. permission — if I was certain he had your permission 
to go for England. 

I herewith Enclose you the acct of Officers pay in my depart- 
ment to the 25*'^. of last March Inclusive many of whose Drafts 
for Sums on me I have paid [Some Months Ago^] as well as 
advanced them money for their private occasions. 
P.S. I have enclosed the acct 
of M^ M^Gee's pay, & that of 
Maynard the Interpreter 
with Vouchers for the same. 
The acct of Toob, the baker 
shall be charged in my Disbursem'^ 
There are some other accts of M"^ M'^Gees for wch 
I have not rec^. Vouchers, & I must deferr them 
till M^ Croghans arrival who always settled 
the accts in that Quarter, wch occasions my being 
a Stranger to most of them. 
His Excelly Gen^ Gage 



^Crossed out in the original. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 521 

FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON, ETC. 
In the Johnson Calendar, p. 234, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: Edward Cole's bill and receipt, September 1st, 
Detroit, to Captain Howard for 1 barrel of rum; and a letter of the 2d 
from William Darlington, New York, applying for appointment to a trad- 
ing post. 

FROM THOMAS GAGE 
L. S. 

[N: York SepK 2^. 1764] 
Dear Sir 

I have received your Letter of the 22*^ [ult° ] 

and am Much concerned to hear of Your being [ ] from 

the Difficulties you have Met with, You had [ ] have 

remained a Day or two at Fort Stanwix till [ ] procured 

better Conveyances down the River. 

It is a Httle Surprizing where my Letter of the 1 6'*^ [ ] 

July should have been stopped, and not forwarded to you. I 
wrote to you the 1 6'^. \J\"^°. As you had not received it on the 
22*^. it has not travelled so quick as I hoped, it was sent Express 
from hence, under the Care of M^ Glen, who brought your's 
and Colonel Bradstreet's Dispatches from Niagara. 

The Sioux might well be excused the not comeing to Niagara, 
they are at an immense Distance, and always at war with the 
Chippewas. I am very glad you have Sent the Western Nations 
away with good Impressions of us, which will have a very good 
Effect. 

The Western Nations Might be Supplied by the Ottawa 
River, but I believe it would be better not to publish any Thing 
yet concerning Trade, till we hear a little further. 

I am obliged to you for the Treatys of Peace which you 

[ ] 

I I herewith Send you a [ ] 

Treaty of Peace which Colonel Bradstreet has taken [ ] 

Himself to conclude with the Shawnese and Delawares which 
contains no one Article whereby the least Satisfac[tion] is given 



522 Sir William Johnson Papers 

for the many horrid Murders committed by those Barbarians, 
the Sole Promoters and Contrivers of all our Troubles, and 
the Chief Actors in the Bloody Tragedy I know not on what 
Foundation He builds, to imagine Himself empowered lo con- 
clude any Peace, and dictate the Articles thereof. Agreeable 
to his own Judgement. He has lately seen you, His Majesty's 
Sole Agent and Superintendant of Indian Affairs at Niagara 
on the Business of Peace. He might perhaps be empowered to 
consent to a Suspension of Arms, and refur them to you to settle 
and conclude the Peace, but He has taken the whole upon 
Himself. I look upon the Peace He has made as Derogotary 
to the Honour and Reputation of His Majesty's Arms amongst 
the Indian Nations, unsafe for the future Peace and Tran- 
quility of His Majesty's Subjects, and the Basis of future Mas- 
sacres. Made at a Time that two Armies after long Struggles 
are at an immense Expence, put in Motion, amd ready to pene- 
trate into the Heart of their Country. In short so little consistent 
with [ ] [ ] here by the Way of 

Presqu Isle [ ] Bouquet to stop his Operations. 

But the Colo[nel ] the Conditions are so disgraceful 

That He shall [continue?] his operations till I send Him Orders 
to the contrary [ ] Sent Him Orders to proceed, 

and had before given [ ] Him and Colonel Bradstreet 

to Attack the Shaw[nese] [ ] Delawares, and to 

listen to no Terms of Peace till the Promoters of the War were 
delivered into their Hands, and that they had Sent Deputys to 
You to Sue for Peace. These orders could not have reached 
Colonel Bradstreet, But He had at first positive Instructions to 
Attack those Nations. And He is Again ordered to Attack 
Them, notwithstanding his Peace, which I will not ratify or 
confirm. I shall hear from you on this soon. And am with 
great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 

Tho^ Gage 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 523 

Colonel Bradstreet 

] s me in his last Letter from 
Nia]gara, that He was going to Detroit. 

]ow He has got so suddenly to Presqu' Isle, 
]eet the Indians there too, so Oppertunely, 
] little astonishing, his Letter is dated the 
]th Ulmo, T: G: 

Sir W"^: Johnson Bar*: 
INDORSED: N: York Sep^ 2^. 1764 



From Gen'. Gage, with 

a Copy of the peace made by Coll. 

Bradstreet with the Ind^ of 

Scioto &ca. — 

Extr^ entd. in Vol. 9. P. 255 — 

FROM ABRAHAM MORTIER ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 234-35, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of Sept. 3d from Abraham Mortier, 
New York, acknowledging receipt of General Gage's warrant in John- 
son's favor for £5189 sterling and explaining arrangements made for 
paying it ; Sir William Johnson's account, the 3d, New York, with Abra- 
ham Mortier, drawn by William Newton; a letter of the 3d from Alex- 
ander Golden, New York, informing that he has ordered Isaac Vrooman 
to survey Johnson's Indian purchase, in conformance with the directions 
of the King's Council of December 2, 1 736; one of the 3d from De Cou- 
agne, Niagara, reporting inconveniences attending trade at the post, and 
Colonel Bradstreet's arrival with his army at Detroit; one of the 4th from 
William Darlington, New York, informing that he sends by Guysbert 
Marselis £2500, and two parcels from Rivington, and that a draft on 
Johnson for £ 1 00, drawn by Captain Claus and now in the hands of 
Captain John Leach, has been tendered hirn; also inviting Captain Guy 
Johnson to be his guest while in New York; and one, undated, from 
Captain Pat. Mapother, Philadelphia, sending a letter from Mrs. Dease, 
Johnson's sister, asking a recommendation to Governor Sharp at Annapolis, 
and mentioning that he is heir to an estate in Maryland formerly pos- 
sessed by Governor Talbot. 



524 Sir William Johnson l^apers 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 

A. L. S.i 

Neli> York 5ep'. 4^K J 764 
Dear Sir, 

You will have received my Letter of the 2^ Ins*, inclosing 
you the unaccountable Treaty betwixt Colonel Bradstreet and 
the Shawnese Delawares &c^. On Consideration of the Treaty 
it does not appear to me that the Ten Savages therein mentioned, 
were sent on the Errand of Peace. If they had, would not they 
have been at Niagara? or would the insolent and Audacious 
Message have been sent there in the Lieu of Offers of Peace? 
Would not they have been better provided with Belts on Such 
an Occasion? They give only one and two strings of Wampum. 
You will know this better, but it appears strange to me. They 
certainly came to watch the Motions of the Troops, whatever 
Business they had besides. They tell Col°. Bradstreet an abom- 
inable Lye in saying they had called in their Partys, from our 
Frontiers to make Peace. They relate this on the 14'^. of 
August, and Six men were killed on the 22*^. besides a horrid 
Massacre a little before of a Number of Children in a school 
House, with the school-Master. If any Parties are called in, 
it was with Intent to defend their Castles. It is not clear to me 
that they will not keep the People Col°. Bradstreet has sent 
amongst them to gather up the Prisoners, and insult Him after- 
wards for the Peace has not to me the Appearance of being 
made by Authority even on their side, or with the Knowledge 
and Consent of the Nations. You will be a better Judge of this. 

I told you in my Letter of 2^. Ins^ that I would not abide by 
this Peace, and of the orders I had sent thereupon. What Effect 
this might have on the Shawnese and Delawares is not much 
matter. But if the Peace should perchance be confirmed by 
them, which is however a Doubt with me, I would ask your 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Fost^lVar IWiod, /70J-iy/4 525 

opinion and Advice, what Effect it might have in Respect of 
us, with other Nations; and particularly with those, with whom 
you have lately concluded a regular Peace, should We break 
it on our Part? Whether you can find means to make them easy 
and satisfied? and that they shall be under no Apprehension of 
our Breaking our Peace concluded with them. This is all the 
Apprehensions which occurr to me, in disowning the Peace 
Colonel Bradstreet has made with the Shawnese and Delawares, 
And continuing our Operations against them. 

I send this by an Express who is to return with your Answer 
to this Letter, If you have sent an Answer to my Letter of the 
2^. Ins^ pray send a Copy by this Opportunity for the Express 
I send, will be back here, before the Post, and I beg you will 
write fully, freely, and plainly. 

To Judge of Colonel Bradstreet's Motions from the Articles 
of his Peace, He will have finished all Matters at Sandusky by 
the 6''^. Ins^, unless they are deceiving Him and that He will 
be gone on, one knows not whither, before my orders can reach 
Him, unless some Accident retards Him. As for Colonel 
Bouquet He must have proceeded at all Events, and your 
Answers will come Time enough for Me, to send any further 
Orders to Him. 

You gave me no Answer in Respect of the Indians, I begged 
of you to send Colonel Bouquet. I am, with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

your most obedient, 

humble Servant, 



Tho^ Gage 



S"^: Wm: Johnson Bar': 

INDORSED: Septb^ A^^ 1764 

Genr'. Gages letter 
P Express reC^. 
the 1 0'^^ at night 



526 Sir IVilUam Johnson l^apers 

TO WILLIAM EYRE ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 235, are listed the following papers which 
were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 6th to Lieutenant Colonel 
William Eyre about letters to the lords of trade and the Earl of HaUfax, 
which he desires Eyre to take charge of provided he can obtain immediate 
leave to go home; one of the 6th from Daniel Claus, Montreal, in behalf 
of a trader who suffered by Indian depredations at Michilim's and about 
intended intrusions by (Murray's) government on Johnson's department 
and the creation of employments for "Calidonian Gentry," also Catholic 
activity in Canada, and his impatience to return to Fort Johnson; one of 
the 7th from Hugh Eraser, Albany, announcing that he is coming to put 
himself under Sir William's protection, has married, and hopes to engage 
in the linen industry. 



CONGRESS WITH THE WESTERN NATIONS 

D. 

Detroit, Sepi [7-10] 1764 

I ] 

Wassong Chief of the Chippewas^ 

What I am going to say is in the [ ] 

and all the young Warriors of the Ottawas and Chief [ ] 

mean to give Offence, and this String of Wampum [ ] 

and we expect to be heard patiently, we are extreamly [ ] 

selves so well received, and hope you will give us [ ] 

of the two Nations of Ottawaws and Chippewas [ ] 

having compassion on Ourselves our Wives and Families. 

Gave a String of Wampum repeating their thanks 
Wassong then spoke on a Green Belt, 

Brother I beg you would hearken to Wassong, Ottawaky 
Shamindawa, Outawang, Cuttawang, Apockys & Abbetts. 
Last year God forsook us, God has now opened our Eyes, and 
we desire to be heard, Tis Gods will our hearts are altered, 
'twas Gods will you had such fine Weather to come to us. It is 



^Wassong had caused the death of Captain Donald Campbell, second 
in command at Detroit, when Campbell was a prisoner. Journal of Pon- 
i'acs: Conspiracy, 1 763, p. 1 50. 



Post-War I'criod, /70J-I7y4 527 

Gods will also that there shall be Peace and tranquility all over 
the face of the Earth and of the Waters, Every thing that was 
done last year bad, was done by the Old Warriors without cause 
We have therefore turned them on one side, the young Warriors 
are determined to Settle every thing themselves, and prevent for 
the future any mischief that might be intended, the Young 
Warriors as well as the Old Sachems thank you and are glad 
to see the good disposition you are in. Now the Young people 
have the direction of Affairs, they hope every thing may be 
Settled peaceably and that they may be permitted to shake hands 
with you and your Officers as Brothers, 

This day the young Chiefs break all their old Chiefs, they 
shall never be Allowed to Act, but attention will be paid to 
what they say. 

You have forgiven us, but our Offences are so great, we must 
again ask it in the Name of our Wives & Children, we also pray 
that all your Troops will have compassion on them and us, and 
hope they will remove any ill opinion you may have of them 
and us And we thank the Great King, for allowing you to forgive 
us and Grant us peace — we say this not in our Name alone, 
but in the Name of all the Inhabitants round this Country 

Shook hands 

Wassong then spake on a String of purple and white Wam- 
pum painted Green and Blue Brother, Attend, In the Name 
of the Miamis I speak They thank God for opening their [eyes 
th]ey will use their Utmost Endeavours to restore Tranquility 
'Tis Gods Will there shall be peace all o[ver ] of the Earth 

and you shall hear nothing ill of them they thank you and are 
Extreamly glad to [ ] the people you sent that you 

will grant them Peace, on their Return the Village will be 
Overjoyed as they [ ] the Peace of the Shawanese 

&c. &^. &^. &^. 

They once more thank God for opening their Eyes, so soon 
as they get home Everything will be Established on the Antient 
footing of Peace and friendship — That on the whole their 



528 Sir William Johnson I^apers 

Sentiments are the same as the Ottawas and Chippewas and 
hope that your Army will throw aside all resentment against 
them, and that they may be Allowed to shake hands as Brothers, 
Again they ask for peace in the Name of their Wives and 
Children. 

Gave the String 
Then Shamindawa spoke 

When Captain Morris^ arrived at the Miamis Pondiac spoke 
to him on a Belt of Wampum, saying he was hea [rti] ly Ashamed 
of what had happened, and if he could be forgiven he would be 
very thankfull ; and do all the Service in his power to the Eng- 
lish, and that it gave him great pleasure to find [he] was going 
on a Business that would give Peace and Quietness to the Inhab- 
itants of the Earth, that he would pray for his Success and 
remain Quiet himself, and that when Captain Morris returns, 
should he succeed he will thank God for it and hopes to be 
forgiven. 

[ ] 

[ . ] 

[it gives me reason to believe ] 

that your request for Mercy [and forgiveness ] 

hearts. I shall take compassion on your [ ] 
grant you peace on the following terms: 

First. Yourselves and the Nations you represent [ ] ge 

that you are the Subjects and Children of [His ] 

George the third of Great Brittain France and [ ] 

Defender of the faith, &"=. &<=. &:«^. and that he has [ ] 

of Sovereignty Over all and every part of this Coun[try ] 

full and as ample a manner as in any part of his [ ] 
Dominions whatever. 

Second. If any Nation or Tribe of Indians herein compre- 
hended [ ] dare Violate this peace and disturb the 



^Captain Thomas Morris, of the 1 7th regiment. 5ee Parkman, The 
Conspiracy of Pontiac, 2:200^202, for a different description of Pon- 
tiac'smood Also Doc. Rel io CoL Hist A''. 7., 10:1 157. 



rost-War rcriod, /7(jJ-///4 329 

publick tranquility the others shall look, on themselves bound to 
make War upon the Offenders Seperately or joyntly with the 
English and their Allies, at all times when they shall be Com- 
manded by his Majesty his General or Officer appointed for 
that purpose and reduce to reason the Offenders or extirpate 
them and that you will when ever commanded take up Arms 
and joyn his Majesty's Troops or other his Subjects against any 
of his Ennemies whatever and use your utmost endeavours to 
execute the Orders that may be given you for that purpose, and 
you may be Assured of the protection of the King your Father 
and what Assistance you may stand in need of at all times 

Third. That you may shew farther proofs of your duty and 
Obedience to the King your father, should it happen that any 
Indian belonging to the herein mentioned Nations, plunder or 
kill any of His Majesty's Subjects in this or any other of his 
Colonies now Settled or that hereafter may be Settled, you are 
Voluntarily and immediately to deliver the Offender up to the 
Officer Commanding this Garrison to be tried and punished 
agreeable to the Laws & Customs of this Colony at that time 
in force. 

Fourth. You must Deliver up all Prisoners and Deserters 
that you have as soon as possible, should any white people Desert 
to you you are to send them immediately prisoners to the Post 
or Settlement nearest to you: But when any Families come to 
Settle by permission of the King you are to esteem them friends 
and Brothers. 

Fifth. The French Commanding Officers of this Post have 
at times granted Lands in your Villages to give Testimony of 
my Intentions and of doing you the Greatest Justice I will tell 
persons settled on such Lands to remove immediatly 

Sixth. At the request of Captain Morris whom I have sent 
round to all the Sout[hern] Nations Repeating the General 
Peace and also on account of Pondiac's Submission & promise 
of future good behaviour and Friendship to the English, I do 
hereby Pardon and For [give] hjni and he may meet me in the 



530 Sir William Johnson Papers 

utmost safety at Sandusky [ ] Power and Authority 

to me given and granted by his Ex[cellency ] Honourable 

Maj'' Gen'. Thomas Gage, Commander in Chief of all His 
Majesty's Forces in North America, The above are the terms 
on which I Grant peace to the Nations heretofore mentioned, 
that is to say the Ottawaws the Chippewas and others hereunto 
Subscribing 

Given under my hand and Seal at Detroit the Seventh 
day of September One thousand Seven hundred and 
Sixtyfour, 

Space for signature of Bradstreet. 
By The power to us given by the Nations we represent, we 
do in their Name together with our selves most gratefully accept 
the terms above Granted, and we do most Solemnly bind our- 
selves and them to the true performance of each Article in every 
respect, In Witness whereof we have hereunto Affixed the Arms 
of the Nations we represent at Detroit this Seventh day of Sep- 
tember One thousand and Seven hundred & Sixty four and in the 
fourth year of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third, 
King of Great Brittain, France and Ireland &c^. &c^. 

Space for names of three chiefs and arms of nations. 
[We?] subscribers [ ] and principal men of our 

Nation of Hurons being present at the [sub] mission made by 
the Ottawaws and the Chippewaws and at the Peace Granted 
them and being Unani[mously of the] opinion that nothing can 
tend so much to the real safety and happiness of all the Indians 
[ ] this Continent as following their Example beging the 

protection and making themselves Subjects of his Majesty King 
George the Third and at all times Obeying his will and Com- 
mands and [ ] Keeping up to every Article of the 
peace concluded with the Ottawas and Chippewas most humbly 
request for ourselves and the Nation we represent to be received 
considered and Comprehended in [ ] Article of the 
Submission received and the peace granted unto them as full 
and as ample as the said Ottawas and Chippewaws promising 



Posl~Wcu raiod, /■/OJ-iy/4 331 

most faithfully never to violate or depart [from] any Article 
therein contained: In Witness whereof we have set the Arms 
of the Nation of Hurons this Seventh day of September One 
thousand Seven hundred and Sixty four and in the fourth year 
of the Reign of our Sovereign Lord George the third. King 
of England France & Ireland 6^'^. &^. 

Space for name of chief and arms of nation. 
I hereunto Subscribing a Chief of the Miamis Nation and bemg 
sent here to be present at what should pass between the English 
the Ottawas and Chippewas, and also being directed by the 
Nation I represent if a peace should be granted to them to 
implore the Miamis might be comprehended therein in every 
respect as fully as the said Ottawas and Chippewas, which being 
granted to me I do in the Name of the Nation I represent bind 
my self and them in the most Solemn manner to the true per- 
formance of each Article in every respect as the Ottawas and 
Chippewas have done, In Witness thereof I do affix the Arms 
of the Nation I represent this Seventh day of September, One 
thousand Seven Hundred and Sixty four And [ ] 

Space for name of chief and arms of nation. 
[We?] Subscribers Chiefs of the Poutowattamis and Siake 
Nations having come too late to be present at the Submission 
made by the Ottawas and Chippewas and the peace Granted 
them, which being fully explained to us. And we approving 
every part thereof, having the same just sense of this good Work 
as the Hurons have And wheras peace is granted to us on the 
same Conditions, We do most gratefully accept it and hereby 
Bind ourselves and the whole of each Nation we represent to 
the true performance of each Article in every Respect, by here- 
unto Affixing the Arms of our respective Nations at Detroit this 
Seventh day of September, One thousand Seven hundred and 
Sixty four and in the fourth Year of the Reign of our Sovereign 



^Theata, described as a good Huron in The Journal of PoniiQc's 
Conspiracy, p. 19, 82. 



532 Sir William Johnson Papers 

Lord George the third King of Great Bnttain, France and 
Ireland Defender of the faith &c^. &c^/ 

Space for names of three chiefs and arms of nations. 

[ ] 

[ ] 

[ ] and after the usual C[ ] 

[ ] Coll Bradstreet would Explain to him and his 

People [ ] what had passed between him and the 

Several Nations of Indians with whom he had made peace: 
which was also complied with where upon Wapacomagat got 
up and declared that it gave him infinite pleasure to find the 
Indians had put themselves into the Arms of the Great King 
of England and that they were now his Subjects and Children, 
and beged that he, and all the Nation of the Messassagues might 
be received and comprehended in that Submission and Peace 
in as full and ample manner as those who had Subscribed 
[ ] that they would never depart from any part 

thereof, which being granted Wapacomagat in the presence of 
One hundred Warriors set the Arms of their Nations to these 
presents the tenth Instant declaring he did it by the Unanimous 
desire and request of all his people present, and that he, they, 
and the rest of the Nation were Solemnly bound to fullfill, Obey, 
and Observe every part of the Submission and Articles of peace 
made at Detroit by the Nations thereunto Subscribing, bearing 
date September the Seventh, One thousand Seven hundred and 
Sixty four. 

Colonel Bradstreet observing they made use of the word 
Brother [s] instead of Subjects and Children of the King of 
England, told them nobody were to be admitted into the afore- 



^In the State Library is a duplicate of the proceedings of September 
7th, which end at this point. The duplicate has the signature of Brad- 
street and names and arms of Indians. Many burned portions of the 
manuscript selected for printing are here supplied from the duplicate. The 
proceedings which follow were held with the Mississaugas on September 
10th. 



Fost-War rer'wd, 1763-1774 533 

mentioned Submission and Articles of Peace, but such as 
acknowledge themselves Subjects and Children of the King of 
England 

Wapacomagat replied that it was very proper and they now 
throw aside the Name of Brother and should ever after Acknowl- 
edge themselves Subjects and Children of the King of England 
which they should always for the future call themselves/ 

INDORSED: Transactions of a 

Congress held with the Chiefs 
of the Ottawas and 
Chippewas &c^. 
Sept 1 764 



FROM WILLIAM DARLINGTON ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 235—36, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 8th from William 
Darhngton, New York, about annoyances arising from his attempt to get 
an accountant for Sir William through an intelligence office; one of the 8th 
from J. T. Kempe, New York, recommending John Arthur for employ- 
ment as a clerk; Duncan & Phyn's bill, dated the 8th, against Sir William 
Johnson ; Gilbert Forbes's bill, the 1 0th, New York, for articles bought 
by William Darlington; Samuel & William Baker's bill (fragment) ; and 
Francis Bassett's bill, the 1 1 th. New York, for articles bought by Mr 
Darlington. 



^A few burned portions of the proceedings of the 1 0th, held by Brad- 
street with the Mississaugas, are here supplied from a duplicate which 
is recorded in the same manuscript as his proceedings of September 29th 
with the Wendots of Sandusky. 



534 Sir William Johnson Papers 



TO THOMAS GAGE 

Johnson hall Sepf. I VK J 764 
Dear Sir 

Your favor of the 2*^. Inst With the Enclosures I received 
Two days ago on my ret", from one of my most dist' plantat"®, 
too late to be ans^. by the post and last Night I was favored 
with your Letter of the 4'k by an Express, [ipho sent it to me 
& returned without an Ans''. so that I have forwarded this by 
another/] 

I was concerned to hear that the Indians had met with Coll 
Bradstreet, at Presqu' Isle, & had obtained the Treaty a Copy 
of which you enclosed me. I was indeed apprehensive that 
these Nations on finding two Armys in motion with a body of 
Indians to go against them would have taken some step of that 
Nature, & under the appearance of much plausibility might effect 
their design. The Number of Indians who came to represent 
so many Nations & Tribes are very few neither did they deliver 
any belt on the Subject of peace as usual in such cases at the 
same time from what I have heard of the present Disposition of 
the Shawanese & Delawares, they will probably ratify it. 

It matters little with regard to the Shawanese & [Delanyares"] 
whether the peace is observed by us, or not. Indeed I fear the 
rest of the Nations will be too apt to take the alarm & Consider 
it in a very serious light unless the Shawanese Delawares &c 
sho*^. openly infringe the Treaty because it will be impossible 
for to apprize them all within Sufficient time with the reasons 
for setting it aside, & the Enemys Emmissaries will undoubtedly 
be at v/ork to shew the fairness of their Conduct. Col Brad- 
street I presume has not heard that Coll Bouquet was in any 
forwardness, to which the peace must be attributed but I think 



^In the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Mass.; in th 
handwriting of Guy Johnson. 
-Crossed out in the original. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 535 

it has not left us without Just pretences to go against them with- 
out greatly disgusting the other Nations. For instance It can 
Justly be said that these Deputys could not be properly author- 
ized from the Contradictions they have used. They first Say, 
" They in the name of the Whole of these Nations ask where 
the Army is going & what are their Intentions," and imediately 
afterwards, They declare; that " on receiving certain intelligence 
that it was coming agt them they had imediately called in all 
their Warriors, who were out agt our Frontiers." This is incon- 
sistent, with their first Question & the latter part false, from 
the depredations, then & Since Comitted. 

Another Circumstance wch will make in favour of the orders 
you have sent to Coll Bradstreet is, that I am pretty positive 
the Indians will not be at Sandosky within the Time proposed 
by him for their performing the Articles, they are Seldom very 
punctual as to time, but especially when they have persons to 
deliver up which is always done with reluctance, in this case, 
the Peace is void from the Tenor of it & the Army might proceed 
without creating any disgust, besides, it appears to me, that 
they must be very desirous to delay on this occasion, that the 
Season may be too far advanced for the Troops to Continue in 
that Country, for which purpose they will probably have recourse 
to the old Expedient, by sending messengers to acqt Coll Brad- 
street, that the prisoners &:ca live many of them at a great 
distance, & so scattered that they can't collect them all within 
the Time limitted, that some were on their Way but are waiting 
for the rest. These & many such like pretences will probably 
be made use to protract the Motions of the Armys, in which 
case a good opportunity may offer for proceeding agt them in 
Conjunction with Col. Bouquet and I have great reason to think 
that should the Ind^ Even be Sincere, there will yet be mischief 
done by some of their partys yet out, who can scarcely resist the 
Temptation which the Defenceless State of many of the frontier 
Settlements affords them. All which, or indeed, any part oi 
what I have mentioned must Justify our proceedings, if Messages 
are sent from the Army to advise the other Nations with the 



536 Sir William Johnson Papers 

reasons of our Conduct whilst I use my Endeavors to Satisfy 
the Six Nations & others on that head. 

Col. Bradstreet may be delayed at Sandusky at least for some 
time, thro' the Schemes I have already supposed, if so, your 
Orders may reach him, but should he proceed to Detroit the 
distance is not so great but that he may be able to return in 
Sufficient Time, and second the attempts of C. Bouquet, without 
which the latter may in my opinion meet with much difficulty. 

In my last I acquainted you with my having sent a party of 
Mohocks, to be joyned by others on their Way to C. Bouquet, 
& I hope they will arrive in Sufficient time. 

I am &ca 
Gen^ Gage 

FROM JOHN BRADSTREET ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 236, are entered the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: a letter of September 12th from Colonel 
John Bradstreet, Detroit, mentioning the peace with the Hurons of San- 
dusky, Shawanes and Delawars, the agreement reached with the Outawas, 
Chipewas and other nations, and Captain Morris's expedition to the 
Illiones accompanied by Thorn King and 1 3 Indians ; one of the 1 2th 
from Wilham DarHngton, New York, about Mr (John) Arthur, cash 
sent in care of Captain Huyn and articles that will go by the next con- 
veyance; John Marton's receipt, the 12th, Fort Pitt, to Alexander McKee 
for £12; a letter of the 13th from John Duncan, Schenectady, regard- 
ing his account, goods to be furnished, and the need of vigilance in the 
fur trade ; and one of the 1 6th from William Darlington, concerning 
letters intrusted to him, and money sent to Johnson, in charge of Captain 
Huyn. 

FROM WILLIAM EYRE 
A. L. S.' 

New York J6iK Sep^. 1764 
D«. S'\ William 

I did my Endeavour to Enforce Your Request, but I could 
not Succeed, M^ Maturin assisted but all would not do. I shall 



^In the New York Public Library, New York City. 



Post-War Period, 1763-1774 537 

take perticuler Care to Send Your Dispatch by the first Packet, 
and must bear up with this Disappointment the best way I am 
able; believe Me it hurts me much, as I flattered My Self so 
Much of having Things take an other Turn. I must now 
Request of You m the Most Earnest Manner to make Some 
Representation to the Secretary of State or Lords of Trade so 
as it May occasion My 'being call'd home this if you could Any 
Way do With propriety would be of Infinite Service to me & 
for which you might depend upon the Utmost Sense of Gratitude 
for such a favour. And I could perhaps by that Means, do You 
Any Offices that lay in My Power in England which no One 
Upon Earth would be more rejoyced upon Such An Occasion. 

The Packet is not Yet Arrived Y^ Letters if You have Any 
to Send might Still be time Enough to go With the Next Packet. 
You did well I think to Send y^ Letters as You did: I did 
fancy You Would have Sent me the Heads of What You 
would have me Explain in Respect to Certain Affairs, however 
it's no Matter now, as I am not Yet allow'd to go. Since then 
My D^ Sir Intreat You to try Y^ Weight With L^. Halefax 
a Hint from Him would Send me home. This I cannot help 
flattering my self with by y^ Signifying to His Lordship of Some 
Utility I might be. Were I in England. 

M^ Darlington told me he had Sent Y"". Clerk Up before I 
came down. 

I am 
My D^ S>-. William 

Most truly 
Y^ Affect. Wellwisher 

Will. Eyre 



538 Sir William Johnson Papers 



FROM THOMAS GAGE 
A. L. S.' 

New York SepK 1 6'K 1764 
Dear Sir, 

I was yesterday favoured with your two Letters of the 1*'. 
and 11*^: Ins*, with the Ace' : inclosed of the Pay of Officers in 
your Department to the 25'^. of March last, from which the 
proper Warrants can be made out. 

I am pleased to see that you are in the same way of thinking 
as myself in Respect of the Shawnese and Delawares ; Tho' you 
could not be so well satisfied of their Perfidy as I have been since 
I wrote to you. They have murderd and infested our Frontiers, 
and the Communication with Fort-Pitt to the Date of my last 
Letters from that Quarter of the 5*'^. Ins', which I received yes- 
terday. Two of them were killed by the Inhabitants near Fort- 
Cumberland on the 27*^: \A^°: And to all Appearance they 
never meant more with Colonel Bradstreet than to ward the 
Blow, and to amuse Him till it may be too late to Act. This we 
shall probably hear in a short Time, in the Manner you observe, 
of bringing in their Prisoners slowly, and making a Thousand 
Difficultys. I have no Time to waver, and must fix upon a 
Plan which must be pursued steadily. There is the greatest 
Reason to suspect that the Shawnese and Delawares are only 
amusing Colonel Bradstreet by pretended overtures of Peace. 
Tho' the Indians of Detroit last Fall, and the Chenussies in the 
Spring made their Peace, Those People still stood out. They 
sent an insolent Message to Niagara Those who met Colonel 
Bradstreet, don't seem to have come with any Designs of Peace, 
or Authorized by their Nations to make Peace They infest our 
Borders, committing the most horrid Massacres to the very last. 
They tell Colonel Bradstreet on the 14'^. of August at Presqu' 
Isle, that their Partys had been called in to sue for Peace, so 



^In the Harvard College Library, Cambridge, Mass. 



Fost-War Feriod, I763-J774 539 

that it must have been done, if such a Measure had been thought 
of by them, before these People left their Nations. And they 
continue their Depredations to the 5'^. of September, that we 
know of. Our next Advices may tell us of fresh Murders. All 
this Considered, I can't suffer myself to be so duped and Must 
pursue my operations against Them as at first intended, till they 
give us satisfaction, tho' not adequate to the Injurys they have 
done us, which the whole Blood of their Nation would scarcely 
atone for. But enough to make them cautious how they break 
out again. 

The Express going to Oswego is ordered to call on you, and 
you may have the Opportunity of saying v/hat you Judge proper 
to Col°. Bradstreet. I have desired Him to invite the Deputys 
of those Tribes who were not at Niagara to come to you & 
ratify their Peace. And that they would at the same Time 
lay before you all their Grievances and tell you plainly, the true 
Causes of their Complaints against Us, and that every Thing 
which was just and reasonable should be remedied. 

If we can keep the Indians with whom Peace has been made 
from breaking out again till Winter, we may possible then find 
means of reconciHng them more perfectly. The Chenussies may 
be made more easy about the Carrying-Place, of all this I will 
write to you more fully in proper Time. 

I have told Col°. Eyre that I should permit Him to go Home 
as soon as ever I could answer it, Tho' I believe He would not 
be troubled in Answering many Questions. 

I am very glad that you have found Means to get some 
Indians to Cob. Bouquet, as He seemed so very desirous to have 
them. Cob. Lewis^^ was to join Him at Fort-Pitt with a good 
Body of Volunteers from Virginia. I am with great Regard, 

Dear Sir, 

Your most obedient 

humble servant. 

Thqs. Gage 



^Colonel Andrew Lewis, of the Virginia militia. 



540 Sir William Johnson Papers 

P:S: 

Colonels Bradstreet and 

Bouquet, are both told, to complain 

loudly to the other Nations of the 

Infidelity of the Shawnese and Delawares, 

in Committing Murders after the overtures 

made at Presqu' Isle 

S«: W": Johnson Bar'- 

INDORSED : New York Septb^ 1 6^^. 1 764 

Genr'. Gages Letter 
P Express 

but did not see him 

FROM DANIEL CLAUS ETC. 

In the Johnson Calendar, p. 236—37, are listed the following papers 
which were destroyed by fire: Duncan & Phyn's bill, dated September 
1 7, against Sir William Johnson — £ 21, 1 Os ; a letter of the 1 7th from 
Welles & Wade, Montreal, about losses on goods at Niagara, the light 
punishment of Le Charme, the trader, Scotch influence in Canadian affairs, 
Francis Wade's importunity, and the prospects of Indian trade; one of the 
1 7th from Daniel Claus, Montreal, about arrears of pay, presents to 
Indians, accounts, news from home, his farm in Kingsbourgh, a meditated 
buying of white servants or young negroes, news from Detroit brought 
by Commodore Grant, an argument with Governor Burton on expenses 
of the Indian service, a regulation as to Indian hunting, other ill treat- 
ment, mines on an island of Lake Champlain and on Aughquisasne creek, 
whose existence is made known by Indians, Governor Murray's inter- 
ference with justice in the affair of Du Charm, a draft, and Mr St John, 
the bearer, who wishes employment and leave to trade among the Arundax 
and Nipisinks ; one of the 1 7th from William Weyman, New York, re- 
garding a delay in the printing of the Indian prayer book, due to the 
death of Dr Barclay, (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 4:340^41; Q, 
4:217); Stephen Terhune's bill, the 17th (New York?), for articles 
bought by Mr. Darlington ; Isaac Sears's bill, dated the 1 7th, for 
iron bought by Nathan Darlinto; Robert Andrews's bill, the 18th, 
New York, for articles bought by William Darlington; a letter of the 
1 8th to Governor Bernard, of Massachusetts, acknowledging a letter 
and commending Mr Bennet's mission; articles of agreement, dated the 
1 8th, between Francis Rupperd, of General Johnson's Bush, and Peter 



Fost-War Period, I76J-J774 541 

Remsen, of New York, by which the former agrees to make and dehver 
a quantity of potash in consideration of certain moneys paid or to be 
paid and the labor of a negro man for the space and time of one year, 
and the parties bind themselves in the penal sum of £400; a letter of 
the 1 8th from Francis Wade, Philadelphia, relative to a difference con- 
cerning goods lying at Niagara, and to families that desire to settle on 
Johnson's lands; John Holt's bill, the 19th, New York, against William 
Darlington for a Ream of fine Cutt Paper — £1, 12s; a letter of the 
1 9th from John Duncan about goods and account ; an invoice of goods, 
the 20th, New York, bought by William Darlington on account of Sir 
Wi-iliam Johnson and shipped per Brant Schovenhoven for Albany — 
£134, Is, SJ/zd; Dirick B. V. Schoonhove's receipt, the 20th, New 
York, for merchandise shipped with him by William Darlington to be 
delivered at Albany; John Heath's bill for gold buttons ordered by Mr 
Darlington; Joseph Drake's bill for articles bought by William Dar- 
lington; Jacobus Montany's bill for dishes bought by (WilHam) Dar- 
lington; the address of six chiefs and warriors of the lower Mohawks, 
protesting against a settlement on the Kayaderossres tract, and Sir William 
Johnson's promise to forward the protest to the Lieutenant Governor, 
dated the 20th (printed in Doc. Hist. N. Y. 2:809-10; Q, 2:469-70) ; 
a letter of the 20th from Colonel William Browning, Niagara, report- 
ing a friendly visit by a Chenussio chief; and one of the 20th from 
William Darlington, New York, about articles shipped per Brant Schoven- 
oven. 



TO CADWALLADER GOLDEN 
A. L. 5/ 

Johnson Hall Septh^. 2hK 1764 
Dear Sir 

I had the pleasure of your favour of y^. 3^. Ins'.," & I am 
happy in finding my late proceedings w*^. the Indians are so 
agreable to You. 

I enclose You agreable to their desire a Copy of a Speech 
made Yesterday by the Mohawks, touching the Pattent of 



^In the New York Historical Society, New York City. The draft 
was destroyed by fire. 

^See Collections of the New York Historical Society), i8/6, Colden 
Papers, p. 356-57. 



542 Sir WilliciTn Johnson Papers 

Kayadarosseras of which they have been complaining these many 
Years, and now on hearing that it is shortly to be divided, they 
have taken the Alarm & are verry earnest ab^ redress I must 
request you will take it into consideration with y^. Gentlemen of 
the Council, so that I may be enabled to give them an Answer 
as soon as it will suit with your convenienc}''. — I am sorry to be 
oblidged to trouble You so often on these Subjects, but realy 
there are many old transactions, of such a Nature as requires 
redress and which gives the Indians in General verry unfavour- 
able Impressions of the English, & me immense trouble in 
Satisfying them on these Heads. 

I am fully of Opinion that Licences to trade should not be 
granted till the Issue of this Campaign is finally known, as it 
will make the Indians feel Wants, thet are as yet Strangers to 
in General, and as to the confineing Trade to the principal Gar- 
risons, I cannot but consider it, as y^. Safest way, for avoiding 
the many risques which on any disgust the Traders & their 
goods are liable to in the Indian Country, or even at the Smaller 
Out Posts, Notwithstanding which there are many Persons in 
Trade who would not scruple to go any where amg*'. them from 
the prospects of gain they expect when under no Eye but that of 
Indians, however this should be prevented as a Matter of public 
concern, for the Murder or Robbery of 2 or 3 will be always 
followed by a rupture of that Nation. 

A small Trade may at present be allowed to the 6 Nations, 
which it was necessary to promise them on the ratification of the 
Peace with the Seneca's, this is now carried on by many of y*. 
Inhabitants but when Licences are granted for a general Trade, 
I should think it would be best under the inspection of a proper 
Officer, or for want of such, of the Officer Commde the Prin- 
cipal Posts, who on Just complaint made by the Indians of abuse 
in Traffic could banish the Traders, whereby they might forfeit 
their Recognizance which might be proportioned to the Number 
of Boats, or Quantity of Goods they carried. 

The Officers of the Grenadier Companys & Additional 
Troop of Horse intend to be at some Expence in purchasing